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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
CAREY, LEA, & BLANCHARD.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK
Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by
CAREY AND Lea,
In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
At the commencement of this Encyclopædia, it was announced that it would be completed in twelve volumes; but, owing to the great difficulty of accommodating the length and number of so multifarious a collection of articles to the proposed limits, it was found, on approaching the end of the work, that it would be impossible strictly to adhere to these limits, without so curtailing what remained, as to make this disproportionate to the preceding parts. Under these circumstances, it became indispensable to publish a thirteenth volume; and we have taken the opportunity thus afforded to furnish a number of supplementary articles. In addition to these, the reader will find, in the Appendix, at the end of this volume, many references to articles already given. In the preparation of a work including so great an extent of subjects, it could not always be anticipated what variety of topics would be treated under particular heads; and it was thought, on examination, that the reader would be much assisted, in consulting the work, by our furnishing a considerable number of additional references.
In preparing this Encyclopædia, the conductors have endeavored to obtain the best materials and the best assistance within their power. Their labors have been lightened by the kind contributions which they have received from various quarters. To the Hon. Judge Story, and to John Pickering, Esq., of Boston, they are under peculiar obligations. The longest and most elaborate articles in the law department are from the pen of the former gentleman; and it is needless to say how much