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born at the village of Heversham, in 1798, he published an Address to the Westmoreland, in 1737. His father was People of Great Britain, on the danger a clergyman, and master of a free gram- which threatened that country, from the mar school, where the son received his influence of those principles which had early education. In 1754, he became a occasioned the revolution in France. sizar of Trinity college, Cambridge, where Gilbert Wakefield, having published a he was distinguished for his intense ap- reply to this address, was prosecuted for plication to study, and for the singularity sedition, and sentenced to imprisonment; of his dress, which consisted of a coarse, but in the proceedings against him, bishop mouled Westmoreland coat, and blue Watson took no part whatsoever. He yarn stockings. He regularly took his always continued to be the advocate for degrees, and became a college tutor, and, liberality, both in politics and religion ; in 1760, obtained a fellowship. In 1764, but his fears from the ascendency of he was elected professor of chemistry, French principles were strongly expressed when he first applied himself to the in a publication under the title of the study of that science, and with great suc. Substance of a Speech intended to have cess, as appears from the five volumes of been spoken in the House of Lords, Chemical Essays which he subsequently November 22, 1803. The latter part of published. On the death of doctor his life was chiefly spent in retirement at Rutherforth, in 1771, he succeeded him as Calgarth park, situated near the lakes of regius professor of divinity. He early his native county, where he amused distinguished himself by a display of his himself with making extensive plantations political opinions, in a sermon preached of timber-trees. He died at ihat place, before the university, on the anniversary July 4, 1816. Besides the works already of the revolution, which was printed mentioned, he published several papers under the title of the Principles of the in the Philosophical Transactions ; SerRevolution vindicated. This discourse mons, and Theological Essays; and after excited a degree of public attention only his death, his autobiographical memoirs exceeded by Hoadly's celebrated sermon were edited by his son. on the Kingdom of Christ. A short time Watson, Robert, LL. D., a native of previous to this exhibition of his politics, St. Andrew's, in Scotland, studied at the doctor Watson appeared as the opponent university there, and afterwards at Glasof Gibbon, to whom he addressed a series gow and Edinburgh, adopted the ecclesiof letters, entitled an Apology for Chris- astical profession, and became a preacher. tianity. The patronage of the duke of After having delivered lectures on rhetoRutland was exerted to obtain his pro- ric and the principles of composition, at motion to the see of Llandaff, where he Edinburgh, he obtained the professorship succeeded bishop Barrington, in 1782; and of logic at St. Andrew's, to which was he was permitted to hold, at the same added, by royal patent, that of rhetoric time, the archdeaconry of Ely, his pro- and the belles lettres. On the death of fessorship, and other ecclesiastical pre- the principal, doctor Watson succeeded ferments. Shortly after, he addressed to him, but died in 1780. He published the archbishop of Canterbury a letter con- the History of Philip II of Spain (2 vols., taining a project for equalizing the value 1777), and undertook the History of of church benefices. In 1785, he pub- Philip III, which, being left imperfect at lished a valuable collection of Theological his death, was completed and published Tracts, selected from various authors, by doctor William Thomson (1783). with additions, in 6 vols., 8vo. The fol- Watt, James ; a distinguished cultilowing year, he received a large addition vator of natural philosophy and the kinto his income by the bequest of a valua- dred arts and sciences, who, especially ble estate from Mr. Luther of Ongar, in by his improvements in the steam-engine, Essex, who had been one of his pupils at has gained a high degree of celebrity Cambridge. During the illness of the He was the son of a tradesman, and was king, in 1788, bishop Watson, in a speech born in 1736, at Green in Scotland. in the house of lords, strongly defended He was brought up to the occupation of the right of the prince of Wales to the a mathematical instrument maker, and in regency, in opposition to the doctrine that capacity became attached to the maintained by Mr. Pitt. In 1796, the university of Glasgow, in which he had bishop appeared a second time as the apartments, where he resided till 1763 ; defender of revealed religion, in his at which time, having entered into the Apology for the Bible, designed as an married state, he settled in business for answer to Paine's Age of Reason. In himself in the city. In 1764, he con

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ceived the idea of improving the steam- Vandyck, whose style he afterwards engine; and, having carried it into effect, more especially imitated, rescued him he acquired so much reputation for entirely from the disadvantages which knowledge of mechanics, as induced him his early penury had thrown in his way, to adopt the profession of a civil engineer; and obtained him a great reputation, parand he was frequently employed in ticularly for his conversational pieces, in making surveys for canals and other un- which his heads and the attitudes of bis dertakings. To facilitate his labors, he figures are highly admired. From Rome invented a new micrometer, and likewise he went to England; but the incessant a machine for making drawings in per- application with which he devoted himspective. In 1774, he quitted Glasgow self to his easel þad already begun to to remove to the vicinity of Birmingham, make formidable inroads on a constitus where he entered into partnership with tion naturally weak; and, although he Mr. Boulton, in conjunction with whom he succeeded in returning to France, he did carried on his improvements in the steam- not long survive, dying at Nogent, in the engine, which he brought to a high degree neighborhood of the capital, in 1721. of perfection. (See Steam.) Here he be- WATTEL. (See Vattel.) came associated with doctor Priestley, and Watts, Isaac, an English non-conformother philosophical experimentalists, and ist divine, eminently distinguished for his shared in the chemical researches which learning and piety, was born at Souththey prosecuted with so much success. ampton, in 1674, and, after being educated He was admitted a fellow of the royal soci- there, under a clergyman of the estabety, to whose Transactions he contributed lished church, removed, at the age of sixan interesting paper, entitled Thoughts on teen, to an academy for dissenters, in the constituent Parts of Water, and of de- London. After pursuing his studies five phlogisticated Air, with an Account of years with great credit and advantage, some Experiments on that Subject; and he returned to Southampton, and reanother, On a new Method of preparing a mained two years at home, employed in Test-liquor to show the Presence of the further cultivation of his talents. In Acids and Alkalies in Chemical Mixtures. 1696, he became tutor to the son of sir Mr. Watt was also a fellow of the royal John Hartopp, at Stoke Newington, near society of Edinburgh; and, in 1806, he London, and, in 1702, succeeded doctor received from the university of Glasgow Isaac Chauncy (to whom he had previthe honorary degree of LL.D., as a tribute ously been assistant) as minister of a disto his merit as a successful laborer in the senting congregation in the metropolis. cause of science. Various inventions of An attack of fever, in 1712, obliged him great practical utility originated from his to relinquish for a time his pastoral duingenuity, among which may be men- ties, when he obtained an asylum at the tioned a polygraph, or copying machine. house of sir T. Abney, a London alderHis death took place August 25, 1819. man at Newington; and there he resided (See the article Watt, in the Supplement during the remainder of his life. His to the Encyclopædia Britannica.)

literary reputation was extended by nuWATTEAU, Antoine; a painter of great merous works, not only on subjects immerit, talents and industry, born in 1684, mediately connected with his profession, at Valenciennes. His parents, whose but also on several branches of science situation in life was very humble, with and letters; in consequence of which he difficulty contrived to give him the in- received diplomas of D. D. from the unistructions of a very inferior master in the versities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, country, who qualified him for the situa- and was generally respected by the tion of a scene-painter at the Parisian friends of learning and virtue of all deopera. The genius of Watteau, however, nominations. He died November 25, soon carried him beyond that lowly 1748. Among his works are Lyric sphere; and at length, without any fur- Poems; Psalms and Hymns ; Sermons ; ther assistance, he produced a picture Philosophical Essays; a Discourse on which gained the prize at the academy. Education; an Elementary Treatise on The king, whose notice his performance Astronomy and Geography ; , Brief had attracted, settled a pension on him, Scheme of Ontology ; Logic, and a valufor the purpose of enabling bim to com- able supplement to it entitled the Implete his study of the art in Italy. The provement of the Mind; besides theologiopportunities he enjoyed at Rome, and cal tracts, and various controversial pieces. the intimate acquaintance he formed with (See Johnson's Lives of the Poets.) some of the best works of Rubens and WAVE. The common cause of waves


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is the friction of the wind upon the sur- does not melt. With boracic acid and
face of the water. Little ridges or ele- iron wire, it yields a globule of phosphu-
vations first appear, which, by continu- ret of iron. It consists of
ance of the force, gradually increase, until


35.35 they become rolling mountains, where

Phosphoric acid,

33.40 the winds sweep over a great extent of

Fluoric acid,

2.06 water. In rounding the cape of Good

Lime, .

.50 Hope, waves, or rather a swell,

are met with
Oxide of iron and manganese,

1.25 so vast that a few ridges and a few depres

26.80 sions occupy the extent of a mile. "But

Water, .. these are not so troublesome to ships as a It occurs at Barnstaple, in Devonshire, in shortswell with more perpendicular waves. şıall veins in clay-slate ; at St. Austle, in The slope in the former is so gentle that Cornwall, in veins traversing granite, acthe rising and falling are scarcely felt, companied by fluor, tin-ore, and copper while the latter, by the sudden plunging pyrites ; in the Shiant isles, in Scotland; of the vessel, is often destructive. The at Zbison, in Bohemia, in a kind of sandvelocity of waves has relation to their stone ; at Amberg, in the Upper Palatimagnitude. The large waves just men- nate, with brown hæmatite: finally, it octioned proceed at the rate of from thirty curs, in beautiful green varieties, near to forty miles an hour. It is a common Cork, in Ireland. error to suppose that the water itself ad- WAVERLEY Novels. (See Scott, Sir vances with the speed of the wave; but, Walter.) in fact, the form only advances : the sub- WAVRE; a small town on the little rivstance, with the exception of a little er Dyle, in Belgium, with about 3000 inspray, remains rising and falling, in the habitants, celebrated on account of the same place, with the regularity of a pen- battle fought here by the Prussians and dulum. When a wave, however, reaches French, on June 18 and 19, 1815. June a shallow bank or beach, the water be- 17, after the loss of the battle of Ligny comes really progressive; because then, (see Quatrebras), Blücher had taken posas it cannot sink directly down, it falls over session of the steep heights on the other forward. No wave rises more than ten side of Wavre, await the arrival of the feet above the general level of the water, fourth corps coming from Liege, and to which, with the ten feet of descent, gives facilitate his junction with Wellington, twenty feet for the whole height of the who had also retreated to a favorable powave above the next depression. A wave, sition at Mont St. Jean. Both had agreed coming against any obstacle, may be dash- that Wellington should defend his posied up to a much greater elevation. For tion as long as possible, and Blücher the great wave, or boar, at the mouth of should hasten to assist him. Blücher's some rivers, see Mascaret.

whole army, except the third corps, was WAVELLITE; a beautiful mineral, already on the march on the 18th, when named in honor of doctor Wavel, its dis- Grouchy attacked Wavre, and a battle coverer. It rarely occurs in distinct crys- took place along the Dyle, the chief point tals, which are always small. Their pri- of which was Wavre. All the corps but mary form is the right rhombic prism, the third continued their march towards whose lateral faces incline under angles their important destination. (See Waterloo.) of 122° 15' and 57° 45'. Cleavage takes The battle, which was broken off in the place with ease parallel to this form, and evening, was renewed in the morning; also parallel to its longer diagonal; lustre and general Thielemann, the Prussian of the cleavage planes intermediate be- commander, resolved to retire to a posiiween pearly and vitreous; color white, tion two leagues distant, as the continuapassing into several shades of green, gray, tion of the engagement would have been brown and black; translucent to trans- useless, the news of the great victory of parent; hardness equal to fluor; specific Waterloo having already arrived. The gravity 2.33. Its most usual mode of enemy left him unmolested. The loss occurrence is in implanted globules ; com- of each party may have amounted to position thin columnar; surface drusy. 4000 men. When these globules, which vary in size Wax is a concrete, unctuous-feeling froin that of a large pea to that of a pep- substance, which partakes of the nature per-corn, are broken across, the fractured of a fixed oil. It is secreted by bees surfaces exhibit a delicate asteriated ap- in constructing their hives, and is, also, a pearance. Before the blow-pipe, wavel- most abundant vegetable production, enlite loses its lustre and transparency, but tering into the composition of the pollen

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of flowers, covering the envelope of the ment and cerate of the pharmacopæia. plum, and of other fruits, especially of Wax, according to John, consists of two the berry of the myrica cerifera, and, in different substances, one of which is solumany instances, forming a kind of var- ble, and the other insoluble, in alcohol. nish to the surface of leaves. It is dis- To the former the name of cerin has tinguished from fat and resinous bodies been given, and to the latter that of myrby its not readily forming soaps when' icin. One hundred parts of wax are treated with alkaline solutions. Common composed of wax is always more or less colored, and


80.4 has a distinct, peculiar odor, of both of which it may be deprived by exposure, in


8.3 thin slices, to air, light and moisture, or

Hydrogen, .

11.3 more speedily by the action of chlorine. (See the article Bee.) The art of bleaching wax consists in in- Wax FIGURES. In ancient Greece, creasing its surface; for which purpose wax was used for impressions of seals, for it must be melted, with a degree of heat encaustic (q. v.) painting, and for a varnot sufficient to alter its quality, in a cal- nish for marble walls and statues. There dron so disposed that the melted wax was, also, a distinct class of artists, may flow gradually through a pipe, at the called puppet-makers by the Greeks, and bottom of the caldron, into a large wooden sigillarii by the Romans, who worked cylinder, that turns continually round its only, or chiefly, in wax. Figures of axis, and upon which the melted wax beautiful boys, in wax, often adorned the falls. As the surface of this cylinder is bed-rooms of the Greeks. The subjects always moistened with water, the wax most frequently represented in wax, howfalling upon it does not adhere to it, but ever, belonged to the vegetable kingdom, quickly becomes solid and flat, and ac- being branches, fruits, flowers, wreaths, quires the form of ribands. The con- &c. It was customary to construct a littinual rotation of the cylinder carries off te garden of flower-pots and fruit-basthese ribands as fast as they are formed, kets, in every house, in honor of Adonis, and distributes them through the tub. at the time of his feast ; but, as this was When all the wax that is to be whitened celebrated so early in the year that even is thus formed, it is to be put upon large in Greece it was difficult to find flowframes, covered with linen cloth, which ers and fruits, wreaths, cornucopiæ, are supported, about a foot and a half fruits, &c., of wax, were used as substiabove the ground, in a situation exposed tutes. In sorcery, also, wax figures were to the air, the dew and the sun. If the employed; and Artemidorus tells us, in his weather be favorable, the color will be work On Dreams, that waxen wreaths in changed in a few days. It is then dreams foreboded sickness and death. The to be re-melted, and formed into rib- notorious Heliogabalus set dishes of wax ands, and exposed to the action of the air, before his guests, to tantalize them with as before. These operations are to be re- representations of all the luxuries in which peated till the wax is rendered perfectly he revelled. At present, wax is used for white, when it is cast into cakes or mould- imitations of anatomical preparations, or ed into candles. At ordinary tempera- of fruits : it also serves the sculptor for tures, wax is solid and somewhat brittle; his models and studies ; also for little porbut it may be easily cut with a knife, and trait figures, in basso rilievo. The latter the fresh surface presents a characteristic can be executed with delicacy and beauappearance, to which the name of wary ty ; but wax figures of the size of life, Lustre is applied. Its specific gravity is which are often praised for their likeness, 0.96. At 150° Fahr., it enters into fu- overstep the proper limit of the fine arts. sion, and boils at a high temperature. They attempt to imitate life too closely, Heated to redness in a close vessel, it which, in contrast with their ghastly fixsuffers decomposition, yielding products edness, has a tendency to make us shudvery similar to those which are procured, der. In the genuine work of art there is under the same circumstances, from oil. an immortal life, in idea, which speaks to It is insoluble in water, and is only dis- our souls without attempting to deceive solved in small quantities when treated our senses. (See Copy.). The wax figwith boiling ether or alcohol. It unites, ure seems to address the mortal in us: it by the aid of heat, in every proportion, is a petrified picture of our earthly part. with the fixed oils, the volatile oils, and The line at which a work of art should with resin. With different quantities of stop, in its approach to nature, is not disoil, it constitutes the simple liniment oint- tinctly marked; but it cannot be over




stepped without affecting us disagreeably. forms: some figures are cast. The moulds
In Florence, all parts of the human body ought to be of gypsum, and consist of
are, at present, imitated, in colored wax, many pieces, covered inside with oil.
for the study of anatomy. More than The wax is poured into a bole at the feet,
thirty rooms, in the palace, are filled with and the whole is then thrown into cold
these wax preparations; also plants are water, that the wax may be separated the
found there, imitated to deception, in more easily. A composition, of which sculp-
wax. Exact imitations, in wax, of ve- tors form their first models, consists of six-
getable productions do not produce the teen parts wax, two parts Burgundy pitch
same unpleasant emotions as wax images or shoemaker's wax, and one part hog's
of men and animals, because they have, lard; or of ten parts wax, one turpentine,
by nature, a more stationary character. as much shoemaker's wax, and as much
The first idea of forming figures of wax hog's lard. This is melted by a slow fire,
of this kind was conceived by Nones, of and afterwards well stirred and strained,
Genoa, an hospital physician, in the seven- so as to expel all the air. A composition
teenth century. He was about to pre- of wax and other substances is very
serve a human body by embalming it; proper for impressions of figures cut in
but, not being able to prevent putrefaction stones. It is prepared thus :—an ounce
entirely, he conceived the idea of having of virgin wax, melted slowly in a copper
the body imitated, as accurately 'as possi- vessel, and a drachm of sugar candy
ble, in wax. The abbate Zumbo, a Sicil- pounded well, half an ounce burnt soot,
ian, who understood nothing of anatomy, and two or three drops of turpentine. The
but was skilled in working in wax, imi- wax is warmed if a cast is to be taken, and
tated the head of the body so perfectly, the stone, having been a little moistened,
under the direction of Nones, in colored is pressed on it. Gem-cutters use this
wax, that many who saw it took it to be composition.
the real head. Zumbo secretly made Wax-MYRTLE, or BAYBERRY (myrica
another copy, and went with it to France, cerifera); a low, spreading shrub, com-
where he pretended to have invented the mon along the coast from Maine to Lou-
art. He soon died. De Nones then had the isiana. The leaves are lanceolate, with a
whole body perfectly copied by a French- few indentures towards the extremity,
man named De Lacroix. In 1721, La and sprinkled with resinous dots. The
Courege exhibited similar figures in Ham- bark and leaves, when bruised, emit a
burg; and, in 1737, others were publicly delightful fragrance. The berries are
sold in London. The works of Ercole as large as a pepper-corn, and, when
Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and his wife, ripe, are covered with a whitish-green
which were formerly preserved in the in- wax, which is collected by boiling them:
stitute of Bologna, and were thence car- the fat then melts out, floats at the top of
ried to Paris, were remarkably fine. the water, and may be skimmed off.
Bcautiful figures in wax, made by An- When congealed, it looks like tallow or
na Manzolini, are preserved in Turin wax, but has a dirty-green color. It is
and Petersburg. She died in 1755. More therefore melted again, and refined, by
modern artists in this line, in Italy, are L. which means it acquires a fine and pretty
Calza, Filippo Balugani, and Ferrini. transparent green color. It is dearer
The celebrated Fontana, in Florence, than common tallow, but cheaper than
cwried this art to a high degree of excel- wax. A bushel of the berries will yield
lence. He received so many orders that four or five pounds. This wax is used
he employed a large company of anato- for a variety of purposes, but chiefly for
mists, model-cutters, wax-moulders and making candies, which burn slowly and
painters. Yet he generally confined him- with but little smoke, emit an agrecable
self to representations of the intestines. odor, and never melt and run down at the
Vogt, in the university of Wittenberg, sides, like tallow and spermaceti ; but, as
used, in his lectures, wax preparations, they do not give a strong light, especially
in imitation of the fine branches of during cold weather, it is usual to add a por-
vessels. Pinson, and, at a later period, tion of tallow. Such candles are a beau-
Laumonier, at Rouen, distinguished them- tiful and economical article, and it is sur-
selves in this department, in France. The prising they are not in more general re-
composition for this purpose consists of quest. A fine-scented and excellent soap,
four parts wax, three parts white turpen- and also sealing-wax, are made from these
tine, and some olive-oil or hog's lard, suit- berries. At present, however, little use is
ably colored. The bulk of the figure is made of the bayberry, except in districts
formed with the hands : the finer parts where the bushes are very abundant. It
are made with instruments of various is often called tallow-shrub, or candleberry-


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