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fore, because, in the reaction of the stone, all the parts of it round about the hammer rise towards the blow. This property is illustrated by the well-known experiment of laying a stick with its ends upon two drinking glasses full of water, and striking the stick downwards in the middle with an iron bar. The stick will in this case be broken without breaking the glasses or spilling the water. But if the stick is struck upwards as if to throw it up in the air, the glasses will break if the blow be strong, and if the blow is not very quick, the water will be spilt without breaking the glasses. When the performer supports a man upon his belly, he does it by means of the strong arch formed by his back-bone and the bones of his legs and thighs. If there were room for them, he could bear three or four, or, in their stead, a great stone, to be broken with one blow. A number of feats of real and extraordinary strength were exhibited about a century ago, in London, by Thomas Topham, who was five feet ten inches high, and about thirty-one years of age. He was entirely ignorant of any of the methods for making his strength appear more surprising; and he often performed by his own natural powers what he learned had been done by others by artificial means. A distressing example of this occurred in his attempt to imitate the feat of the German Samson by pulling against horses. Ignorant of the method which we have already described, he seated himself on the ground, with his feet against two stirrups, and by the weight of his body he succeeded in pulling against a single horse; but in attempting to pull against two horses, he was lifted out of his place, and one of his knees was shattered against the stirrups, so as to deprive him of most of the strength of one of his legs. The following are the feats of real strength which doctor Desaguliers saw him perform.1. Having rubbed his fingers with coal ashes to keep them from slipping, he rolled up a very strong and large pewter plate. 2. Having laid seven or eight short and strong pieces of tobacco-pipe on the first and third finger, he broke them by the force of his middle finger. 3. He broke the bowl of a strong tobaccopipe, placed between his first and third finger, by pressing his fingers together sideways. 4. Having thrust such another bowl under his garter, his legs being bent, he broke it to pieces by the tendons of his hams, without altering the bending of his leg. 5. He lifted with his
teeth, and held in a horizontal position for a considerable time, a table six feet long, with half a hundred weight hanging at the end of it. The feet of the table rested against his knees. 6. Holding in his right hand an iron kitchen poker three feet long and three inches round, he struck upon his bare left arm, between the elbow and the wrist, till he bent the poker nearly to a right angle. 7. Taking a similar poker, and holding the ends of it in his hands, and the middle against the back of his neck, he brought both ends of it together before him; and he then pulled it almost straight again. This last feat was the most difficult, because the muscles which separate the arms horizontally from each other, are not so strong as those which bring them together. 8. He broke a rope about two inches in circumference, which was partly wound about a cylinder four inches in diameter, having fastened the other end of it to straps that went over his shoulder. 9. Doctor Desaguliers saw him lift a rolling stone of about 800 pounds weight with his hands only, standing in a frame above it, and taking hold of a frame fastened to it. Hence doctor Desaguliers gives the following relative view of the strengths of individuals.
Strength of the weakest men, 125 lbs. Strength of very strong men, . 400 " Strength of Topham, 800 " The weight of Topham was about 200 lbs.
One of the most remarkable and inexplicable experiments relative to the strength of the human frame, is that in which a heavy man is raised with the greatest facility, when he is lifted up the instant that his own lungs and those of the persons who raise him are inflated with air. The heaviest person in the party lies down upon two chairs, his legs being supported by the one and his back by the other. Four persons, one at each leg, and one at each shoulder, then try to raise him; and they find his dead weight to be very great, from the difficulty they experience in supporting him. When he is replaced in the chair, each of the four persons takes hold of the body as before, and the person to be lifted gives two signals by clapping his hands. At the first signal, he himself and the four lifters begin to draw a long and full breath; and when the inhalation is completed, or the lungs filled, the second signal is given for raising the person from the chair. To his own surprise and that of his bearers, he rises with the greatest facility, as if he
were no heavier than a feather. When
STRIPED SNAKE. (See Serpent.)
TERGOUW. (See Gouda.)
TESSEL. (See Texel.)
TESTIMONY. (See Evidence.)
THORN, EGYPTIAN. (See Acacia.) THUG. (See Phansygurs, in this Appendix.)
TIERRA DEL FUEGO. (See Terra del Fuego.)
TIN GLASS. (See Bismuth.)
TUMBLE BUG. (See Beetle.)
UHLANS. (See Ulans.)
WAHOO. (See Elm.)
WAKEFIELD, Priscilla, died in August,
WEATHERCOCK. (See Vane.)
WHARRA-TREE. (See Screw-Pine.) WHISPERING GALLERIES. In whispering galleries, or places where the lowest whispers are carried to distances at which the direct sound is inaudible, the sound may be conveyed in two ways, either by repeated reflections from a curved surface in the direction of the sides of a polygon inscribed in a circle, or where the whisperer is in the focus of one reflecting surface, and the hearer in the focus of another reflecting surface, which is placed so as to receive the reflected sounds. The first of these ways is exemplified in the whispering gallery of St. Paul's, and in the octagonal gallery of Gloucester cathedral, which conveys a whisper seventy-five feet across the nave, and the second in the baptistery of a church in Pisa, where the architect Giovanni Pisano is said to have constructed the cupola on purpose.
The cupola has an elliptical form; and when a person whispers in one focus, it is distinctly heard by the person placed in the other focus, but not by those who are placed between them. The sound first reflected passes across the cupola, and enters the ears of the intermediate persons; but it is too feeble to be heard, till it has been condensed by a second reflection to the other focus of the ellipse. A naval officer, who travelled through Sicily in the year 1824, gives an account of a powerful whispering place in the cathedral of Girgenti, where the slightest whisper is carried, with perfect distinctness, through a distance of 250 feet, from the great western door to the cornice behind the high altar. By an unfortunate coincidence, the focus of one of the reflecting surfaces was chosen for the place of the confessional; and, when this was accidentally discovered, the lovers of secrets resorted to the other focus, and thus became acquainted with confessions of the gravest import. This divulgence of scandal continued for a considerable time, till the eager curiosity of one of the dilettanti was punished by hearing his wife's avowal of her own infidelity. This circumstance gave publicity to the whispering peculiarity of the cathedral; and the confessional was removed to a place of greater secrecy. (See Brewster's Natural Magic.)
WHITEBACKS. (See Duck.)
WILMOT,John. (See Rochester, Earl of.) WINDHAM, William, a senator and statesman of some eminence, was the son of colonel Windham, of Felbrigge, in Norfolk. He was born in London, in 1750, and educated at Eton, whence he was removed first to the university of Glasgow, and subsequently to University college, Oxford. He entered parliament in 1782, as member for Norwich, at which time he was secretary to the earl of Northington, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He sided with the opposition, until the celebrated secession from the whig party in 1793, when he followed the lead of Mr. Burke, and was appointed secretary at war, with a seat in the cabinet. This office he retained until the resignation of Mr. Pitt, in 1801, and distinguished himself by his opposition to the ephemeral treaty of Amiens. On Mr. Addington's being driven from the helm, in 1805, a new administration was again formed by Mr. Pitt, which was terminated by his death in 1806, when lord Grenville, in
conjunction with Mr. Fox, made up the administration well known by the designation of "all the talents." In this short-lived cabinet Mr. Windham held the post of secretary of war and colonies, in which capacity he carried into a law his bill for limited service in the regular army. His death took place in 1810, in consequence of a contusion of the hip, produced by a fall. The eloquence of Mr. Windham was forcible, pointed, and peculiar, and he produced considerable impression, both as an orator and a statesman, although, perhaps, rather by the honest ardency of many of his strong opinions, than by their political or philosophical accuracy. He was a sound scholar, and highly esteemed in private life. WINNEBAGOES. (See Indians, Ameri
WITHERITE. (See Barytes.) WITHERSPOON, John, is at the end of this Appendix.
WOODBINE. (See Honeysuckle.) WOODCHUCK. (See Marmot.) WORCESTER ; capital of Worcester county, Massachusetts, 40 miles northnorth-west of Providence, 40 west by south of Boston, 420 from Washington; population in 1830, 4271; valuation, $2,357,896. It is a neat and flourishing town, with considerable trade and manufactures. Among the public buildings are a court-house, jail, county penitentiary, lunatic hospital, town-hall, four meeting-houses, three for Congregationalists and one for Baptists. There are three printing-offices, from which four newspapers are issued weekly. The American antiquarian society, founded and endowed by the late Isaiah Thomas, LL. D., have a handsome hall, a valuable cabinet, and a library of about 8000 volumes, containing many ancient and rare books and works on American history, to which strangers are freely admitted. The Blackstone canal extends from Worcester along the valley of the Blackstone river, forty-five miles, to Providence. A rail-road from Boston to Worcester has been commenced. The town, called Quinsigamond by the natives, was granted, in 1668, to major-general Daniel Gookin and others. The first planting was begun in 1674. The inhabitants having been twice driven away by the Indian wars, the third and permanent settlement was commenced in 1713. The town was incorporated in 1722, and on the erection of Worcester county, in 1732, became the capital.
Wou-wou. (See Ape.)
YACK. (See Or.)
YELLOW FEVER. This fever is one of specific character, and confined to situations in which great moisture is joined with great heat. It prevails in the West Indies, certain parts of Asia, South America, occasionally in the northern parts of North America, and pretty constantly in the southern. It is endemial in many portions of the globe, and especially in the tropical climates, and is occasionally epidemic in certain of the higher northern latitudes, as at Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York. It is most common in seaports, and on large bodies of water, but is occasionally found in inland situations. It differs materially from the endemial remittent of tropical climates, and is, of course, not merely an exalted form of the bilious remittent of such places. It differs from the endemial remittent of the West Indies, in its attacking strangers to such climates only. The natives, and even such as have been born or lived long in similar situations, are altogether exempt from its attacks; and, should the stranger survive the dangers of an attack, he remains free, for the most part, subsequently, though not exempt from the endemial remittent of the place. This immunity, however, may be forfeited by the stranger living for a year or two in a northern latitude: should the stranger escape for a year or two, he becomes acclimated, and is no longer liable to be attacked by yellow fever. This disease has been looked upon, by some, as contagious; but this notion is now altogether abandoned by far the greater part of the profession; and especially such as have had opportunities to observe its phenomena, and ascertain its habits for themselves. That it spreads rapidly sometimes, is admitted; but this is owing to the causes which make it an epidemic, and not to any contagious quality. This disease varies in its mode of attack, as well as in the violence of its symptoms. In almost every other febrile disease, as a general rule, the risk is in proportion to the violence of the symptoms; but the masked or insidious form of yellow fever, is most commonly the most difficult of management, and, consequently, the most dangerous. Hence the "walking cases" are almost sure to prove fatal. There are three modes of attack in yellow fever; and the phenomena of either may vary,
as the remote cause may have been more or less active or concentrated. They may also be influenced by individual habits or constitutions, or by the force of the occasional or exciting cause; and hence we find it run its course rapidly sometimes; that is, in from two to five days, a part of the cases terminating in black vomit. In this form of the disorder, the symptoms are generally less ferocious, and less distinctly marked, though more certainly and speedily fatal; or it may run on to the fifth or to the seventh day; and though the sufferings are of a more acute kind, the danger is less, as more time is given for the application of remedies; or it may present, like a regularly-formed remittent, regular exacerbations and remissions. If it assume this form, it may run on to the ninth or eleventh day. The first form observes no very regular period of attack, though the evening is the most common. The second generally takes place after noon; and the third, most frequently in the morning. The mode of attack, however, is pretty generally marked by the same train of symptoms, differing more in force than in character, if we except the first, which often has the peculiarity of betraying itself by scarcely any outward signs, except weakness, slight headache, or nausea. This insidious character lulls the patient and his friends into a fatal security. The patient has been known to walk about until within a few minutes of dissolution. The unmasked or violent attack of yellow fever is, therefore, less to be dreaded than the seemingly mild form, as the derangement of the system is more palpable, though it is always highly dangerous. This disease differs in its attack from almost every other form of fever, as it is seldom ushered in by a well-defined chill, though the sensation of cold, and a reduced temperature of the skin, will remain sometimes a long time before reaction will take place. Much languor is always experienced; for the most part, intense headache, dis- tress about the precordia, and the eyes are of a peculiar red. The heat of the skin is seldom great in the beginning, but soon increases in intensity, conveying to the mind the sensation of pungency. The pulse is rarely open and strong; indeed, it usually appears rather more feeble than natural to the inexperienced practitioner, which sometimes betrays him into dangerous errors. The pulse in this state is termed the oppressed or depressed pulse by authors; and, instead of requiring the aid of stimuli, as has
been too often supposed, calls loudly for the proper use of the lancet. The face assumes a peculiar, or, rather, a specific flush, which is totally distinct from the redness of ordinary fever. This reddening gives a very marked character to the countenance, and can never be mistaken, by an eye experienced in this disease, for a symptom of common fever: on the contrary, it always denotes a high degree of yellow fever. The tongue is usually moist and clammy; but rarely dry, rough or red, in the commencement, though these conditions of this organ are sure to follow in a short time. The skin is dry and harsh, for the most part; though occasionally it is found wet, with hot perspiration. This sweat is sometimes early in its appearance, and, at times, extremely profuse in its quantity; but it neither abates the action of the heart and arteries, nor mitigates the local sufferings as headache, pains in the limbs, or oppression in the lungs. It is therefore not critical, but, on the contrary, rather betrays malignancy. There is rarely so great an abatement of symptoms, at any period of the day, as to amount to a remission, though there frequently is an exacerbation that is every way alarming, from its intensity; and this may happen twice, or even thrice, in the twenty-four hours. When this happens, the disease proceeds, with hasty strides, to its fatal termination; for should not remedies at this time, especially bleeding, abate the severity of the symptoms very soon after their application, more fatal symptoms quickly supervene; the eye becomes more sad; lividity is added to the deeptoned color of the cheek; the tenderness is much increased by pressure over the region of the stomach; nausea and vomiting commence or increase; the patient tosses himself into every position; delirium ensues; the urine becomes intense in color, and small in quantity; the extremities lose their heat; the gums become swollen and livid; the tongue red, or brown, and dry; thirst insatiable; and the drinks rejected, perhaps, as fast as swallowed. After a continuance of these symptoms for a few hours, the system seems to make a compromise with the disease, and passively yields itself up to its ravages; for there is no diminution of the danger at this moment, though the system seems less morbidly excited; for if the suffering be less, danger is increased. Now the stomach gives way; the most tormenting nausea and thirst, with almost incessant vomitings, take place. The
fluids discharged are, for the most part, nothing but the drinks which the patient has swallowed; for these, even in the beginning, are rarely tinged with bile. But a threatening change soon follows; the fluids become thicker, and somewhat ropy, and are now found to have mixed with them a flaky substance, of a dark color. These flaky substances, there is reason to believe, are portions of the villous coat of the stomach, detached, and made to mix with the ejected fluids, by the effort of vomiting. The urine, at this time, is usually very scanty, or may be even suppressed; the bowels are tardy, or yield a blackish, tarry-looking substance, of considerable tenacity. The whole surface of the body, with the exception, perhaps, of the abdomen, is colder than natural; sometimes dry, sometimes moist; the hands and feet deathly cold, mottled with stagnating blood; the pulse feeble, fluttering, or extinct; or it may be slow, composed, and might, by the inexperienced, be even pronounced natural. Sleep forsakes the patient, or he dozes, to suffer more; his respiration is hurried, or preternaturally slow. His mind may wander, but delirium is not a very usual symptom in yellow fever. Indeed, the patients, in this disease, often possess the entire use of their faculties to the very last moment of life. Some die most tranquilly, declaring, with almost their latest breath, that nothing ailed them; while others die in great agony. When this happens, it is generally when delirium is present, and when the brain, from sympathy, seems to sustain the great force of attack. The patient may now become more tranquil, from an evident mitigation of all the severer symptoms; and this short-lived truce gives rise, in the inexperienced, to hopes that are never to be realized; for now the yellowness of the skin, which gives its name to the disease, begins to show itself, and becomes the harbinger of the dreaded and fatal "black vomit." This matter is thrown from the stomach, sometimes in incredible quantities, and of various shades of color, from darkbrown to the color of coffee-grounds, or blackness. It is ejected with very little effort, and the patient, for the most part, denies the existence of pain. Black vomit, however, does not always precede death; it is occasionally absent. when this is the case, its place is supplied by the eructation of prodigious quantities of gas, rapidly and constantly secreted by the stomach. The gums, and other