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although his ill success on the boards had induced him to adopt another calling. Mr. Walker died in 1807. He is known as the author of several useful elementary works, such as a Rhetorical Grammar (8vo.); a Pronouncing Dictionary (8vo.); Elements of Elocution; Key to the correct Pronunciation of Greek, Latin and Scriptural Names (8vo.); and a Rhyming Dictionary.

WALKYRIAS, or VALKYRIAS. (See Northern Mythology.)

WALL. (See Architecture, vol. i, p. 334.)

WALL-FLOWER (cheiranthus cheiri); a cruciferous plant, which grows in the clefts of rocks and old walls, in most parts of Europe. The stem is naked, hard, and almost woody at the base, dividing above into leafy branches. The flowers are large, of a fine golden-yellow in the wild plant, and agreeably scented. In the cultivated plant, the flowers are of various and brilliant colors, and attain a much larger size. Double and semi-double varieties are common in gardens. It is a beautiful and favorite ornamental plant. Being an acrid and hardy evergreen, it is sometimes sown in pastures, together with parsley, thyme, &c., as a preventive of the rot in sheep. About thirty species of cheiranthus are known, almost exclusively confined to the eastern continent, several of which have been long cultivated in gardens.

WALLACE, Sir William; a celebrated Scottish patriot and warrior, who was the son of a small landholder of an ancient family in the west of Scotland. Possess ing great strength of body and undaunted courage, as well as a warm attachment to his native country, he beheld its subjugation by the English king, Edward I (q. v.), with the utmost impatience, and resolved to undertake the task of liberating Scotland from a foreign yoke. Having collected a small band of followers, he commenced an irregular warfare with the English troops left to secure the conquests of Edward; and his enterprising spirit and local knowledge soon rendered him a formidable foe. In 1297, he planned an attack on the English justiciary at Scone; but that officer and his colleagues eluded the danger by flight. Many of the barons, encouraged by this success, joined the standard of Wallace, or secretly favored his designs. Earl Warenne, the governor of Scotland, under king Edward, assembled an army of 40,000 men, with which he marched against the Scottish champion, who retreated to Cambusken

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neth, on the banks of the Forth, where the English were defeated with great slaughter; and their commander fled, with the remains of his army, into England Wallace was now declared regent of Scotland, under the captive king, John Baliol. The English monarch, alarmed at the reverses which his partisans had experienced, hastened from Flanders to oppose Wallace, against whom he led an army of 90,000 men. Jealousy at his elevation had already thinned the ranks of the Scottish hero, who, having resigned the regency, retained his command only over his particular followers. The Scottish army, under the steward of the kingdom, and Comyn, of Badenoch, waited the approach of Edward at Falkirk (q. v), where an engagement took place in the summer of 1298, in which the English were completely victorious. Wallace retired to the mountains, resumed his system of predatory warfare, and maintained his independence at the head of those who still continued attached to him. King Edward at length obtained possession of the person of his formidable adversary, through the treachery of sir John Monteith; and the deliverer of his country, being conveyed to London, suffered the death of a traitor, Aug. 23, 1305. His memory is still highly revered in Scotland, and his deeds have been the frequent theme of the poet and the historian.

WALLACHIA. (See Walachia.)

Wallenstein, Albert, count of (properly Waldstein); duke of Friedland, generalissimo of the Austrian army in the thirty years' war, a man whose name excites mingled emotions of admiration and abhorrence; for, though his achievements were great, he knew no motive but ambition, and scrupled at no means of gratifying it. He was the terror of his contemporaries, and, in the short period of 1625-34, exercised a powerful influence on events, and has therefore met with many historians. But the veil which hangs over the last scene of his life has not been wholly removed by any of them.— Albert of Waldstein, born at Prague, in 1583, was descended from a distinguished Bohemian family, which was attached to the Protestant religion. For the instructions which he received under the paternal roof, and in the celebrated Protestant school at Goldberg, in Silesia, he had no taste. His restless, impetuous disposition was hostile to discipline, and, in all mischievous exploits, he was the leader of his fellow scholars, over whom he exercised a certain supremacy. He behaved

in like manner at the university of Altorf, which he entered in 1594, and where the commission of an offence brought him into the academic prison. Albert afterwards entered, as a page, into the service of the margrave Charles of Burgau, a prince of the Austrian-Tyrolese collateral line, who resided at Inspruck. He became a convert to the Catholic religion, and received from the margrave the means of travelling in Germany, England, France and Italy. During his travels, military and financial systems, statesmen and generals, were the only objects of his attention. He then studied, for a time, mathematics and politics, but especially astrology, at the celebrated university of Padua. Argoli, his teacher in the latter science, seems to have given rise to his later projects, by predicting a splendid fortune to him. In 1606, Wallenstein performed a campaign against the Turks, in Hungary, with the imperial army, in which he manifested much bravery, and became captain. The peace (Nov. 11, 1606) terminated this campaign, and he returned to Bohemia without an appointment. Here he married a very rich but aged widow, who, after a short, childless marriage, left him a great property, which enabled him to play a splendid part at the court of the emperor Matthias, at Vienna. In an insignificant war, which broke out in Friuli in 1617, between the archduke Ferdinand of Stiria and the republic of Venice, he raised, at his own expense, a body of 200 cavalry, and led them to the assistance of the archduke (afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II), by which means he acquired a high place in his favor. His courage and conduct were distinguished at the relief of Gradisca ; and he gained the attachment of officers and soldiers by his extraordinary generosity, and his attention to their After the end of the war, Ferdinand appointed him colonel of the militia at Olmütz, in Moravia. He there took for his second wife Isabella, daughter of count Harrach, a favorite of Ferdinand, and was raised by Ferdinand to the rank of count. On the breaking out of the troubles in Bohemia, Wallenstein joined, in 1619, the Austrian party against the Protestant Bohemians. He was compelled to leave Olmütz, but succeeded in conveying the public treasure to Vienna. He had retained of it 9000 dollars. With this and his own money he raised 1000 cuirassiers, whom he led to Bohemia, to succor the Austrian general. Here he distinguished himself in several engagements, and afterwards went, with the Austrian


army, under Boucquoi, to Moravia, the fortified places of which soon opened their gates to the conquerors. Wallenstein was now appointed military governor of Moravia, recovered his estates, which had been confiscated by the Protestant Bohemians, and, having been created majorgeneral, after the fall of Boucquoi, commanded with success against Bethlem Gabor, prince of Transylvania. In 1622, the emperor invested him with the lordship of Friedland, in Bohemia, and, in 1623, created him prince of Friedland. When the war commenced in the north of Germany, where the king of Denmark came forward, in 1625, at the head of the Lower Saxon circle, against the league, the emperor found himself in great embarrassment, from want of money and troops. Wallenstein offered to raise an army of 50,000 men at his own expense, and without the least contribution on the part of the emperor, on condition that he should be its commander-in-chief, and should be allowed to retain the contributions obtained from the conquered countries. It was not uncommon, in those times, for a general to levy a body of troops at his own expense, and then indemnify himself from friend and foe; but the scheme of raising so numerous an army appeared rash. The emperor had no alternative: he therefore accepted his proposition on those terms, and, soon after, gave him the title of duke. The reputation of Wallenstein, and the active cooperation of many devoted officers, soon enabled him to collect an army of 25,000 men under his banners, at Eger. He immediately marched with it (in 1625) to Franconia, where the country was compelled to support them for some time, then through Suabia and the circle of the Upper Rhine, to Lower Saxony, where he passed the winter in Halberstadt, and even occupied a part of Upper Saxony. Every where the inhabitants were compelled to afford subsistence to his troops, the number of which continued to increase. The celebrated count Mansfeld opposed him with a far inferior army, but was totally defeated by Wallenstein, April 18, 1626. He, nevertheless, assembled new troops, with which he proceeded through Silesia, towards Hungary, in order to join Bethlem Gabor. Wallenstein followed him rapidly. Gabor concluded a truce, and Mansfeld withdrew to Dalmatia, where he died. Wallenstein now relieved Novigrad, which was besieged by the Turks, and conquered Waitzen. After Gabor had made peace

with the emperor, Wallenstein returned (in 1627) from Hungary, through Silesia, Lusatia and Brandenburg (Aug., 1627), to Lower Saxony, where he obliged the king of Denmark (who could not withstand, at the same time, him, and the army of the league, under Tilly) to make a speedy retreat; conquered, in a short time, the duchy of Mecklenburg, and Holstein as far as Glückstadt, as well as the greater part of Silesia and Jütland, no one being prepared for so unexpected an attack. All these countries were very severely treated, and heavy contributions were exacted of them. As Wallenstein, from want of vessels, could not invade the Danish islands, he went into winter-quarters on the coasts of the Baltic, occupied Pomerania, and extended his line of troops to Berlin. The fortress of Stralsund alone withstood him. By the edict of June 9, 1629, the emperor threatened the two dukes of Mecklenburg with the ban, for having espoused the Danish party, and, on June 16, 1629, invested Wallenstein with their territories, and with the principality of Sagan, in Silesia: he also appointed him admiral of the Baltic. The object seemed to be, to make the emperor master of the coasts of the Baltic, and to destroy, in this sea, the trade of the Dutch, who were at variance with Spain. But the Hanseatic towns refused Wallenstein's demand for vessels, and he had not enough to execute his bold plan. He was also unsuccessful in his attempt on Stralsund, which was aided by Denmark and Sweden, and which he besieged from May till July, 1628. During this siege, he lost, in various assaults, more than 12,000 men. He was also obliged to withdraw his troops from before Glückstadt and Magdeburg. He again undertook, in September, the siege of Stralsund. "The city should be his," he said, "were it fastened by chains to heaven." But in vain. He was obliged a second time to raise the siege. He next took Rostock, and defeated the Danes at Wolgast. His further progress was obstructed by the peace between the emperor and Denmark, at Lübeck, in 1629, which he had himself promoted, because he expected to obtain by it the quiet possession of Mecklenburg. But having ignominiously dismissed the Swedish ambassadors from the congress of Lübeck, and having likewise sent his confidential friend Arnheim, with 12,000 men, to aid king Sigismund of Poland, against Gustavus Adolphus, he gave occasion to a new war with Sweden. The fear of the emperor's designs, as well as the overbear

ing conduct of Wallenstein, and the immense extortions which he and his troops practised, even in neutral countries (having, within seven years, raised 600,000,000 thalers-more than 400,000,000 dollarsby contributions in the north of Germany), induced the German princes, at the diet of Ratisbon, in 1630, to wrest from the emperor a promise to diminish his army to 30,000 men, and deprive Wallenstein of its chief command. In order to promote the election of his son as king of the Romans, Ferdinand II was induced to disgrace, in a mortifying manner, a general who had saved Austria, and raised it to the summit of power. With the command of the army, Wallenstein was at the same time obliged to resign the duchy of Mecklenburg. He seemed, however, to bear with indifference this degradation, and lived, from that time, in Prague, as a private man, but with the pomp of royalty. He was surrounded with guards: sixty pages and twenty chamberlains waited on him. He travelled to his estates with a train of 200 carriages; and Battista Seni, his astrologer, announced to him a new career, yet more splendid. This career was opened to him after Tilly's (q. v.) death. The military successes of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany forced the emperor to the humiliating step of conferring again on Wallenstein the command of the army. After some hesitation, he accepted the offer, but on terms very derogatory to the emperor. He received absolute power, almost independent of the emperor, not only over the army, but also to treat, confiscate, punish, and reward, at will, in the countries of the empire. He stipulated for an indemnification for Mecklenburg, and also for the grant of an imperial hereditary province. In an incredibly short time, he assembled an army of 40,000 men, at Znaym. After having expelled the Saxons from Bohemia, who had taken Prague and other cities, he formed a junction with the troops of the elector of Bavaria, and marched to Franconia, against Nuremberg. But Gustavus had already hastened to the aid of the Protestants; and Wallenstein, though his troops were superior in number to those of the king by one half, avoided a battle. Both parties intrenched themselves. Gustavus waited for his approaching reinforcements; Wallenstein undertook no attack; and nothing but insignificant skirmishes occurred. As Wallenstein could not be made to risk a battle, Gustavus Adolphus attempted to storm the Austrian camp (Aug. 24, 1632); but his assaults

were repeatedly repelled. The Swedish army now turned towards the north of Suabia, and made new conquests, while Wallenstein suddenly invaded the unoccupied Saxony, to compel the elector to secede from his alliance with Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus followed him thither, and, November 6, the battle of Lützen (q. v.) took place. Wallenstein was compelled to retire with great loss. He himself was wounded, Pappenheim was killed, and all his artillery was taken. The Swedes, although their great king had fallen, maintained the field under Bernard, duke of Weimar. Wallenstein now withdrew to Bohemia, and caused a strict court-martial to be held, at Prague, over the officers and soldiers, who were accused of not having done their duty in the battle; and many of them were executed. In May, 1633, he again took the field, and proceeded to Silesia, where there was a Swedish army, combined with Saxon and Brandenburg troops. Notwithstanding his numerical superiority, he undertook, at first, nothing important. This inactivity gave rise to the suspicion, that he was engaged in secret negotiations with the enemy, to the disadvantage of Austria. He was even charged with the design of making himself king of Bohemia, by the aid of the Protestants. That negotiations were carried on between the parties, was no secret; but that these related to the conclusion of a peace, and not to Wallenstein's private advantage, is the conclusion to be drawn, at least from the documents that have been made public (e. g. from the Von Arnim archives*). What has been published in justification of the subsequent steps of the emperor against Wallenstein should not be unconditionally received. After a truce of seven weeks, without result, Wallenstein, during the rest of this campaign, did nothing but surprise and capture a body of Swedes (Oct. 18, 1633), occupy several Silesian towns, and make an incursion into Lusatia and Brandenburg, as far as Berlin. Count Thurn, the instigator of the first insurrection of the Bohemians, he set at liberty, load ed with gifts, and charged with secret commissions to the Swedish chancellor, which proceeding excited great indignation in Vienna. But the duke cared not for the favor of a court whose ingratitude he had experienced, and which he contemned. Meanwhile he performed nothing decisive. Still less success followed the expedition *There have been lately printed 200 unpub

lished letters of Wallenstein and others, of various dates, from 1627 to 1634.

which he made, at the request of the emperor, through Bohemia, into the Upper Palatinate, to prevent the further progress of Bernard of Weimar in Bavaria. Without risking a battle, Wallenstein, on the approach of the duke, retired to Bohemia, where he took up his winter-quarters. This measure, which was entirely against the will of the emperor, who wished, to spare, as much as possible, his hereditary provinces, increased the suspicions of Wallenstein's fidelity. His enemies at court, especially the Spanish party, accused him of treason. The plan of a conspiracy, ascribed to him, was laid before the emperor, the object of which was said to be, to make himself independent sovereign of Bohemia, by means of his devoted troops, and to maintain possession of this country by the aid of the Swedes and some Protestant German princes. Wallenstein having at last submitted to a council of war assembled at Pilsen, on Jan. 11, 1634, all his complaints against the emperor, and having gained over part of the generals to his purposes, the court of Vienna, which had received information of the whole affair from Octavio Piccolomini, began to realize the urgency of the danger. Ferdinand II therefore issued an order (Feb. 18, 1634), depriving Wallenstein of the command of the army, and pronouncing sentence of outlawry against him and two of his generals, Illo and Trezka (pronounced Tertschka), as traitors and rebels. The generals, whose fidelity could be relied on, were commanded to seize Wallenstein, dead or alive. He therefore proceeded to Eger, in order, it was supposed, to be nearer the frontiers and the Swedish troops. Nothing, indeed, seemed to remain for him but to seize on some fortified place, like Eger, and unite himself with the enemy. His assassination, however, put a sudden end to his projects; and, in all probability, Germany was thereby preserved from a great catastrophe. Some officers of the garrison at Eger (colonel Leslie, an Irish Catholic, to whom Wallenstein had confided every thing; Butler, the commander of the fortress, and lieutenant-colonel Gordon, both Scotch Protestants), as every moment of delay seemed to increase the danger, conspired for Wallenstein's de struction. On Feb. 25, 1634, at an entertainment given by the conspirators for this purpose, the most confidential friends of Wallenstein (Illo, Will, Kinsky, Trczka, and his aid, Neumann, captain of horse) were surprised and murdered by Butler's dragoons, led by major Geraldin. Deve

reux, an Irishman, at the head of six halberdiers, was intrusted with the execution of the emperor's order on Wallenstein, who, surprised in his bed-chamber, received in silence, with outstretched arms, the thrusts of the halberds in his breast, and expired without a groan. He was not yet fifty-two years old. Not an arm was raised to avenge his death; and he was entombed, without pomp, in the Carthusian monastery, founded by himself, at Gitschin. He was mourned only by his widow. His cold, imperious temper had prevented him from gaining friends. The large sums of money found in his possession fell into the hands of the conspirators and their associates. All his papers were seized; but none have come to the public knowledge, that prove his treachery. His extensive possessions were confiscated by the Emperor,and given, in part, to those who had assisted in his destruction. Wallenstein was of a large, strong frame; his small, black eyes had a fire which all could not endure; his mien was always serious, cold and repulsive; his activity was extraordinary. Though his table was always richly filled, he was himself moderate, and resisted all the allurements of sense, seeking only the gratification of his ambition. He spent, however, a great deal in splendid buildings, and in a numerous and stately household. His own dress was generally marked by some singularity. He possessed much prudence, knowledge of mankind, and cunning, especially the art of fathoming the intentions of others and concealing his own. Towards those who were dependent on him, he was severe, and not unfrequently cruel. He was lavish to those whom he wished to gain over to his purposes, but possessed not the art of winning the heart. With personal courage, he united confidence in himself, and was not destitute of military talents, though he cannot be compared with the great tacticians who were opposed to him (Gustavus Adolphus and Bernard of Weimar). All his military undertakings were based on numerical superiority of troops; and his manner of waging war showed rather policy than military ability. He had no respect for religion, and was the professed enemy of the clergy, who, on their part, hated him in an equal degree. He was unable to rise above the prejudices of his age. His usual companion, who left him only a few moments before his death, was the Italian astrologer Seni, who, as was suspected, was bribed by the imperial court to mislead him. The dramatic

pieces of Schiller, Wallenstein's Lager, Die Piccolomini, and Wallenstein's Tod, are among the finest productions of modern poetry. Some of the personages (Thekla and Max) are the mere creations of the poet's imagination. (See Thirty Years' War.)

WALLER, Sir William, a military officer, who distinguished himself in the civil wars between Charles I and the parliament, was born in 1597, and was a connexion of the poet. He studied at Oxford and Paris, and began his military career in the service of the confederate princes against the emperor, where he acquired the reputation of a good soldier. Upon his return home, he received the honor of knighthood, was elected a member of the long parliament for Andover, and, having suffered under the severity of the star chamber, acquired a predilection for the Presbyterian discipline. He soon became strenuous in his opposition to the court, and, when hostilities commenced, was appointed second in command of the parliamentary army, under the earl of Essex. The west of England was the principal theatre of his exploits, where he obtained several signal advantages, but ultimately sustained defeats by the king's forces at Round way Down, near Devizes, and at Cropready bridge, in Oxfordshire. The blame was thrown by him on the jealousy of other officers; and soon after, having refused to fall in with the views of the Independents, he, among others, was removed by the self-denying ordinance. Being deemed a great support to the Presbyterian party, he was one of the eleven members inpeached of high treason by the army, and finally expelled the house of commons, and committed to prison. He was again taken into custody, on suspicion of being engaged in sir George Booth's insurrection, but was released upon bail. He died at his seat in 1668. He published Divine Meditations, which were written during his retirement, and give a faithful picture of his sentiments and failings. He also left behind him a manuscript, published in 1793, under the title of Vindication of Sir William Waller, explanatory of his Conduct in taking up Arms against King Charles. Written by himself.

WALLER, Edmund ; an eminent English poet, born at Coleshill, in Warwickshire, in March, 1605. His father died during his infancy, leaving him an ample fortune. He was educated at Eton, whence he was removed to King's college, Cambridge. He was chosen member of parliament in

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