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ment, seized two of the muskets, and shot the sentinels. The possession of all the arms placed the enemy in their power, and compelled them to surrender. The irons were taken off, and arms put into the hands of those who had been prisoners; and the whole party arrived at Purysburg the next morning, and joined the American camp. Subsequent to the gallant defence at Sullivan's island, colonel Moultrie's regiment was presented with a stand of colors by Mrs. Elliot. During the assault against Savannah, two officers had been killed, and one wounded, endeavoring to plant these colors upon the enemy's parapet. Just before the retreat was ordered, Jasper attempted to replace them upon the works, and, while he was in the act, received a mortal wound, and fell into the ditch. When the retreat was ordered, he succeeded in bringing them off. Commemorative of the gallant deeds of this brave man, his name has been given to one of the counties of Georgia. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. (See Artichoke.)

JETSAM. (See Flotsam.)

JONES, Noble Wimberley, distinguished in the medical and political annals of Georgia, was born near London, about the year 1723 or 1724. His father, who was a physician, accompanied general Oglethorpe to the colony of Georgia, in 1733; and, as no means of instruction could be procured there at that time, he educated his son himself, and, in 1748, associated him in his professional occupations-a connexion which lasted until 1756. At the commencement of the dissensions between Great Britain and the - colonies, doctor N. W. Jones took an early and conspicuous stand in favor of the latter, and held a correspondence with doctor Franklin, then the agent of Georgia in England, on the subject of their grievances. He was among the first of those who associated for the purpose of sending delegates to a general congress at Philadelphia, and would have gone himself as one, had it not been for the entreaties of his father, then the treasurer of the province, and a member of the council, who was far advanced in years. He was, however, chosen speaker of the provincial legislature; and at every new election, consequent upon the frequent dissolutions by the governor of the house of commons, he was returned, and elected to that office. When Savannah fell under the power of the British, in December, 1778, doctor Jones removed to Charleston, where he continued to prac

tise until November or December, 1780. He was then arrested by order of the British commander, and carried to St. Augustine, in violation of the articles of capitulation entered into at the surrender of Charleston, in the previous May. On the following July, he was released on a general exchange of prisoners, effected by general Greene, and soon afterwards sailed to Philadelphia. Here, again, he prosecuted his profession, and soon obtained considerable practice. In the course of a few months, he was appointed a delegate to congress, by the legislature of Georgia, and continued in that capacity until December, 1782, when he returned to Savannah, on its evacuation by the British. He had been previously elected a member of the general assembly of the state, and, at their meeting, in January, 1783, was chosen their speaker. During the session, which was one of considerable commotion, he was wounded in the head by a broadsword, whilst advising the leaders of a mob to disperse, who were attacking the house of one of the members. After the adjournment of the legislature, doctor Jones went to Charleston, where he was induced to resume his medical practice, by the solicitations of many of his former patients. In 1788, he again returned to Savannah, where he resided during the rest of his life, actively engaged in the labors of his profession. In 1798, he was chosen president of the convention at Louisville, which amended the constitution of the state. He died on the 9th of January, 1805.

JOUSTS. (See Tournament.)


KAIMES, LORD. (See Home, Henry.) KANTSCHU. (See Cossacks.) KATY-DID. (See Locust.) KESWICK, LAKE OF. Water.)

(See Derwent

KILLDEER. (See Plover.)
KILOGRAMME. (See Gramme.)
KIMOLI. (See Argentiera.)
KING-BIRD. (See Fly-Catcher.)

KING'S EVIL; the name formerly given to the scrofula, in consequence of its being supposed that the kings of England and France possessed the power of curing that disease by the touch. (See Scrofula, in the body of the work.) The English and French have each contended that this power was first exercised by their respective monarchs; the French

asserting that St. Louis was first endowed with it, and the English that it was possessed by Edward the Confessor. In the reign of Charles II, the practice of touching for the cure of the scrofula seems to have reached its greatest height in England; and such were the crowds that flocked to him, that he is said to have touched more than six thousand persons in one year after his restoration. The demands upon the king's time were so great, that he found it necessary to have the patients examined by his surgeons, for the purpose of determining if those who presented themselves were really sufferers. Those who were decided to be proper objects of compassion, received tickets of admission to the royal presence, and were touched by the king on one of the days of healing, either at Whitehall or Windsor.

KINGSTON. (See Hull.)
KITE. (See Hawk.)
KNISTENAUX. (See Crees.)
KUMISS. (See Horse.)


LA PLATA. (See Chuquisaca.) LACE MADE BY CATERPILLARS; a most extraordinary and ingenious species of manufacture, which has been contrived by an officer of engineers residing in the city of Munich. It consists of lace and veils, with open patterns in them, made entirely by caterpillars. The following is the mode of proceeding adopted :-Having made a paste of the leaves of the plant, on which the species of caterpillar he employs feeds, he spreads it thinly over a stone, or other flat substance, of the required size. He then, with a camel-hair pencil, dipped in olive-oil, draws the pattern he wishes the insects to leave open. This stone is then placed in an inclined position; and a considerable number of the caterpillars are placed at the bottom. A peculiar species is chosen, which spins a strong web; and the animals commence at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up to the top, carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil, but devouring every other part of the paste. The extreme lightness of these veils, combined with some strength, is truly surprising. One of them, measuring twenty-six and a half inches by seventeen inches, weighed only 1.51 grains—a degree of lightness which will appear more strongly by con

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trast with other fabrics. One square yard of the substance of which these veils are made, weighs four grains and one third; whilst one square yard of silk gauze weighs one hundred and thirty-seven grains, and one square yard of the finest patent net weighs two hundred and sixty-two grains and a half.

LACHSA. (See Arabia.)

LADING, BILL OF. (See Bill of Lading.) LAGAN. (See Flotsam.) LALLY-TOLLENDAL, the marquis of, died at Paris, in March, 1830.

LAMARQUE, general, died at Paris, in May, 1832. Some account of his recent course will be found in the article France, in this Appendix.

LANCASTRIAN SCHOOLS. (See Mutual Instruction.)

LANFRANC is accidentally placed before Land.



(See Schlan

(See Roman Lan

LATIN LANGUAGE. guage and Literature.) LAUDANUM. (See Opium.)

LAURA; a sort of hermitage. (See Anachorets.)

LAWYERS. (See Advocates, Attorney, and Barrister.)

LEAP YEAR. (See Epoch, and Year.) LEE, Samuel, is a remarkable instance of what may be accomplished by the steady direction of talent to one object. The only education he received was that of a village school, where nothing more than reading, writing and arithmetic was taught. He quitted this school at twelve years of age, to learn the trade of a carpenter and builder; and it was not till years after this, that he conceived the idea of learning foreign languages. He taught himself to read and write in Latin, in Greek, and in Hebrew. He also taught himself the Chaldee, the Syriac, and the Samaritan languages, unaided by any instructer, or by any literary companion, and uninfluenced by the hope either of profit or of praise. Mr. Lee's earnings were, at this time, barely sufficient to the poorest maintenance; yet he spared from this pittance enough to purchase such grammars as could be met with upon the common book-stalls; and, when he had read through a volume, procured in a similar manner, he was forced to pay it away again as part of the price of the next book he wished to purchase. He had to pass from bodily fatigue to mental exertion; for he omitted none of the hours appropriated to manual labor: he retired regularly to rest at ten o'clock at night: he suffered, dur

ing this time, from a complaint in his eyes; and, of the inadequate leisure thus left him, part even of that was dedicated to what may be deemed accomplishment; for he acquired, among other things, a knowledge of music. When he exchanged his trade for the superintendence of a charity school, his hours were not much more at his own disposal. It was at this time that doctor Jonathan Scott furnished him with an Arabic grammar; and he had then, for the first time in his life, the pleasure of conversing upon the study in which he was engaged. To this circumstance, and the wonderful proficiency of Mr. Lee (for in a few months he was capable of reading, writing and composing, both in Arabic and Persian), we may attribute Mr. Lee's subsequent engagement with the church missionary society, his admission at Queen's college, Cambridge, and his ordination as a minister of the established church. When he entered at Cambridge, he was unacquainted with the mathematics, but, in one fortnight, qualified himself to attend a class which had gone through several books in Euclid, and soon after discovered an error in a Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry, usually bound up with Simpson's Euclid, the fourteenth proposition of which he disproved. Mr. Lee's chief attention, however, has been turned to theological and philological pursuits; and he has made great progress in translating the Scriptures into various Oriental languages. In 1819, he was appointed Arabic professor to the university of Cambridge.

LESLIE, Sir John, died in November, 1832, having been knighted a few months previous to his death.

LIFE-BUOY. The life-buoy, now commonly used in the British navy, is the invention of lieutenant Coots, of the royal navy. It consists of two hollow copper vessels connected together, each about as large as an ordinary sized pillow, and of buoyancy and capacity sufficient to support one man standing upon them. Should there be more than one person requiring support, they can lay hold of rope beckets, fitted to the buoy, and so sustain themselves. Between the two copper vessels, there stands up a hollow pole, or mast, into which is inserted, from below, an iron rod, whose lower extremity is loaded with lead, in such a manner that, when the buoy is let go, the iron slips down to a certain extent, lengthens the lever, and enables the lead at the end to act as ballast. By this means the mast is kept upright, and the buoy prevented

from upsetting. The weight at the end of the rod is arranged so as to afford secure footing for two persons, should that number reach it; and there are, also, as was said before, large rope beckets, through which others can thrust their head and shoulders, till assistance is rendered. At the top of the mast is fixed a port-fire, calculated to burn about twenty minutes, or half an hour: this is ignited, most ingeniously, by the same process which lets the buoy fall into the water; so that a man, falling overboard at night, is directed to the buoy by the blaze on the top of its pole or mast, and the boat sent to rescue him also knows in what direction to pull. The method by which this excellent invention is attached to the ship, and dropped into the water in a single instant, is, perhaps, not the least ingenious part of the contrivance. The buoy is generally fixed amid-ships, over the stern, where it is held securely in its place by being strung, or threaded, as it were, on two strong perpendicular rods, fixed to the tafferel, and inserted in holes piercing the frame work of the buoy. The apparatus is kept in its place by what is called a slipstopper, a sort of catch-bolt, or detent, which can be unlocked at pleasure by merely pulling a trigger: upon withdrawing the stopper, the whole machine slips along the rods, and falls at once into the ship's wake. The trigger, which unlocks the slip-stopper, is furnished with a lanyard, passing through a hole in the stern, and having, at its inner end, a large knob, marked "LIFE-BUOY :" this alone is used in the day-time. Close at hand is another wooden knob, marked “Lock," fastened to the end of a line fixed to the trigger of a gun-lock primed with powder, and so arranged that, when the line is pulled, the port-fire is instantly ignited; while, at the same moment, the life-buoy descends, and floats merrily away, blazing like a light-house. The gunner, who has charge of the life-buoy lock, sees it freshly and carefully primed every evening at quarters, of which he makes a report to the captain. In the morning, the priming is taken out, and the lock uncocked. During the night, a man is always stationed at this part of the ship; and every half hour, when the bell strikes, he calls out, "Life-Buoy!" to show that he is awake and at his post, exactly in the same manner as the look-out men abaft, on the beam and forward, call out, "Starboard quarter!" "Starboard gangway!" "Starboard bow!" and so on, completely round the ship, to prove that they are not nap

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ping. (Captain Basil Hall's Fragments of Voyages; second series.)

LINDEN-TREE. (See Lime.)

LINDSEY, Theophilus, a celebrated divine of the Unitarian persuasion, was born at Middlewich, in Cheshire, June 20, 1723. His father was an eminent salt proprietor; and Theophilus, the second of his three children, took that name from his godfather Theophilus, earl of Huntingdon. He received his grammar education at Middlewich and Leeds, and, at the age of eighteen, was admitted a scholar at St. John's college, Cambridge. Having taken orders, by the recommendation of the earl of Huntingdon, he was appointed domestic chaplain to the duke of Somerset, and, in 1754, accompanied earl Percy to the continent. On his return, he married the daughter of archdeacon Blackburne, and was presented to a living in Dorsetshire, which he exchanged, in 1764, for the vicarage of Catterick, in Yorkshire. In 1771, he zealously coöperated with archdeacon Blackburne, doctor John Jebb, Mr. Wyvil, and others, to obtain relief in matters of subscription to the thirty-nine articles. Having long entertained a doubt of the doctrine of the Trinity, in 1773, he honorably resigned his livings, and went to London, where, in April, 1774, he performed divine service in a room in Essex street, Strand, which was conducted according to the plan of a liturgy, altered from that of the establishment by the celebrated doctor Samuel Clarke. About the same time, he published his Apology, of which several editions were called for in a few years. This was followed by a larger volume, entitled a Sequel to the Apology, in which he replies to the various answers given to his first work. In 1778, he was enabled, by the assistance of friends, to build a regular chapel in Essex street, the service of which he conducted, in conjunction with doctor Disney, until 1793, when he resigned the pulpit, but continued as active as ever with the pen. In 1802, he published his last work, entitled Considerations on the Divine Government. He died Nov. 3, 1803, in his eightieth year. Besides the works already mentioned, he wrote on the Preface to St. John's Gospel, on Praying to Christ, an Historical View of the State of the Unitarian Doctrine and Worship from the Reformation, and several other pieces. Two volumes of his sermons have also been published since his death.

LINNET. (See Finch.)
LITHARGE. (See Lead.)

LOBLOLLY. (See Pine.)

LOCHABER-AXE. (See Highlands.)
LODOMIRIA. (See Galicia.)
LOOKING-GLASS. (See Mirror.)
LOOMING. (See Mirage.)
LORI. (See Lemur.)

LOUPS-GAROUX. (See Lycanthropy.)
LOVE-APPLE. (See Tomato.)


MAAS. (See Meuse.)

MACKINTOSH, sir James, died in London, May 30, 1832. (See North American Review for October, 18:32.)

MAGIC LANTERN. (See Lantern.) MAHON, VISCOUNT. (See Stanhope, Henry Philip.)

MAKI. (See Lemur.) MALINES. (See Mechlin.) MALLARD. (See Duck.) MANDRILL. (See Baboon.) MARO. (See Virgil.) MARTIN. (See Swallow.) MARTYRS, ERA OF. (See Epoch.) MATTHISSON died at Wörlitz, near Dresden, in March, 1831. MAY-BUG. (See Cockchaffer.) MELVILLE, VISCOUNT.


(See Dundas,

MENAGERIE. The literal meaning of the word menagerie points out one of the principal objects of a collection of various living animals. Ménagerie is derived from the French word ménager, from which we derive our English verb to manage. The name ménagerie was originally applied to a place for domestic animals, with reference to their nurture and training: it now means any collection of animals. Daubenton and other distinguished naturalists have believed that the ferocity of many of the carnivorous animals may be entirely conquered in the course of time; that they only flee from man through fear, and attack and devour other animals through the pressing calls of hunger; and that the association with human beings, and an abundant supply of food, would render even the lion, the tiger and the wolf, as manageable as our domestic animals. In support of this theory, it may be observed that, although the tiger and the domestic cat have many properties in common, the conquest of the latter species is now complete; and further, that some of the most ferocious animals which have been bred in a state of confinement, or taken exceedingly young, have become perfectly tractable and harmless with

those who have rightly understood their natures. The accidents which have sometimes occurred to the attendants of wild beasts, and which are attributed to the treachery of their dispositions, have generally proceeded from an ignorance of their habits. But if it be too much to hope that the ferocious animals may be subdued to our uses, through the education which well-conducted menageries would afford, it cannot be doubted that such establishments offer most interesting opportunities for observing the peculiarities of a great variety of creatures, whose instincts are calculated to excite a rational curiosity, and to fill the mind with that pure and delightful knowledge which is to be acquired in every department of the study of nature. The most common animals offer to the attentive observer objects of the deepest interest. The menagerie of the Tower is now very flourishing. It contains some extremely fine specimens of more than forty quadrupeds, and of various birds and reptiles. The dens in which the animals are kept are tolerably commodious, and great attention is paid to their cleanliness. This collection has lately been made the subject of a very interesting volume. But the Tower menagerie was not always as valuable as at the present time. In 1822, the collection comprised only an elephant, a bear, and two or three birds. It had gradually declined in value for half a century; in some degree, perhaps, from the force of popular prejudice, which was accustomed to consider it only an occupation and amusement for children to make a visit to the "lions in the Tower." In the barbarous ages, and till within the last century, beasts of prey were considered the especial property of kings, as something typical of their power and greatness. In the fortress where the crown of the ancient English monarchs was kept, were also confined their lions. These were generally maintained at the expense of the people, and sometimes of the civic officers of London, by special writ; and the keeper of the lions was a person of rank attached to the court. Gradually, this exertion of the royal prerogative fell into decay; and if a foreign potentate presented a tiger or a leopard to the king, as was often the case with the rulers of the maritime states of Africa, the animal was given to the keeper of the menagerie, to add to his stock of attractions for the public. The beasts of prey which are presented to the king are, in nearly every case, sent to the Tower: but George IV formed

a very fine collection of such quaarupeds as are more capable of domestication, and of birds, in Windsor great park, at a lodge called Sand-pit gate. Before the establishment of the gardens of the zoological society, this royal collection offered almost the only opportunity of seeing many of the rarer species of animals in their natural condition. In this menagerie they are not pent up in miserable dens, but have large open sheds, with spacious paddocks to range in, water in plenty, and spreading trees to shade them from the noonday sun. The collection is open to the public gratuitously; and here may be seen the giraffe, various species of antelopes and deer, kangaroos in great numbers, zebras, quaggas, ostriches and emeus rearing their young as fearless as the barn-door fowl. The duke of Devonshire has, at his villa at Chiswick, a small collection, which, as in the instance of the Windsor park menagerie, offers the delightful exhibition of several quadrupeds and birds exercising their natural habits almost without restraint. At Chiswick, there was, for many years, a particularly sagacious female elephant, which followed her keeper about the field, in which her spacious hut was placed, knelt down at his bidding, and bore him on her neck in the manner which we read of in books of Oriental history or travel. This interesting animal died in 1828. The establishment of the ménagerie at the Jardin des Plantes has afforded opportunities for the study of natural history, which have advanced the branch of the science that relates to quadrupeds in a most remarkable degree. The accurate descriptions of Cuvier, of Geoffroy, of Desmarest, and of other distinguished naturalists of France, are principally to be ascribed to their diligent studies in this school. The value of menageries, not only for popular but for scientific study, depends, however, very much upon the arrangements which determine their construction and regulation. The great object should be, as far as possible, to exhibit the animals in their natural state. It has been a favorite plan with many naturalists to establish a garden, in which the animal should find himself surrounded by his natural food-where the beaver should live amidst a rivulet and a bank of poplars, and the reindeer browse upon his native lichen. Great difficulties, of course, present themselves to the completion of such a project; and though its execution were compatible with any reasonable expense, the difficulty of adjust

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