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ment, seized two of the muskets, and shot tise until November or December, 1780. the sentinels. The possession of all the He was then arrested by order of the arms placed the enemy in their power, British commander, and carried to St. and compelled them to surrender. The Augustine, in violation of the articles of irons were taken off, and arms put into capitulation entered into at the surrender the hands of those who had been prison- of Charleston, in the previous May. On ers; and the whole party arrived at Purys- the following July, he was released on a burg the next morning, and joined the general exchange of prisoners, effected by American camp. Subsequent to the gal- general Greene, and soon afterwards saillant defence at Sullivan's island, colonel ed to Philadelphia. Here, again, he prosMoultrie's regiment was presented with a ecuted his profession, and soon obtained stand of colors by Mrs. Elliot. During considerable practice. In the course of a the assault against Savannah, two officers few months, he was appointed a delegate had been killed, and one wounded, en- to congress, by the legislature of Georgia, deavoring to plant these colors upon the and continued in that capacity until Deenemy's parapet. Just before the retreat cember, 1782, when he returned to Sawas ordered, Jasper attempted to replace vannah, on its evacuation by the British. them upon the works, and, while he was He had been previously elected a member in the act, received a mortal wound, and of the general assembly of the state, and, fell into the ditch. When the retreat was at their meeting, in January, 1783, was ordered, he succeeded in bringing them chosen their speaker. During the session, off. Commemorative of the gallant deeds wbich was one of considerable commoof this brave man, bis name has been tion, he was wounded in the head by a given to one of the counties of Georgia. broadsword, whilst advising the leaders'
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. (See Arti- of a mob to disperse, who were attacking choke.)
the house of one of the members. After Jetsam. (See Flotsam.)
the adjournment of the legislature, doctor Jones, Noble Wimberley, distinguished Jones went to Charleston, where he was in the medical and political annals of induced to resume his medical practice, Georgia, was born near London, about by the solicitations of many of his former the year 1723 or 1724. His father, who patients. In 1788, he again returned to was a physician, accompanied general Savannah, where he resided during the Oglethorpe to the colony of Georgia, in rest of his life, actively engaged in the la1733; and, as no means of instruction bors of his profession. In 1798, he was could be procured there at that time, he chosen president of the convention at educated his son himself, and, in 1748, Louisville, which amended the constituassociated him in his professional occupa- tion of the state. He died on the 9th of tions—a connexion which lasted until January, 1805. 1756. At the commencement of the dis- Jousts. (See Tournament.) sensions between Great Britain and the colonies, doctor N. W. Jones took an early and conspicuous stand in favor of
K. the latter, and held a correspondence with doctor Franklin, then the agent of Georgia in England, on the subject of KAIMES, LORD. (See Home, Henry.) their grievances. He was among the first KANTSCHU. (See Cossacks.) of those who associated for the
Katy-Did. (See Locust.) of sending delegates to a general con- KESWICK, LAKE OF. (See Derwent gress at Philadelphia, and would have Water.) gone himself as one, had it not been for KILLDEER. (See Plover.) the entreaties of his father, then the treas- KILOGRAMMĘ. (See Gramme.) urer of the province, and a member of the Kimoli. (See Argentiera.) council, who was far advanced in years. King-Bird. (See Fly-Catcher.) He was, however, chosen speaker of the King's Evil; the name formerly givprovincial legislature ; and at every new en to the scrofi in consequence of its election, consequent upon the frequent being
supposed that the kings of England dissolutions by the governor of the house and France possessed the power of curof commons, he was returned, and elect- ing that disease hy the touch. (See Scrofed to that office. When_Savannah fellula, in the body of the work.) The under the power of the British, in De- English and French have each contended cember, 1778, doctor Jones removed to that this power was first exercised by Charleston, where he continued to prac- their respective monarchs; the French
asserting that St. Louis was first endowed trast with other fabrics. One square yard with it, and the English that it was pos- of the substance of which these veils are sessed by Edward the Confessor. In the made, weighs four grains and one third; reign of Charles II, the practice of touch- whilst one square yard of silk gauze weighs ing for the cure of the scrofula seems to one hundred and thirty-seven grains, and have reached its greatest height in Eng-, one square yard of the finest patent net land; and such were the crowds that weighs two hundred and sixty-two grains flocked to him, that he is said to have and a half. touched more than six thousand persons Lachsa. (See Arabia.) in one year after his restoration. The Lading, Bill of. (See Bill of Lading.) demands upon the king's time were so LAGAN. (See Flotsam.) great, that he found it necessary to have LALLY-TOLLENDAL, the marquis of, the patients examined by his surgeons, for died at Paris, in March, 1830. the purpose of determining if those who LAMARQUE, general, died at Paris, in presented themselves were really sufferers. May, 1832. Some account of bis recent Those who were decided to be proper course will be found in the article France, objects of compassion, received tickets of in this Appendix. admission to the royal presence, and were LANCASTRIAN SCHOOLS. (See Mutual touched by the king on one of the Instruction.) days of healing, either at Whitehall or LANFRANC is accidentally placed beWindsor.
fore Land. KINGSTON. (See Hull.)
LANGENSCHWALBACH. (See SchlanKite. (See Hawk.)
genbad.) KNISTENAUX. (See Crees.)
Latin LANGUAGE. (See Roman LanKumiss. (See Horse.)
guage and Literature.)
LAUDANUM. (See Opium.)
LAURA; a sort of hermitage. (See L.
LAWYERS. (See Advocates, Attorney,
and Barrister.) La Plata. (See Chuquisaca.)
LEAP Yean. (See Epoch, and Year.) LACE MADE BY CATERPILLARS ; LEE, Samuel, is a remarkable instance most extraordinary and ingenious spe- of what may be accomplished by the cies of manufacture, which has been steady direction of talent to one object. contrived by an officer of engineers The only education he received was that residing in the city of Munich. It of a village school, where nothing more consists of lace and veils, with open than reading, writing and arithmetic was patterns in them, made entirely by cat- taught. He quitted this school at twelve erpillars. The following is the mode years of age, to learn the trade of a carof proceeding adopted :-Having made penter and builder; and it was not till a paste of the leaves of the plant, on years after this, that he conceived the idea which the species of caterpillar he em- of learning foreign languages. He taught ploys feeds, he spreads it thinly over a himself to read and write in Latin, in stone, or other flat substance, of the re- Greek, and in Hebrew. He also taught quired size. He then, with a camel-hair himself the Chaldee, the Syriac, and the pencil, dipped in olive-oil, draws the pat- Samaritan languages, unaided by any intern he wishes the insects to leave open. structer, or by any literary companion, This stone is then placed in an inclined and uninfluenced by the hope either of position ; and a considerable number of profit or of praise. Mr. Lee's earnings the caterpillars are placed at the bottom. were, at this time, barely sufficient to the A peculiar species is chosen, which spins poorest maintenance; yet he spared from a strong web; and the animals commence this pittance enough to purchase such at the bottom, eating and spinning their grammars as could be met with upon the way up to the top, carefully avoiding ev- common book-stalls; and, when he had read ery part touched by the oil, but devouring through a volume, procured in a similar every other part of the paste. The ex- manner, he was forced to pay it away treme lightness of these veils, combined again as part of the price of the next book he with some strength, is truly surprising. wished to purchase. He had to pass from One of them, measuring twenty-six and bodily fatigue to mental exertion ; for he a half inches by seventeen inches, weigh- omitted none of the hours appropriated to ed only 1.51 grains—a degree of lightness manual labor : he retired regularly to rest which will appear more strongly by con- at ten o'clock at night: he suffered, dur
ing this time, from a complaint in his from upsetting. The weight at the end of eyes; and, of the inadequate leisure thus the rod is arranged so as to afford secure left him, part even of that was dedicated to footing for two persons, should that numwhat may be deemed accomplishment; for ber reach it; and there are, also, as was said he acquired, among other things, a knowl- before, large rope beckets, through which edge of music. When he exchanged his others can thrust their head and shoultrade for the superintendence of a charity ders, till assistance is rendered. At the school, his hours were not much more at top of the mast is fixed a port-fire, calcuhis own disposal. It was at this time that lated to burn about twenty minutes, or doctor Jonathan Scott furnished him with half an hour: this is ignited, most ingean Arabic grammar; and he had then, for niously, by the same process which lets the first time in his life, the pleasure of the buoy fall into the water; so that a conversing upon the study in which he man, falling overboard at night, is directwas engaged. To this circumstance, and ed to the buoy by the blaze on the top of the wonderful proficiency of Mr. Lee (for its pole or mast, and the boat sent to resin a few months he was capable of read- cue him also knows in what direction to ing, writing and composing, both in Ara- pull. The method by which this excelbic and Persian), we may attribute Mr. lent invention is attached to the ship, and Lee's subsequent engagement with the dropped into the water in a single instant, church missionary society, his admission is, perhaps, not the least ingenious part at Queen's college, Cambridge, and his of the contrivance. The buoy is generalordination as a minister of the establishedly fixed amid-ships, over the stern, where church. When he entered at Cambridge, it is held securely in its place by being he was unacquainted with the mathemat- strung, or threaded, as it were, on two ics, but, in one fortnight, qualified him- strong perpendicular rods, fixed to the self to attend a class which had gone tafferel, and inserted in holes piercing the through several books in Euclid, and soon frame work of the buoy. The apparatus after discovered an error in a Treatise on is kept in its place by what is called a slipSpherical Trigonometry, usually bound stopper, a sort of catch-bolt, or detent, up with Simpson's Euclid, the fourteenth which can be unlocked at pleasure by proposition of which he disproved. Mr. merely pulling a trigger: upon withLee's chief attention, however, has been drawing the stopper, the whole machine turned to theological and philological slips along the rods, and falls at once into pursuits ; and he has made great progress the ship's wake. The trigger, which unin translating the Scriptures into various locks the slip-stopper, is furnished with a Oriental languages. In 1819, he was ap- lanyard, passing through a hole in the pointed Arabic professor to the university stern, and having, at its inner end, a large of Cambridge.
knob, marked "LIFE-Buor :" this alone Leslie, sir John, died in November, is used in the day-time. Close at hand is 1832, having been knighted a few months another wooden knob, marked "Lock," previous to his death.
fastened to the end of a line fixed to the LIFE-Buoy. The life-buoy, now com- trigger of a gun-lock primed with powder, monly used in the British navy, is the in- and so arranged that, when the line is vention of lieutenant Coots, of the royal pulled, the port-fire is instantly ignited ; navy. It consists of two hollow copper while, at the same moment, the life-buoy. vessels connected together, each about as descends, and floats merrily away, blazing large as an ordinary sized pillow, and of like a light-house. The gunner, who has buoyancy and capacity sufficient to sup- charge of the life-buoy lock, sees it freshly port one man standing upon them. Should and carefully primed every evening at there be more than one person requiring quarters, of which he makes a report to the support, they can lay hold of rope beck- captain. In the morning, the priming is ets, fitted to the buoy, and so sustain taken out, and the lock uncocked. Durthemselves. Between the two copper ing the night, a man is always stationed vessels, there stands up a hollow pole, or at this part of the ship; and every half mast, into which is inserted, from below, hour, when the bell strikes, he calls out, an iron rod, whose lower extremity is “Life-Buoy!" to show that he is awake loaded with lead, in such a manner that, and at his post, exactly in the same manwhen the buoy is let go, the iron slips ner as the look-out men abaft, on the down to a certain extent, lengthens the beam and forward, call out, “Starboard lever, and enables the lead at the end to quarter!" “ Starboard gangway!” “ Star
! act as ballast. By this means the mast board bow!" and so on, completely round is kept upright, and the buoy prevented the ship, to prove that they are not nap
ping. (Captain Basil Hall's Fragments of LOBLOLLY. (See Pine.) Voyages ; second series.)
LOCHABER-AXE. (See Highlands.) LINDER-TREE. (See Lime.).
LoDomiRIA. (See Galicia.) Lindsey, Theophilus, a celebrated di- Looking-Glass. (See Mirror.) vine of the Unitarian persuasion, was LOOMING. (See Mirage.) born at Middlewich, in Cheshire, June Lori. (See Lemur.) 20,1723. His father was an eminent salt Loups-ĜAROUX. (See Lycanthropy.) proprietor ; and Theophilus, the second Love-APPLE. (See T'omato.) of his three children, took that name from his godfather Theophilus, earl of Huntingdon. He received his grammar edu
M. cation at Middlewich and Leeds, and, at the age of eighteen, was admitted a scholar at St. John's college, Cambridge. Hav
Maas. (See Meuse.) ing taken orders, by the recommendation Mackintosh, sir James, died in Lonof the earl of Huntingdon, he was ap- don, May 30, 1832. (See North American pointed domestic chaplain to the duke of Review for October, 1832.) Somerset, and, in 1754, accompanied earl Magic LANTERN. (See Lantern.) Percy to the continent. On his return, Mahon, Viscount. (See Stanhope, Henhe married the daughter of archdeacon ry Philip.) Blackburne, and was presented to a living Maki. (See Lemur.) in Dorsetshire, which he exchanged, in Malines. (See Mechlin.) 1764, for the vicarage of Catterick, in MaLLaRD. (See Duck.) Yorkshire. In 1771, he zealously coöpe
MANDRILL. (See Baboon.) rated with archdeacon Blackburne, doc- MARO. (See Virgil.) tor John Jebb, Mr. Wyvil, and others, to Martin. (See Swallow.) obtain relief in matters of subscription to MARTYRS, ERA OF. (See Epoch.) the thirty-nine articles. Having long en- Matthisson died at Wörlitz, near tertained a doubt of the doctrine of the Dresden, in March, 1831. Trinity, in 1773, he honorably resigned Mar-Bug. (See Cockchaffer.) his livings, and went to London, where, in Melville, Viscount. (See Dundas, April, 1774, he performed divine service in Henry.) a room in Essex street, Strand, which was MENAGERIE. The literal meaning of the conducted according to the plan of a lit- word menagerie points out one of the prinurgy, altered from that of the establish- cipal objects of a collection of various livment by the celebrated doctor Samuel ing animals. Ménagerie is derived from the Clarke. About the same time, he publish- French word ménager, from which we ed his Apology, of which several editions derive our English verb to manage. The were called for in a few years. This was name ménagerie was originally applied to a followed by a larger volume, entitled a place for domestic animals, with reference Sequel to the Apology, in which he re- to their nurture and training : it now means plies to the various answers given to his any collection of animals. Daubenton and first work. In 1778, he was enabled, by other distinguished naturalists have bethe assistance of friends, to build a regular lieved that the ferocity of many of the carchapel in Essex street, the service of which nivorous animals may be entirely conhe conducted, in conjunction with doctor quered in the course of time; that they Disney, until 1793, when he resigned the only flee from man through fear, and aipulpit, but continued as active as ever tack and devour other animals through with the pen. In 1802, he published his the pressing calls of hunger; and last work, entitled Considerations on the that the association with human beings, Divine Government. He died Nov. 3, and an abundant supply of food, would 1803, in his eightieth year. Besides the render even the lion, the tiger and the works already mentioned, he wrote on wolf, as manageable as our domestic anithe Preface to St. John's Gospel, on Pray- mals. In support of this theory, it may be ing to Christ, an Historical View of the observed that, although the tiger and the State of the Unitarian Doctrine and Wor- domestic cat have many properties in ship from the Reformation, and several common, the conquest of the latter speother pieces. Two volumes of his ser- cies is now complete ; and further, that mons have also been published since his some of the most ferocious animals which death,
have been bred in a state of confinement, LINNET. (See Finch.)
or taken exceedingly young, have become LITHARGE. (See Lead.)
perfectly tractable and harmless with
those who have rightly understood their a very fine collection of such quaarupeds as natures. The accidents which have some- are more capable of domestication, and of times occurred to the attendants of wild birds, in Windsor great park, at a lodge beasts, and which are attributed to the called Sand-pit gate. Before the establishtreachery of their dispositions, have gen- ment of the gardens of the zoological socierally proceeded from an ignorance of ety, this royal collection offered almost the their habits. But if it be too much to only opportunity of seeing many of the hope that the ferocious animals may be rarer species of animals in their natural subdued to our uses, through the educa- condition. In this menagerie they are tion which well-conducted menageries not pent up in miserable dens, but have would afford, it cannot be doubted that large open sheds, with spacious paddocks such establishments offer most interesting to range in, water in plenty, and spreadopportunities for observing the peculiari- ing trees to shade them from the noonties of a great variety of creatures, whose day sun. The collection is open to the instincts are calculated to excite a rational public gratuitously; and here may be curiosity, and to fill the mind with that seen the giraffe, various species of antepure and delightful knowledge wbich is lopes and deer, kangaroos in great numto be acquired in every department of the bers, zelvras, quaggas, ostriches and emeus study of nature. The most common ani- rearing their young as fearless as the mals offer to the attentive observer objects bard-door fowl. The duke of Devonof the deepest interest. The menagerie shire has, at his villa at Chiswick, a small of the Tower is now very flourishing. It collection, which, as in the instance of contains some extremely fine specimens the Windsor park menagerie, offers the of more than forty quadrupeds, and of delightful exhibition of several quadruvarious birds and reptiles. The dens in peds and birds exercising their natural which the animals are kept are tolerably habits almost without restraint. At Chiscommodious, and great attention is paid wick, there was, for many years, a parto their cleanliness. This collection has ticularly sagacious female elephant, which lately been made the subject of a very followed her keeper about the field, in interesting volume. But the Tower me- which her spacious hut was placed, knelt nagerie was not always as valuable as at down at his bidding, and bore him on her the present time. In 1822, the collection neck in the manner which we read of ju comprised only an elephant, a bear, and books of Oriental history or travel. This two or three birds. It had gradually de- interesting animal died in 1828. The esclined in value for half a century; in tablishment of the ménagerie at the Jardin some degree, perhaps, from the force of des Plantes has afforded opportunities popular prejudice, which was accustomed for the study of natural history, which to consider it only an occupation and have advanced the branch of the science amusement for children to make a visit to that relates to quadrupeds in a most rethe “lions in the Tower.” In the barba- markable degree. The accurate descriprous ages, and till within the last century, tions of Cuvier, of Geoffroy, of Desmabeasts of prey were considered the es- rest, and of other distinguished naturalpecial property of kings, as something ists of France, are principally to be typical of their power and greatness. In ascribed to their diligent studies in this the fortress where the crown of the an- school. The value of menageries, not cient English monarchs was kept, were only for popular but for scientific study, also confined their lions. These were depends, however, very much upon generally maintained at the expense of the arrangements which determine their the people, and sometimes of the civic construction and regulation. The great officers of London, by special writ; and object should be, as far as possible, to the keeper of the lions was a person of exhibit the animals in their natural state. rank attached to the court. Gradually, It has been a favorite plan with many this exertion of the royal prerogative fell naturalists to establish a garden, in which into decay; and if a foreign potentate the animal should find himself surroundpresented a tiger or a leopard to the king, ed by his natural food-where the beaver as was often the case with the rulers of should live amidst a rivulet and a bank the maritime states of Africa, the animal of poplars, and the reindeer browse upon was given to the keeper of the menagerie, his native lichen. Great difficultjes, of to add to his stock of attractions for the course, present themselves to the complepublic. The beasts of prey which are pre- tion of such a project; and though its sented to the king are, in nearly every case, execution were compatible with any reasent to the Tower: but George IV formed sonable expense, the difficulty of adjust