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In the early use of these machines, they were employed like those they supplanted, and which we have described, in throwing enormous stones. They were therefore of immense calibre; and, as the means of boring iron masses of such magnitude were then wanted, they were necessarily formed of iron bars, fitted together lengthwise, and confined by strong hoops of iron. Sometimes the bars were soldered together; but, still, the hoops could not be dispensed with. There are some specimens of these early cannon preserved as curiosities in the repository and royal arsenal at Woolwich. All the ancient cannon are unnecessarily long and clumsy; and we may easily imagine that their carriages and appointments were equally heavy and unmanageable. We are informed, indeed, by Guicciardini, in the first book of his history, that so cumbrous and unmanageable were the cannon in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, that they could only be discharged at considerable intervals, namely, two or three times in a day; so that the besieged had sufficient time to repair, at their leisure, the damage which they had sustained; and it not unfrequently happened that the pieces burst, and thus did more injury to those who employed them than to those they were intended to annoy. In 1453, when Mahomet II battered the walls of Constantinople, he is said to have used bombards which projected masses of twelve hundred pounds weight; and even during the late wars, the Turks employed enormous stone mortars to protect the passage of The French had two four-pounders.
constructed, we are not informed. Notwithstanding the improvements thus introduced in the formation of cannon, yet they were still, from a mistaken idea of the necessity of great length, exceedingly large and unwieldy. Louis XII had one cast at Tours which carried a ball of one hundred pounds. One of these extraordinary cannon was taken at the siege of Dien, in 1546, by don John de Castro, and was very lately preserved in the castle of St. Julian de Barra, near Lisbon. The length of it is twenty feet and seven inches; its diameter, in the middle, is six feet and three inches; and it threw a ball of one hundred pounds. There is a Hindoostan inscription upon it, which says it was made A. D. 1400. Although, during the sixteenth century, the size of cannon was considerably diminished, and a more tasteful form given to their exterior, still some few were made of what we now consider a prodigious magnitude, highly ornamented, and bearing a variety of mottoes, and dignified with names of various import. (See Cannon.)—Artillery for the Field. This was formerly divided into three classes, namely, battalion guns, artillery of the park, and horse artillery. The battalion guns included all the light pieces attached to regiments of the line, which they accompanied in all their manoeuvres, to cover and support them. In the English service, there were two sixpounders attached to each battalion.
the Dardanelles. To trace, however, the various changes that have taken place in the construction, management, &c., of these arms, would far exceed the limits of this article. We must pass, therefore, from these early applications of cannon to the purposes of bombardment, to the time when they began to be employed in the open field, at which period they must have undergone considerable changes and improvements. The English appear to have been the first to employ cannon in the field; and, as early as 1346, at the celebrated battle of Cressy, five of them were placed on a small hill near that village, and which are said to have greatly contributed to the attainment of that victory. Cannon, however, were not cast in England till some time in the sixteenth century, namely, brass cannon about the year 1535, and those of iron in 1547. We read, indeed, of brass guns of a much earlier date; but whether they were formed of bars, or in what other way they were
two three-pounders. three six-pounders.
S six pounders,
first line. three-pounders, two second line. The Hanoverians two three-pounders. This practice is, however, now discontinued in the British service; and, in lieu of battalion guns, the artillery is formed into brigades of foot, and troops of horse artillery, the former being attached to the infantry, and the latter to the cavalry. This change has taken place on the supposition that the condensed fire of these brigades and troops produces a much greater effect than could be expected from the divided action of battalion guns. The brigades of foot artillery have either five medium twelve-pounders, and a heavy five and a half inch howitzer; five ninepounders, and a heavy five and a half inch howitzer; five long six-pounders, with a heavy five and a half inch howitzer; five
and, indeed, no rule can be made to apply
HADRIAN. (See Adrian.)
HALIFAX, MARQUIS OF. (See Saville,
HARDWICKE, LORD. (See Yorke, Philip.)
HARVEST FLY. (See Locust.)
light six-pounders, with a light five and a
Mortars (8-in. to 13-in.), about one third.
20 five and a half inch mortars. These numbers, it will be perceived, do not exactly agree with the above rule;
HAUSER, Kaspar. On the twenty-sixth of May, 1828, a youth of about sixteen or seventeen years of age, who was unable to speak, and seemed almost incapable of walking or standing, was found in the streets of Nuremberg, by one of the citizens of that place. In his hand was a letter addressed to the captain of one of the cavalry companies there. He was entirely ignorant of the uses of different objects, had little or no command over his hands and feet, and, when spoken to, he understood nothing that was said to him, and only replied by a few words of unintelligible gibberish. As he appeared hungry and thirsty, food and drink were brought to him; but, on tasting a bit of meat that was offered to him, he rejected it with signs of disgust, which were repeated on his taking a few drops of beer into his mouth. On a pen being put into his hand, he wrote, in plain letters, Kaspar Hauser. The letter, which we have before mentioned, was dated "Bavarian Frontiers, place nameless:" its purport was, that the boy had been left with the writer, who was a poor laborer, in October, 1812, and who, not knowing his parents, had brought him up in his house, without allowing him to stir out of it. A note, accompanying this letter, contained these words: "His father was one of the light cavalry: send him, when he is seventeen years old, to Nuremberg, for his father was stationed there. He was born April 30, 1812. I am a poor girl, and cannot support him: his father is dead." The lad was about four feet nine inches in height, well formed, and
stout; his countenance destitute of expression, and his eyes staring and heavy; his hands delicately formed, and his feet did not appear to have been subjected to the usual pressure of shoes. His dress was chiefly old and coarse, but his jacket had the appearance of a frock coat, with the skirts cut off, and his pantaloons were of a finer quality than those worn by peasants. The anatomy of his legs, as appeared by a subsequent examination, presented some singular deviations from the common formation. At Nuremberg, he was treated with kindness, and was gradually taught the use of language. July 11, he was visited by Von Feuerbach (q. v.), from whose pamphlet Kaspar Hauser, Beispiel eines Verbrechens am Seelenleben des Menschen (of which a translation has been published in Boston, 1832), we have extracted the contents of this article. Hauser was not then able to give an intelligible account of himself; but he was soon after removed to the house of a school-master in the place, where he gradually acquired the knowledge of things and of language. In the summer of 1829, he was able to give, in writing, his recollections of events previous to his "coming into the world at Nuremberg," as he expressed himself. It had already been mentioned that he was preparing such an account, when, in the month of October, he was found lying in the cellar, covered with blood, and with a gash on his head, which, when he had recovered from the effect of the wound, he said had been inflicted by a black man; but no clew to this affair has yet been discovered. The account of himself above alluded to, as given by Feuerbach, is, that he had always been confined in a dark hole, in which he had always sat upright, and had never seen any person or thing, nor heard any sound; but when he awoke from sleep, he used to find a loaf of bread and a pitcher of water by him. The man who came to him had, however, not long before removing him, placed some paper before him, put a pencil in his hand, and taught him to make certain characters, which he afterwards amused himself with copying, without attaching any signification to them. Finally, the man had carried him out of his prison; but he appeared to have little acquaintance with any thing that happened after that event, till he was left in Nuremberg. Such is the singular story related concerning Kaspar Hauser, of which the reader will find further details in the work already mentioned.
HERTOGENBOSCH. (See Bois-le-Duc.)
HOBART, John Henry, doctor of divinity, late bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church in the state of New York, was born at Philadelphia, on the fourteenth of September, 1775. After receiving an elementary education in that city, at the Episcopal academy, and in the college, he entered the university of Princeton, at the age of fifteen, where he graduated in 1793, with the first honors of his class, and, for several years, discharged the duties of a tutor. In 1798, he was admitted to holy orders in Philadelphia, by bishop White, who had previously directed his theological studies. He then entered upon his ecclesiastical duties, and officiated successively at Oxford and Lower Dublin, in the county of Philadelphia; at New Brunswick, New Jersey; and at Hampstead, Long Island. 1800, he was appointed assistant minister of Trinity church, in the city of New York, and, in 1811, he was consecrated bishop of the New York diocese. The duties of this office he continued to discharge, with unremitting zeal, until the period of his death, which occurred on the twelfth of September, 1830, at Auburn, Cayuga county, New York, in the fiftyfifth year of his age. Bishop Hobart was a man of an energetic spirit, and great activity, and an able and learned divine. The Episcopal church is indebted to him for various compilations-the Companion for the Altar; Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Protestant Episcopal Church; the Clergyman's Companion; Companion for the Book of Common Prayer; Collection of Essays on Episcopacy; the Christian's Manual of Faith and Devotion. His original works are the Apology for Apostolic Order, and two volumes of sermons, besides numerous sermons and tracts published in a separate form. Much of his time, during five years, was spent in editing and greatly enlarging D'Oyly and Mant's Commentary on the Scriptures. The two volumes of sermons were published in
London, when he was on a visit to that
HOGNOSE SERPENT. (See Serpents.)
HOLY THURSDAY. (See Ascension
HONEYSTONE. (See Mellite.)
nailing metal shoes upon the feet of horses. According to Beckmann, the Greek word ocvata, which, he is convinced, signifies horse-shoes, such as are used at present, occurs for the first time in the ninth century, in the works of the emperor Leo; and this antiquity of horseshoes, he adds, is in some measure confirmed by their being mentioned in the writings of Italian, English and French writers of the same century. The word occurs, in the tenth century, in the Tactica of the emperor Constantine, where he says, that a certain number of pounds of iron should be given out from the imperial stores to make selenaia, and other horse furniture. Eustathius, who wrote in the twelfth century, uses the same term in the same sense as that in which it is here interpreted. "When one con
HOODED SNAKE. (See Cobra da Ca- siders," says Beckmann, "that the
HOOKAH. (See Pipe, Smoking.) HOPE, Thomas, died in 1831. before his death appeared his Essays on the Prospects of Man (1831, 3 vols., 8vo.). HORN MUSIC, RUSSIAN. (See Russian Hunting Music.)
HORSE-RACING. (See Races.) HORSE-SHOES. The practice of affixing plates or pieces of metal to the feet of horses, which constitutes so much of the blacksmith's business, is generally allowed to be of great antiquity; though at what period it was first introduced appears by no means certain. Ancient classic writers frequently mention the defences of horses' feet, in terms similar to those used when they speak of shoes in general: they likewise mention them as being of metal. We are told by Suetonius that Nero, when he took short journeys, was always drawn by mules which had silver shoes; and those of his wife Poppaa, according to Pliny, had shoes of gold. There is nothing, however, deducible from the Roman writers, which can fairly authorize the belief, that in the former case any thing more is meant than mere chirurgical bandages, or socks of some kind; nor in the latter, that the shoes of precious metal were any thing else than thin slips, attached over the hoof by way of ornament, and removable at pleasure: at all events, there is no ground to suppose that they were connected with soles permanently fastened with nails to the corneous substance of the foot, according to the method of modern times. The figures on ancient monuments afford still feebler evidence of the very early origin which some authors have claimed for the art of
or onvaia, belonged to horse furniture; that they were made of iron; that, as Eustathius says, they were placed under the hoofs of the horses; that the word seems to show its derivation from the moon-like form of shoes, such as those used at present; and, lastly, that nails were necessary to these selenaia,—I think we may venture to conclude, without any fear of erring, that this word was employed to signify horse-shoes of the same kind as ours; and that they were known, if not earlier, at least in the ninth century." The same author mentions that, when the marquis of Tuscany, one of the richest princes of his time, went to meet Beatrix, his bride, mother of the wellknown Matilda, about the year 1038, his whole train were so magnificently decorated, that his horses were shod not with iron, but with silver. The nails even were of the same metal; and when any of them dropped out, they belonged to those who found them. The marquis appears to have imitated Nero: but this account, which is m verse, may be only a fiction. It is well known, however, that an ambassador to the court of France indulged in a similar folly, to attract admiration for his opulence and generosity; having had his horse shod with silver shoes so slightly attached, that, by purposely curvetting the animal, they were shaken off, and allowed to be picked up by the populace! The following passage on this subject is likewise from Beckmann: "Daniel, the historian, seems to give us to understand that, in the ninth century, horses were not shod always, but only in the time of frost, and on other particular occasions. The practice of
shoeing appears to have been introduced into England by William the Conqueror. We are informed that this sovereign gave the city of Northampton, as a fief, to a certain person, in consideration of his paying a stated sum yearly for the shoeing of horses; and it is believed that Henry de Ferrers, who came over with William, and whose descendants bear in their arms six horse-shoes, received that surname because he was intrusted with the inspection of the farriers ;"-ferrière (from ferrum, iron) signifying, in French, a bag of instruments used in the shoeing of horses. That the practice of shoeing horses in England may have become more common after the conquest may easily be conceived; and it is certain that a number of smiths came over with the Norman army: but that the thing was not new at the time is clear, from the historical fact, that Welbeck, in Nottinghamshire, the very estate on which, at this day, stand the capacious stables formerly belonging to that famous writer on horsemanship, the duke of Newcastle, was, before the conquest, the property of an old Saxon tenant in capite, named Gamelbere, who, according to Dugdale, held of the king two carucates of land, by the service of shoeing the king's palfrey on all four feet, with the king's nails, as oft as the king should lie at his manor of Mansfield; and if he should lame the palfrey, then he should give the king another palfrey of four marks price. Before the invention of metal shoes, considerable attention, as may well be supposed, was paid to the strengthening and hardening the hoofs of horses, especially of those employed in war; and various whimsical methods of producing these effects are still extant in the works of those who have treated on the ancient ménage. Notwithstanding, however, that attention, there is but too good reason to believe, from incidental passages in the writers of early times, that dreadful havoc must frequently have taken place amongst, and dreadful sufferings have been endured by, those noble animals, of whose preservation, even in military service, so much care is taken in modern times, and to which preservation the art of shoeing especially conduces. That the horses of the ancients were never shod in war, is the opinion of Beckmann; nor does it appear that conclusive evidence to the contrary has been adduced. When Mithridates was besieging Cyzicus, he was obliged to send his cavalry to Bithynia, because the hoofs of the horses were en
tirely spoiled and worn out. In the Latin translation of Appian, it is added, that this was occasioned by the horses not having shoes; but there are no such words in the original, which seems rather to afford a strong proof that in the army of Mithridates there was nothing of the kind. The case seems to have been the same in the army of Alexander; for we are told by Diodorus Siculus, that with uninterrupted marching the hoofs of the horses were totally broken and destroyed. An instance of a like kind is to be found in Cinnamus, where the cavalry were obliged to be left behind, as they had suffered considerably in the hoofs; "an evil," says the historian, "to which horses are often liable."
HOSPITALERS. (See John, St., Knights
HOUDON. This artist died in 1828. HOUSE SNAKE. (See Serpent.) HUBER died at Geneva, in 1832, at the age of eighty-one years..
HULANS. (See Ulans.)
HUMPHREYS, David, LL. D., minister of the U. States to the court of Spain, was the son of the reverend Daniel Humphreys, of Derby, Connecticut, and born in 1753. He was educated at Yale college, and graduated in 1771, with a distinguished reputation for talents, energy of character, and scientific and literary acquirements. Soon after the commencement of the revolutionary war, he entered the American army, and was successively an aid to generals Parsons, Putnam and Greene. In 1779, he was appointed one of the aids of Washington, and remained in his family till the close of the war, enjoying his high confidence, friendship and patronage. He left the army with the rank of colonel. When Franklin, Adams and Jefferson were, in 1784, appointed commissioners for negotiating treaties with foreign powers, he was chosen secretary of the legation, and attended them in that capacity to Paris and London. In 1791, he was sent ambassador to the court of Lisbon, and, in 1797, appointed minister plenipotentiary to that of Madrid. He concluded treaties of peace with the bey of Tripoli and the dey of Algiers. On his return from Spain, he transported to New England 100 sheep, of the Merino race, which proved a valuable acquisition to the agricultural and manufacturing interests. While in the military service, he published a patriotic poem, addressed to the American armies, and, after the war, another, on the happiness and future glory