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most devoted readiness to serve him. His habits of attending business were extremely regular in his counting-house, and generally so in his bank. On discount days, he almost always entered the bank between nine and eleven o'clock in winter, and six and nine in summer. It was his custom, during the spring and summer months, to spend an hour or two every morning in a garden attached to his bank, where he employed himself in pruning his vines, nursing his fig-tree and dressing his shrubs. He was buried in a Roman Catholic burial-ground, but without any religious ceremonies. His fortune was probably the largest ever left by any individual in the U. States, and is estimated to amount to about eleven or twelve million dollars. It was disposed of in the following manner by his will:To the Pennsylvania hospital (subject to an annuity of $200 to a female slave, whom he sets free), $30,000; to the Pennsylvania institution for the deaf and dumb, $20,000; to the orphan asylum of Philadelphia, $10,000; to the controllers of the public schools of Philadelphia,$10,000; to the city corporation, to be invested, and the interest to be applied annually to the purchase of fuel for the poor, $10,000; to the society of ship-masters for the relief of distressed masters, their widows and children, $10,000; to the grand lodge of Pennsylvania, $20,000; for a school for poor white children in Passayunk, where his farm was situated, $6000; legacies to individuals, about $120,000; several annuities, amounting to about $4000; to the city of New Orleans, 1000 acres of improved land in Louisiana, and one third of 207,000 acres of unimproved land in the same state, the remaining two thirds being bequeathed to the city of Philadelphia (the value of this land is about $500,000); to the city of Philadelphia, stock in the Schuylkill navigation company, $110,000; for the erection and endowment of a college for poor white male orphans, the sum of $2,000,000, with provision that, should this amount prove insufficient, the necessary sum shall be taken from the residuary fund; to Philadelphia, for certain city improvements, to be invested and the interest annually applied, $500,000; to the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to be applied to internal improvements by canals, $300,000; to the city of Philadelphia, all his remaining real and personal estate (no part of the former to be sold), estimated at about $8,000,000, in aid of the orphan's college, if needed, improvements of the city, and the relief of taxes.
GLASS SNAKE. (See Serpent.)
GOITRE (bronchocele); probably a corruption of the Latin guttur (throat), called by the Germans, kropf (throat); a tumor situated in front of the windpipe, and formed by the swelling of the thyroid gland. (See Windpipe.) The goitre is endemic in the valleys of the Alps, and seems to be caused principally by the heat, moisture, and stagnation of the air, produced by the narrow and winding shape of the valleys. It has also been attributed, by some, to the use of coarse and indigestible food, of water charged with lime, and obtained from the melting of snow; but this opinion is now generally abandoned. The disease is sometimes transmitted from the parent to the child, and, when it is hereditary, often exists from birth: when not so, it begins to show itself towards the age of from seven to ten years. It sometimes makes its appearance at a much later period of life, in persons who take up their residence late in regions where it is endemic. Instances of the disease have also been known in other districts; but they are not common. The habit of carrying burdens on the head, violent efforts of any sort, the indulgence of violent passions, childbirth, &c., sometimes appear to be the occasion of its developement. The causes of the goitre are, for the most part, the same as those of cretinism, and it is often found to afflict the same individuals; but the diseases are not to be confounded. (See Cretinism.) The developement of the tumor is generally retarded by the prevalence of cold, dry weather, and promoted by warm and damp weather; and it sometimes disappears entirely when the patient leaves the infected district. Various remedies, both internal and external, have been recommended. Ashes of sponge, soap, alkaline and sulphurous waters, and carbonate of soda, have been employed with success. Compression, friction, fumigation, lotions of different kinds, and, in some instances, the knife, have been resorted to; but the use of the latter is dangerous.
GOMARA ISLANDS. (See Comoro.)
GRAMMARIANS. (See Rhetoricians.)
GREENE, Christopher, a lieutenantcolonel in the American revolutionary
army, was born in 1737, in Warwick, a town of Rhode Island. When still very young, he was elected a member of the colonial legislature, from his native place, and retained his seat until the commencement of the revolution, when he was chosen a lieutenant in the Kentish guards. Subsequently, in May, 1775, he was promoted to the rank of major in "an army of observation," under the orders of his relative, general Nathaniel Greene. He was soon afterwards appointed to the command of a company in a regiment which formed a part of the army destined to act against Canada, and, at the siege of Quebec, was taken prisoner. In 1777, having been previously exchanged, he was intrusted, by Washington, with the charge of fort Mercer, on the river Delaware, commonly called Red Bank, a post of great importance, where he was attacked by a large detachment of Hessians, under colonel count Donop. He repulsed the enemy, however; and among their slain were Donop himself, and colonel Mingerode, the second in command. For this service congress voted colonel Greene an elegant sword, which, in 1786, was presented by general Knox, secretary of war, to his eldest son. In 1778, Greene was with the army under Sullivan, which, with the aid of a French fleet under D'Estaign, attempted to break up the enemy's post on Rhode Island, but failed. He then returned to headquarters, and continued to serve under the commander-in-chief, until the spring of 1781, when, having been posted on the Croton river, in advance of the army, he was surprised by a corps of refugees, and was barbarously murdered, in the fortyfifth year of his age.
GREGOIRE, Count, died at Paris, in May, 1831.
GREGORIAN CHANT. (See Music, Sacred.)
GROSS-GLOGAU. (See Glogau.) GROSSULAR. (See Garnet.) GUANACO. (See Llama.) GUANCHES. (See Canaries.) GUERRERO was taken in arms against the government, and shot, in February, 1831.
GUILDFORD. (See North.) GUM-TREE. (See Tupelo.) GUNNERY. In the body of the work, we referred to this head the history of the different kinds of artillery which have been used among different nations. The article intended to have been inserted having been accidentally omitted, we give here the following sketch from the
article Artillery, in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. We propose, in this article, not to treat cf artillery as a science, but simply to describe the several apparatuses, appointments, &c., which constitute what is commonly understood as the artillery of an army, prefacing that description by a historical sketch of the progress and successive changes which have taken place in this important branch of the military art.
In the most ancient times, when war was made with quickness and impetuosity, the use of artillery was unknown: the club and the dart were, at this time, the only instruments of attack and defence; and it was probably some time before the bow and arrow were thought of as offensive weapons. As the destructive means of attack were, by the latter invention, made to operate at a distance, corresponding means of defence became necessary; and trunks of trees, interlaced with branches and supported with earth, constituted the first fortification, which was afterwards improved by substituting a wall with a parapet, for shooting arrows at the assailants. Afterwards, the walls were carried higher, and holes left in them of sufficient size only to enable the archers to discharge their arrows effectually upon an enemy. To attack, therefore, with any chance of success, some powerful engine became necessary to batter down the walls: this gave rise to the battering ram, which was probably one of the first engines of ancient artillery. To what date we are to refer the invention of this powerful machine is uncertain. We are informed, in the Second Book of Chronicles, that Uzziah, who began his reign 809 years before the Christian era, "made in Jerusalem engines, invented by cunning men, to be upon the towers and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones withal." It is therefore probable that the ram was at least known in those days, although we have no distinct mention of it till the time of Pericles the Athenian (409 B. C.). To oppose this powerful engine of attack, further means of defence became necessary; and the invention of ballista and catapultæ resulted probably from this necessity. But these soon became instruments not only of defence but of attack; for, in the siege of Motya (about 370 B. C.), Dionysius, after having battered down the fortification with his rams, advanced to the walls towers rolled upon wheels, whence he galled the besieged with continual volleys of stones and darts thrown from his catapultæ
(Ancient Universal History, vol. vi.) A number of other instances are mentioned soon after this time, in which machines of various descriptions were employed both for defence and attack, of which we may mention, in particular, the siege of Saguntum, by Hannibal (219 B. C.), in which the Saguntines prevented his soldiers from using the battering ram by a continual hurling of darts, stones, and other missiles. From this time, these warlike engines increased, both in number and in magnitude, to an almost incredible extent, of which the reader may form some idea by the inventory that different historians have given us of those found in certain cities, which had been obliged to capitulate to the enemy, and by the enumeration of those which accompanied particular armies. Thus we are informed that Titus employed, in the siege of Jerusalem, three hundred catapultæ, of divers magnitudes, and forty bållistæ, of which the least projected stones of seventy-five pounds weight. And, when the consul Censorius marched against Carthage, and obliged the inhabitants to give up their arms, they surrendered to him two thousand machines proper for throwing darts and stones; and, afterwards, when Scipio made himself master of the same city, there were no less than one hundred and twenty catapultæ of the larger size, two hundred and eighty-one of the smaller, twentythree of the larger ballistæ, fifty-two of a smaller kind, and an innumerable number of scorpions of different sizes, arms, and missile weapons. Two years previous to this, Marcellus had laid siege to Syracuse, a city proverbially fatal to the armies that attacked it. Archimedes was at that time resident in the city, and, at the earnest solicitation of Hiero, king of Sicily, exerted the powers of his mind in the invention of artillery, and other warlike instruments. Marcellus had brought with him an enormous engine, mounted on eight galleys, called sambuca, which Archimedes destroyed by discharging at it single stones of enormous weight, while it was at a considerable distance from the walls. This was effected by ballista; but he also employed crows, grapples, and scorpions, by the former of which the Roman vessels were lifted out of the water by the prow, and plunged to the bottom of the
It would be useless to record the numerous other sieges which took place between this period and the invention of cannon, where these instruments were employed. We shall therefore now
endeavor to present the reader with the description of these several machines, according to the best authorities. At the same time, it must be acknowledged that the account of many of them is so very obscure, that it may be questionable whether they are precisely such as those described by the ancient historians. The ancient artillery may be divided into three classes of machines, namely, first, those intended for projecting bodies; secondly, those for approach and demolition; thirdly, a miscellaneous class, used for various offensive operations. Of the first class, the most important are the ballista and catapulta, which are, by some authors, confounded with each other; but, according to their etymology, ballista (from Baw, to shoot or throw) is an engine for propelling stones, called also XOOBOXOS, RETROBOλos, petraria, &c.; while catapulta (in Greek, karanéλrns, from Arns, a spear or dart) was an instrument employed to dart forth spears or arrows. The force of the balliste was prodigious. The stones cast from them were of enormous weight, and of any form; and, for the further annoyance of the besieged place, they would throw into it from the ballista dead bodies of men and horses, heads, and detached limbs. Athenæus mentions one of these balliste that threw a stone of three talents, namely, about three hundred and sixty pounds weight. Cæsar employed these machines not only to destroy men, but to batter down strong and high towers. We have already mentioned the machines employed by Titus against Jerusalem, some of which, Josephus states, projected stones of a hundred weight; and Archimedes is said to have cast bodies of twelve hundred pounds, by means of his ballistæ, against the Roman fleet, in his defence of Syracuse. A ballista may be briefly described as a strong frame-work, susceptible of easy separa tion, for the purpose of conveyance, and then of being rejoined in frame, having on each side a toothed wheel. The wheels have each a strong cross-piece. A strong cord, well stretched, passes several times from the cross-piece of one wheel to that of the opposite wheel, and forms thus several intersecting twists, at the centre of one of which is inserted the handle or stem of a capacious spoon. The wheels are turned by means of pinions, and the cords fastened to the cross-pieces are made to twist more and more about each other. When, by this process, the twisted cords have received a sufficient tension, the wheels and pinions are retained in their
places by the application of a pall or rachet. This done, the stem, which has waxed cord coiled closely about it to give it additional strength, is brought down to the horizontal position by means of a windlass, and retained there by another pall or detent. In this state of things, the body which it is intended to throw from the ballista, is placed in the cavity of the spoon. At a given word, the detent is struck away with a mallet, and the stem, obeying the enormous elastic force which now acts upon it, remounts, and discharges the projectile with great impetuosity. At the moment of the discharge, the stem strikes against the frame at a point where, to soften down the shock, a thick horse-hair cushion is placed. The machines called by the Romans tormentum were only varieties of the ballista, and served to project stones and other ponderous masses. According to Vitruvius, the cords employed in these machines were made sometimes of hair, at others of the bowels of animals, prepared like our catgut. All were not twisted by the same process, but sometimes by means of a windlass, at others by toothed wheels. The ultimate effects, however, were the same in all cases. Of the Catapulta. These, as we have before observed, were employed in throwing darts or arrows, which, it is said, were sometimes poisoned, and at others set on fire. A catapulta of the smaller kind consists merely of an immense bow of elastic wicker work, placed on a suitable carriage, and having its upper part drawn down by the force of several men applied to a strong rope. Several arrows are lodged upon a suitable frame, and at different elevations. The tightened cord being set at liberty by drawing out a pin, the bent surface, recovering itself by its natural elasticity, advances to its original vertical position, and thus drives before it all the arrows with considerable velocity. This kind of catapulta is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, as being employed at the siege of Cyprus. Catapultæ of the larger kind were much more powerful, and were used to shoot darts and arrows of great length and weight. It is not unaptly assimilated to a broken bow, although there is this difference, that, in the latter, the elastic force resides in the bow itself, whereas here, as in the ballista, the elastic force is in the twisted cords, between which the two arms are inserted, not vertically, as in the stem of the ballista, but horizontally. At the extremity of the two arms is attached a strong rope. The twisted cords receive
their tension by means of wheel work, and are kept at the requisite twist by means of detents, as in the ballista. The arms are also strengthened by ligatures of waxed cord, as in the latter machine. The impulsive energy of these machines far exceeds the ideas we should form of them from their description. It is said that Montfaucon possessed a small model of a catapulta only five inches in length, which projected its dart to the distance of four hundred feet; and Folard, the learned editor of Polybius, had a model only a foot in each dimension, which propelled its dart with such force as to cause it to enter and remain in hard freestone at the distance of thirteen hundred feet. Cæsar also relates that, at the siege of Marseilles, the besieged propelled, from the top of their walls, beams of twelve feet long, armed at one end by pointed iron heads, which pierced four ranks of stout hurdles, and then stuck firmly into the earth.-Of the Scorpion. This is another of the propelling machines of the ancients, and is probably of anterior date to those we have been describing, being far inferior to them in its action, although still a very powerful engine. The propelling power was produced by the descent of the weight placed at the shorter arm of the machine, which raising the longer arm, the stone was delivered from the sling attached to it with a very considerable force; but, as we have stated above, by a very inferior one to that produced by the twisted cord in the ballista and catapulta. It is needless to add that the stone being discharged, the long arm was drawn down by manual strength, and the machine recharged by another stone. This is by some authors called a fundiballe.-The arcoballista is a smaller propelling apparatus, which might be worked by one man. It is little more than a fixed bow, with a simple mechanical contrivance for bringing back the line. The above are the principal machines which the ancients possessed for distant means of annoyance. It still remains for us to describe those employed on a near approach to an enemy's works for the demolition of the same, and the opposing engines of the besieged.-Machines of Approach and Demolition. Of the Battering Ram. The ancients employed two different machines of this kind, an account of which will be found under the head Battering Ram.-Movable Towers, Tortoises, &c. The movable towers employed by the ancients in their sieges, and which they called helepoles, were often of an
astonishing magnitude. Vegetius describes them as being formed of strong planks. To preserve them from risk of fire thrown from the walls of the besieged place, they were covered with raw hides, or with pieces of woven horse-hair. Their height was proportional to the dimensions of their bases, which were sometimes thirty feet square, and their height forty or fifty feet. Sometimes their height was still greater, that they might be above the walls, and even above the stone towers of the city. They were supported upon several small wheels, by means of which they might be moved from place to place, notwithstanding their enormous size and weight. It was generally reckoned that the besieged place was in imminent danger whenever the besiegers had succeeded in placing one of these near the walls. The helepolis was supplied with ladders, by which to mount from stage to stage; and each stage presented its particular means of attack. In the lower one, there was commonly a ram; and the middle stage, or a higher one, was furnished with a bridge, made of mutually-intersecting levers, which could be easily projected out, and thereby form a communication between the tower and the wall. Sometimes baskets, fixed to projecting levers, carried men, who were let down upon the wall. On the upper stages were soldiers armed with halberts, and archers, who continually played upon the besieged. Vitruvius states that the weight of the helepolis brought against Rhodes by Demetrius weighed 260,000 pounds, and that to man and manœuvre it, employed 3400 soldiers.-The tortoise was a kind of moving sheet, used to defend the assailants in their advance upon the place. These were also of great magnitude. One of those employed by Cæsar, at the siege of Marseilles, was sixty feet long, and served to cover the space between the helepolis and the city wall. In some instances, a long rank of these was placed end to end, and served as a complete protection to the soldiers. They were covered, as we have already said, with raw hides, or with moistened horsehair, to protect them from the fire of the besieged.-Miscellaneous Machines. Of Crows (corvi) and Cranes. As, in the application of the engines last described, it was necessary for the besiegers to approach close under the walls of the besieged city, it was natural that the latter should attempt a means of annoyance, or defence against their enemy, which might counteract their efforts. This prob
ably gave rise to the machines we are about to describe, which were of different kinds, some being used in sieges, and others in engagements at sea. The description we have of these engines, and of the effects produced by them, is scarcely credible. Plutarch informs us that, when Marcellus had advanced his galleys close under the walls of Syracuse, Archimedes directed against them enormous machines, which, being projected forward, there were let down suddenly from them large beams, from which were suspended long vertical arms of rope, terminated with grappling hooks, which, laying hold of the vessels, and rapidly elevating them, by the operation of counter weights, upset and sunk them to the bottom of the sea; or, after raising them by their prows, and setting them as it were on their poops, plunged them endwise into the water. Others, it is said, he swung round towards the shore by the application of his cranes, and, after whirling them in the air, dashed them to pieces on the rocks beneath. Although it is impossible not to suspect some degree of exaggeration in these statements, yet we cannot, at the same time, doubt that very powerful means of this kind were employed in this celebrated siege, in which Archimedes, the prince of Grecian mathematicians, performed an important part, and where he at length fell beneath the sword of one of the soldiers of the conqueror.-The telleno was a machine employed for raising a few. soldiers higher than the top of the enemy's wall, to ascertain what was going on within them, and sometimes for taking possession of them, and thus facilitating the escalade. In the former instance, it was formed by a great pile driven into the ground, which served as a fulcrum to a long lever, which was placed across it and balanced. At one of its extremities was a light wooden or wicker case, capable of holding a certain number of men, who, when the opposite end was drawn down by cords, were raised so as to be enabled to look over the walls, or to mount upon them. Others were mounted on carriages.-Of modern Artillery. At what time gunpowder was first employed for the purposes of war, is very uncertain; but it is pretty evident that cannon were in use very early in the fourteenth century; but they were, of course, of the rudest and most uncultivated character. (See Gunpowder.) Their first denomination was bombarde, from Boußos, or bombo et ardore, on account of the great noise produced by the discharge.