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“ Long live the brave Poles !” were the ander de la Rochefoucauld, &c.; also shouts of most formidable rioters in the several scientific and literary characters, Palais Royal and boulevards, who attack- as the baron Cuvier, Cassini and Gilbert ed the hotel of the minister for foreign des Voisins; with a few of the old noaffairs, and committed many other out- blesse of France, viz. the prince de Beaurages. On the following day, the minis- vieu, comte de Turenne, marquis de Bizeters Périer and Sébastiani were burned in mont, and others. The object of the king effigy; and the vast multitude which had and ministers, in these selections, appears congregated could only be controlled by to have been to conciliate all except the the military. The riots continued through- republican party. This creation had been out the whole of Sunday, and, on Mon- rendered necessary from its having been day, were prosecuted with renewed vio- sufficiently ascertained that a majority of lence, and the most dangerous cries and the peers was not only against the abolivociferations, as, “ Down with the king !" tion of the hereditary principle, but had “ Turn out the ministers!" &c. The ap- determined to maintain their opinions in prehension of twenty of the ringleaders, spite of the dangers which might arise who, assembled in the retired apartment of from such an opposition to the popular a secluded dwelling, were taken in the act will. The bill was carried through that of arranging plans for further riotous pro- chamber (Dec. 27) by a majority of thirtyceedings, and the loyalty of the national six, exactly the number of new peers that guard and soldiers of the line, frustrated had been created. A bill also passed the the designs of the disaffected; and the ex- two chambers, banishing from France for planations of the war minister, Sébastiani, ever all the members of the elder branch contributed materially to satisfy the minds of the Bourbons and their descendants. of the more intelligent of the citizens of Although disapproved of by the ministers, Paris. “Every pacific exertion,” he said, it was carried by a large majority, with “had been made to assist Poland against an amendment, by which the penalty of Russia. Poland had 3,000,000 men, it was death, attached by the bill to a violation of true; but it had neither ports, mountains, the prohibition against entering the kingnor means of defence. Overtures, never- dom, was omitted. The same bill, by its theless, had been made at St. Petersburg, second section, denounced the same senand Russia had been made to feel that the tence of perpetual exclusion against the fate of Poland was a question of interest family of Napoleon. The crowds that to Europe. It had been promised by the produced the repeated riots which so frecabinet of Petersburg, that the kingdom quently disturbed the peace of Paris durof Poland should be preserved; and in ing this year, were principally furnished this all the great powers of Europe con- from the multitudes of unemployed men, curred.” On the 10th of October, the whom the unsteadiness of all relations, annihilation of the hereditary quality of consequent on the revolution, had dethe French peerage was carried by an prived of the means of support. Credit, overwhelming majority, the numbers have trade and manufactures had all equally ing been 324 to 86. With the exception suffered. These riots, again, by increasof discontents in the provinces, and the ing the feeling of insecurity, augmented discussions arising from the measures the mischief. In the course of the autumn, taken by government against the efforts the chambers hud voted 18,000,000 francs of a few of the refractory editors of pub- to be applied to the relief of the manufaclic journals, affairs now, for some time, turers, and in providing employment for bore an aspect of comparative tranquillity. the people. In asking this grant, the minSuch, in the beginning of November, was ister of commerce stated that the existing the internal state of France ; and its proba- distress arose, in a great measure, from bility of peace with other nations was the riots so frequent in the capital; but it equally flattering. The Moniteur of the existed likewise in the provinces, and, at 220 Noveinber contained a list of newly. Lyons, led to disturbances much more created non-hereditary peers, comprising serious than those which had molested some of the most distinguished leaders of Paris. A suburb of that city, called the the old Buonapartean army; namely, gen- Croix Russe, is inhabited principally by erals Pajol, Drouot, Drouet, Bonnet, Ga- weavers, as are also the suburbs of Vaize, zan, Flahaut, Excelmans, Lagrange, Dau- La Guillotière, and Les Bretteaux, the thouard, Rogniat, Caffarelli, &c.; two ad- whole population of these suburbs being mirals, Jacob and Emerian; Maret (duc about 36,000. The weavers, it appears, de Bassano), count Philippe de Ségur (the had been discontented ever since the revhistorian of the Russian campaign), Alex- olution of 1830, which had so materially depressed their trade that it was barely many of the national guard) were in pospossible to subsist on their wages. Some session of the city, which was kept then time previous, they had resolved on a tariff in a state of siege. Its authorities had or price-list, which, however, in conse- been deposed by an insurrectionary mob, quence of the state of their trade, the mas- and its armed force expelled; yet, when ters were compelled to reject. On the victory had thus been obtained, the in21st of November, the workmen simulta- surgents of Lyons instantly embraced the neously struck for wages, and the tumult opportunity to recall and acknowledge the immediately commenced, the mob of the civil authorities whom they had tenipora. town, men, women and children, joining rily deposed, denying all political motive, with the insurgent weavers, many of them and simply demanding such regulations being armed. The national guard were as should secure them food. The consespeedily called out; but their conduct on quences of this extraordinary state of afthe occasion appears to have been equiv- fairs were, that order became perfeci, and ocal, and their interference fruitless. The business and pleasure were at once reprefect of the police and commandant of sumed, though the city was still virtually the garrison, general Ordonneau, endeav- in possession of the insurgents and their ored in vain to pacify the rioters, the num- partisans. On the 24th, the municipal ber of whom, well supplied with arms, council of Lyons voted the sum of 150,000 became hourly more formidable. The francs, to provide for the immediate nemob, at length, after having been fired on cessities of the distressed workmen, and by the national guard, and some of them to afford succor to the wounded and their sabred by the cavalry in repeated charges, families. For the same purposes, a pubbecame desperate, and attacked and dis- lic subscription was opened, to which the armed several bodies of the military, and contributions were considerable. From took two cannons ; for which, and their the most authentic accounts it may be muskets, they cast balls during the night, collected, that the number of killed, on at the same time barricading the streets of both sides, during the sanguinary contentheir quarter. On the following day, they tion of which Lyons was the scene, was attacked and beat the troops and national between 500 and 600; of wounded, the guard in every quarter. Immense inulti- amount was much more considerable. On tudes from the faubourgs and the heights the 4th, the duke of Orleans and marshal of La Croix Russe, marched on the Ho- Soult, with a formidable escort of national tel de Ville, carrying the principal posts guards, troops of the line, chasseurs and and bridges by the way, and driving back artillery, entered the city without impedithe troops. The workmen in all parts of ment. The prince was received by the the town coöperated in this movement, mayor of Lyons, who addressed his royal by unpaving the streets, raising barrica- highness, and received a gracious reply. does, and firing on the military from the The troops having repaired to their quarwindows. They also burned the buildings ters without interruption, an order of the of the octroi (tax-houses), and several day was issued, dissolving the national dwelling-houses, from the windows of guard of Lyons, Guillotière, Croix Russe which they had observed the firing of and Vaize, with disgrace, and commandtheir opponents to proceed. Nothing was ing the instant surrender of their arms. carried away, but all was burned or brok- The colonel of the thirteenth regiment of en on the spot, with the view of showing the line was publicly cashiered for sufferthat it was not plunder which was sought. ing his soldiers to be disarmed, and the These troubles at Lyons were announced men of the regiment were severely reat Paris by the Monileur of the 23d of proved. Measures were subsequently November, in the shape of a private letter, taken against a portion of the press, stated and caused the greatest excitement in the to have encouraged the insurrection of metropolis. Ou the 25th, the same paper the operatives of Lyons; and, the city bepublished an ordinance of the king, ap- ing placed under military government, pointing the duke of Orleans and the mar- and no apprehension being entertained shal duke of Dalmatia (Soult) to repair that its tranquillity would be again disinstantly to Lyons, and take the necessary turbed, the duke of Orleans and the vetsteps for the suppression of the ipsurrec- eran marshal returned to Paris on Suntion. The troops of the line being ex- day, the 11th of December, Early pelled from the city, on the 24th all was in the year 18:32, a convention was quiet. The shops and theatres were finally concluded between the U. States opened, and the workmen and their allies and France, by which the latter agreed (among whom are stated to have been to pay the sum of 25,000,000 of francs to

the former, in six annual instalments of Sarrans' Mémoires sur Lafayette (2 vols., 4,166,666 francs each, in full for all claims Paris, 1832).—At this distance from the of the citizens of the U. States for unlaw- scene of action, we cannot pretend to ful seizures, captures, sequestrations, or give any authentic information upon these destructions of their vessels, cargoes, or and more recent transactions. We will other property, by that government; the merely add here, that, after protracted former engaging to pay, on its part, the negotiations with the different parties, the sum of 1,500,000 francs, in six annual in- king did not reorganize the cabinet until stalments, in full of all claims presented the end of October, when it was thus hy France on behalf of her citizens. formed :—Marshal Soult, president of the Austrian troops having entered the Ro- council (in place of Périer) and minister man territory in January, for the purpose of war; the duke de Broglie, minister of of maintaining the papal power, the ex- foreign affairs, in place of Sébastiani, istence of which was threatened by the whose infirm health rendered his retiresubjects, a French force was sent to Italy, ment necessary; Thiers, minister of the which occupied Ancona, February 22; interior, in place of Montalivet; M. Hubut this movement, which bore a men- man succeeds baron Louis in the departacing aspect, did not disturb the peace of ment of finance, and Guizot, Girod de Europe. In the end of March, the chol- l'Ain in that of public instruction. era made its appearance in France, and, Barthe, admiral de Rigny, and count early in April, the prime minister was d'Argont, retain respectively the seals, attacked by it. His death, which took and the portfolios of the marine, and of place on the sixteenth of May, made no public works.—We have now to give change in the spirit of the adniinistration, some account of the state of French which has, up to the present time, been affairs in Algiers. On receiving intelliconducted on the principles professed by gence of the overthrow of the old dynasCasimir Périer, on the thirteenth of ty, the army in Algiers immediately March, and carried into practice by him declared its adhesion to the new order while he continued at the head of the of things; and, on the seventeenth of government. The department of the in- August, the tri-colored flag already terior was given to M. Montalivet; but waved over the Casauba and the forts. no president of the council was named. General Clausel was appointed to the While it is impossible to deny to the ad- government of Algiers, in the room of ministration of M. Périer the praise of count Bourmont; and public opinion vigor in maintaining order, it is to be re- was pronounced in favor of the pergretted that it was not conducted on more manent occupation and colonization of liberal and popular principles. The in- the Algerine territory. General Claucessant prosecutions of the press, the sel was instructed, therefore, to reduce great number of trials for political of- to obedience all the provinces dependent fences, and the rigid adherence to a con- upon Algiers, and to promote commerce servative policy, in a country in which so and agriculture, by encouraging the setmuch was to be done to establish a ra- tlement of European emigrants. А tional, yet full and fair degree of liberty, model farm was also instituted to teach cannot be too severely condemned. The the inhabitants the best mode of culticlose of the sessions of the chambers was vation; and land was sold to settlers for hastened by the alarm excited by the two and a half francs an acre. The violence of the disease in Paris, and they only commercial marts in the territory were soon after prorogued. Paris was, were Algiers, Oran, Bona, and Bougia or soon after, again made the scene of Boujeia: the three last were yet to be bloodshed.' On occasion of the funeral occupied. In Oran (with 20,000 inhabof general Lamarque, June 5, the military itants), which had been restored to the having attempted to disperse the crowd, dey of Algiers by Spain, in 1791, busiskirmishing continued for several days, pess was chiefly carried on by Spanand the city was declared to be under jards. Bona, with a population of 8000 martial law. The populace were not inhabitants, situated near the ruins of overpowered without much slaughter, Hippo Regius, and Bougia, forty leagues and several distinguished men of the east from Algiers, belonged to the mouvement party were arrested and tried province of Constantine (with a capital by a court-martial; but the court of of the same name, twenty days march cassation pronounced their trial to be from Algiers), which had not yet been illegal.-See, on this and other subjects reduced. Upon this long tract of country relating to France since the revolution, were neither towns por villages; and it was therefore necessary, if an expedition tion of Algiers had sunk to 20,000 souls, were sent out, that it should carry all its of whom 5000 were Jews. The French supplies. The march led by footpaths government, therefore, at length, deterover barren mountains, through various mined to try the effect of a new organizatribes, which had maintained their inde- tion of the administration of the colony: pendence even under the regency. Un- the military and civil authorities were der these circumstances, Algiers could intrusted to distinct officers. On the first not be made the base of operations, which of December, the duke of Rovigo (Savacould be fixed only at Bona or Stora. The ry) was accordingly appointed to the beylic of Bona was therefore occupied, military command, and baron Pichon was and general Clausel also made an incur- placed at the head of the civil administrasion into the southern province of Titteri, tion, as civil intendant of the colony. where he passed the Atlas, and defeated The whole coast, from Constantine to the troops of the bey, on the twenty-first Oran, was subjected to the government of November. On the twenty-second, of Algiers; and the fortifications of this Mediah, the ancient Lamida, was occu- city itself were to be strengthened by the pied, and, on the twenty-third, the bey erection of seven new block-houses. gave in his submission. But the people Thus the determination of the French were by no means subjected. The bey of government to retain permanent possesTitteri was sent to France, where a pension sion of the new colony, was no longer of 12,000 francs was settled upon him; and doubtful, and will certainly be accomthe bey of Oran was likewise deposed, and plished, unless the state of affairs in Eusent to Alexandria. Still, however, the rope should compel France to recall her war continued. Mediah was evacuated, troops and abandon the African shore. Oran abandoned, and it was said that the In the beginning of 1832, the number of city of Algiers alone would be retained. European colonists in Algiers was about But Southern France particularly remon- 3000; and towards the close of January, strated against the abandonment of a a newspaper, in French and Arabic, was colony so important for commerce. Gen- established, under the title of Moniteur cral Clausel now organized a corps of Algérien. Among the numerous works irregular Arabian troops (zuaves), and de- to which the occupation of Algiers has termined to give the provinces of Con- given rise in France, we mention Renaustantine and Oran to two Tunisian princes, dot's Tableau du Royaume et de la Ville who should be tributary to France. But d'Algèr (fifth edition, 1831); Fernel's the government was dissatisfied with his Campagne d'Afrique en 18:30 (second edimeasures, and, in February, 1831, de- tion, 1832); Juchereau de St. Denys's clared the treaty which he had made Considérations statistiques, historiques, with Tunis, to carry this plan into effect militaires, et politiques, sur la Régence (December 18), to be null, on the ground d'Algèr (with a map, 1831), that he had exceeded his powers. Gen- FREESTONE. (See Sandstone.) eral Berthezène was also appointed to the Friuli, DUKE OF. (See Duroc.) command of the troops, although Clausel FUERTEVENTURA. (See Forteventura.) was allowed to retain the title of governor

Fuessli. (See Fuseli.) of the colony. The warlike operations FULMINATING Gold. (See Gold.) were continued during the ensuing spring FULMINATING POWDERS. (See Mercuand summer, and several expeditions ry, and Silver.) were made into the interior, to chastise Fundi. (See Fondi.) hostile tribes of Arabs, Bedouins and FURNACES WARMING HOUSES. Cabyles, or Berbers; but, on the approach (See Stoves.) of the French troops, these wild bordes Furze is accidentally placed before would desert their villages, and disperse, Fur Trade. and then, again collecting, hang upon FYEN. (See Funen.) their rear on their return. In October, Bona fell into the hands of the Cabyles; the colony was supported at the expense

G. of 1,000,000 francs a month, and, instead of proving a granary for Southern France, as had been anticipated, was obliged to GALENA. (See Lead.) draw all its supplies from that country; GALLEASSES. (See Galley.) and the government found itself com- GARGLE. (See Murrain.) pelled to support the emigrants who had GARNISHMENT. (See Attachment, For. settled there. In November, the popula- eign.)


GARTER SNAKE. (See Serpent.) owing to the asperity and violence of GAUNTLOPE. (See Gantlope.)

Girard's temper; and, at a later period, he GAZNAVIDES. (See Persia.)

sued for a divorce from his wife, who GENESEE Oil. (See Bitumen.) was confined in a lunatic hospital during

Genlis, madame de, died at Paris, in the last twenty-five years of her life (1790 December, 1830, at the age of eighty-four –1815). She bore him only one child, years.o

who died in infancy. On the breaking GEORGIA BARK. (See Pinkneya Pu- out of the revolutionary war, his commerbescens.)

cial operations being interrupted, he took ĢEORGIUM SIDUS. (See Herschel.) a little shop, and followed the trade of GERMAINE, lord George. (See Sack- bottler and grocer for several years, when ville, George.)

he again entered the West India trade; Ghosts. (See Visions.)

and from this time (1780) he may be com GIAMSCHID. (See Jemshid.)

sidered a rich man.

Though Girard Giovio, Paolo. (See Jovius.) was, in general, morose in his manners,

GIRARD, Stephen. This singular indi- and harsh in his disposition, yet he disvidual has rendered himself a subject of tinguished himself during the prevalence public interest by his large bequests for of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, in public purposes, and deserves a place 1793, by his active benevolence in attendamong those remarkable men who have ing the sick; and on all occasions he achieved great things with small means. manifested a singular readiness to afford He was born in the French city of Bor- medical advice and personal assistance to deaux, in the year 1750, of poor parents, such sufferers as came under his notice, and seems to have received no other ed- while, at the same time, he would never ucation than what is implied in the fact, relieve the distresses of his friends or that he learned to read and write while a relations, whether of body or of the purse, child. During his long residence in this by pecuniary aid. His next commercial country, at a later period of his life, he enterprises were in the East India trade; never acquired a sufficient knowledge of and, as is well known, he was subsethe English language to speak it correct- quently engaged in banking till the pely; but the native vigor of his mind sup- riod of his death, in 1831. The following plied, in a great measure, those defi- description of his person and manners is ciencies which, to most others, would taken from the Biography of Stephen have been an insuperable bar to success Girard, written by S. Simpson (Philadelin the world. Among the events of his phia, 1832):-Few men made so bad a first early youth, he used to speak of the ridi- impression upon the spectator as Stephen cule to which a deformity in one eye Girard. His person was altogether unpreexposed him, as a source of great suffer- possessing. His humble and vulgar exteing. At the age of ten or twelve years, rior, his cold, abstracted and taciturn habhe went to the West Indies in the capaci- its, did not fail to excite in the mind of the ty of a cabin-boy, and afterwards sailed superficial observer a feeling approaching from New York in the same humble to contempt. He resembled a short and station. At this time, his deportment was square-built old sailor. His wall-eye and highly exemplary; and the master of the the contrast exhibited between his person, vessel under whom he sailed was so his habiliments and his fortune, contribmuch pleased with his fidelity and indus- uted to complete a picture of the most try, that he soon after gave bim the com- repulsive kind. He was partially deaf in mand of a small vessel, in which Girard one ear, and his conversation was dismade several voyages to New Orleans figured by a broken French dialect. He and other ports. His great frugality, and spoke, with few exceptions, only upon his success in such trilling speculations business; and then never said more than as he could then engage in, put it in his was necessary to the proper understandpower, before a long time, to become part ing of his subject. When excited to owner of a vessel, in which he continued anger, however, especially among his deto sail as master. In 1769, Girard, then pendants and workmen, his volubility of only nineteen years of age, established tongue, though not couched in the most himself in Philadelphia ; and, in the course refined language, was without a parallel. of the next year, he married Polly Lum, But to compensate for these ebullitions the pretty daughter of a calker, then in of temper towards his inferiors, he had her seventeenth year, and a servant girl the art of conciliating them by the most in his neighborhood. This marriage, fascinating displays of occasional good however, did not prove a happy one, nature, which impressed them with the

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