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services were highly esteemed, until he advocated the superiority of private to public worship, and wrote a book in support of his opinions, which tended to dissolve the connexion. In 1792, he gave the world his Translation of the New Testament, with Notes Critical and Explanatory (in 3 vols., 8vo.) and, in 1795, published Memoirs of his Own Life (2d ed., 1804, 2 vols., 8vo.), a characteristic performance. He next defended revealed religion by his Evidence of Christianity, in answer to Paine's Age of Reason, and planned a new edition of Pope's Works, in which he was anticipated by doctor Warton. He, however, proceeded so far as to publish a first yolume, and a volume of Notes on Pope; as also an edition of his versions of the Iliad and Odyssey. He followed up this labor with editions of Select Greek Tragedies; of Horace; of Bion and Moschus; of Virgil; and, finally, of Lucretius (in 3 vols., 4to.), a work which has ranked him among the most erudite and industrious of critical editors. He soon after entered the path of politics, and censured the policy of the war against France, produced by the French revolution, in a pamphlet written in 1798, entitled a Reply to the Bishop of Llandaff's Address to the People of Great Britain; for which he was subjected to a "crown prosecution for libel, which terminated in a trial and conviction in February, 1799, when he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment in Dorchester gaol. He endured the whole of this sentence, which was, however, alleviated by a subscription amounting to £5000, that took away his anxiety for the future support of his family. On his restoration to liberty, he opened a course of lectures upon Virgil, in the metropolis, but, in August of the same year, was seized with a typhus fever, which terminated his life, Sept. 9, 1801, in the forty-sixth year of his age. Mr. Wakefield was a zealous and industrious scholar, who followed what he deemed truth, without regard to consequences, wherever it might lead him: hence his abandonment of the church, and of public worship, and formation of a system of divinity of his own; for he never formaliy joined any body of dissenters. His classical emendations occasionally exhibit strange singularities of taste and opinion; and, in conjectural criticism, indeed, he evinced much of the bold character of Bentley and Markland. His private character was amiable and estimable, and far removed from the asperity of his controversy and his criticism. Be

sides the works already mentioned, and a few more of minor importance, a Collection of Letters, in a correspondence between him and the right honorable C. J. Fox, has been published since his death, chiefly relative to topics of Greek literature.

WAKEFIELD, Mrs. Priscilla; well known for the ingenious works which she has written for the instruction of youth, and as the original promoter of banks for the savings of the poor, which are now become so general. She has published Juvenile Inprovement (1795); Leisure Hours (2 vols., 1796); an Introduction to Botany, in a series of letters (1796); Mental Improvement (3 vols., 1797); Reflections on the present Condition of the Female Sex, with Hints for its Improvement (1798); the Juvenile Traveller (1801); a Familiar Tour through the British Empire (1804); Domestic Recreation (1805); Excursions in North America (1806); Sketches of Human Manners (1807); Variety (1809); Perambulations in London, &c. (1810); Instinct Displayed (1811); the Traveller in Africa (1814); an Introduction to the Knowledge of Insects (1815); and the Traveller in Asia (1817).`

WALACHIA, or WALLACHIA; a province under the protection of the Porte, lying on the northern bank of the Danube, with Moldavia and Transylvania on the north, and Servia on the west. Its area is equal to about 25,000 square miles, with a population of 950,000 souls. The capital is Bucharest. The other principal towns are Brailow, the key of the Danube, Tergovista, and Giorgiev. The face of the country is considerably diversified: in the north it is mountainous; the central and southern parts are less uneven, consisting chiefly of fertile valleys and extensive plains. Few countries are more indebted to nature; but the bad government and insecurity of property have left it nearly a waste. Corn, tobacco, flax, horses, sheep and salt abound; but the rich soil is little cultivated, and the mineral treasures of the country are undisturbed. The inhabitants are chiefly Walachians and gyp sies. The former, the original inhabitants, are a mixture of different nations-Dacians, Bulgarians, Sclavonians, Goths and Romans. They call themselves Romans, and speak a corrupt Latin. Their summer dress also resembles that of their ancestors in the period of the Roman empire, as appears by the figures on Trajan's column, in Rome. They are rude, ignorant and stupid. The gypsies, who are very numerous, resemble those found in other countries. The mountaineers, who have

the right to bear arms, are called, in Moldavia and Walachia, Pandoors (a Moldavian word, signifying frontier guards.) The religion of the inhabitants is Greek, and the upper classes speak the Greek language, and in general have the manners of the Greeks. Walachia is under the protection of the Porte, which has the right of naming its hospodar or prince. The hospodars were formerly appointed for seven years, during which time they could not lawfully be removed; but pretences enough were always found for suspecting them, and they were rarely suffered to die a natural death. By the treaty of Adrianople, in 1829, it was stipulated that the office should be held for life; that the inhabitants should enjoy the free exercise of their religion, freedom of trade, and a separate administration; that no Mohammedan should be allowed to reside in Walachia, and that the yearly tribute to the Porte should be fixed at a certain sum, beyond which that power should claim no further contributions. In the time of the Romans, Walachia formed a part of Dacia. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, it was governed by princes dependent on the Byzantine court, and, in 1421, was rendered tributary to the Turks. It still, however, retained its own princes, and a separate administration, the Turks occupying only the three fortresses of Brailow or Ibrail, Giorgiev and Thurnul. Still it was often plundered by the Turks, and subjected to forced contributions; and the hospodars made the best use of their precarious authority to pillage the people. In 1716, Mavrocordatus was appointed hospodar. He was the first Greek who had received this post, and, with his successors, who were also Greeks, did much towards civilizing and improving the condition of the country. The insurrection of 1821 (see Hetaireia, and Greece, Revolution of) was quelled, and only rendered the state of the province more deplorable, until the war of 1828, when it was occupied by the Russians, and delivered from the iron yoke of Turkish despotism.

WALCHEREN, or WALCHERN; an island of the Netherlands, the most important and the most westerly of the Zealand islands, about thirteen miles from north to south, and eight from east to west, situated in the German sea, at the mouth of the Scheldt. It lies low, protected from inundation by strong dikes; is well cultivated, but not healthy. It contains three towns, Middleburg, the chief place, with 13,200 inhabitants; Flushing, a for

tress; and Veere; and numerous villages. Middleburg is the capital. Lon. 3° 29 E.; lat. 51°34′ N. The English attempted to land there in 1809. (See Napoleon, and Otranto.)

WALCKENAER, Charles Athanasius, baron of, member of the royal French academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, was born at Paris, in 1771, and, after having studied there, made a tour, at the period of the revolution, in the Netherlands and Great Britain, and prosecuted his studies for some time at Glasgow. Being in independent circumstances, he lived, after his return to France, on his estate, eight leagues from Paris, devoted to scientific pursuits. In October, 1813, he was chosen a member of the imperial institute, of the class of history and ancient literature. Louis XVIII conferred upon him the cross of the legion of honor in 1814, and, by the ordinance of March 21, 1816, reorganizing the institute, named him member of the academy of inscriptions. In 1823, he received the place of maître des requêtes, with the title of baron. Walckenaer has acquired reputation as an author in several departments of literature and science. Among his works are to be remarked the Faune Parisienne, on the plan of Fabricius (2 vols., 1802); Géographie Moderne, a rifacimento and translation of Pinkerton (6 vols., 1804); Histoire naturelle des Arantides; Recherches Géographiques sur l'Intérieur de l'Afrique Septentrionale; Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Don F. Azara; Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Lafontaine (2 vols.); and numerous other geographical, archæological and scientific treatises in different publications. has likewise been a contributor to the Biographie Universelle (Paris, 1811-1828, 53 vols.), and the Dictionnaire Géographique Universel, now publishing at Paris (ninth vol., 1832).


WALDECK; a Sovereign principality of Germany, bordering to the south and east on Hesse-Cassel, and to the west and north on the Prussian province of Westphalia. It has a superficial area of 455 square miles, with 56,000 inhabitants. The soil is mostly stony, but yields grain in abundance, and affords good pasturage. The religion of the inhabitants, who are industrious, but poor, is Lutheran. The county of Pyrmont (q. v.) belongs to Waldeck, though territorially separated from it. The Waldeck estates are composed of certain landed proprietors, deputies from the thirteen towns of the principality, and ten deputies of the peasants. Wal

deck, as a member of the German confederation, has one vote in the general assembly (plenum), and, in conjunction with the Hohenzollern, Lippe, Reuss, and Lichtenstein houses, the sixteenth vote in the diet. (See Germany.) The chief town is Corbach, with 2200 inhabitants. The residence of the prince is Arolsen, 1750 inhabitants. The revenue of this petty principality is about $200,000; public debt about $600,000; quota of troops to the army of the confederacy, 518 The house is one of the most ancient in Germany. Waldeck was one of the shambles, as Chatham appropriately called them, to which the British government had recourse for purchasing troops in the American war.


WALDENSES. This Christian sect, celebrated as the precursor of the reformation, appears, from old manuscripts in the university of Cambridge, to have existed as early as 1100. According to the common opinion, it owes its origin and name to Peter Waldus (Waldo, Vaud), a rich citizen of Lyons, although some of their writers derive the appellation Waldenses from vallé (valley), and call them Vaudois, or dwellers in the valleys. About 1170, Waldo, from reading the Bible and some passages from the fathers of the church, which he caused to be translated into his native tongue, came to the determination to imitate the mode of life of the apostles and primitive Christians, gave his goods to the poor, and by his preaching collected numerous followers, chiefly from the class of artisans, who, from the place of their birth, were called Lyonists; or Poor Men of Lyons, on account of their voluntary poverty; Sabatati, or Insabatati, on account of their wooden shoes or sandals (sabots); Humilialists, on account of their humility; and were often confounded with the Cathari, Patarenes, Albigenses, and other heretics, whose fate they shared. In their contempt of the degenerate clergy and their opposition to the Roinan priesthood, the Waldenses resembled other sects of the middle ages; but, going beyond the design of their founder, which was merely to improve the morals of men, and preach the Word of God freely to every one in his native language, they made the Bible alone the rule of their faith, and, rejecting whatever was not founded on it, and conformable to apostolical antiquity, they gave the first impluse to a reform of the whole Christian church, renounced entirely the doctrines, usages and traditions of the Roman church, and formed a

separate religious society. They were therefore excommunicated as heretics, at the council of Verona, in 1184; but they did not suffer a general persecution until the war against the Albigenses (q. v.) after they had spread and established themselves in the south of France, under the protection of the counts of Toulouse and Foix. At that time (1209-1230), many Waldenses fled to Arragon, Savoy and Piedmont. Spain would not tolerate them. In Languedoc they were able to maintain themselves till 1330; in Provence, under severe oppression, till 1545, when the parliament at Aix caused them to be exterminated in the most cruel manner; still longer in Dauphiny; and not till the war of the Cevennes were the last Waldenses expelled from France. In the middle of the fourteenth century, single congregations of this sect went to Calabria and Apulia, where they were soon suppressed; others to Bohemia, where they were called Grubenheimer, because they used to conceal themselves in caverns. These soon became amalgamated with the Hussites; and from them the Bohemian Brethren derive the apostolical consecration of their bishops. On the other hand, they found a retreat, fortified by nature, in the valleys of western Piedmont, where they founded a distinct church, which has remained, till the present day, the main seat of their sect. Their doctrines rest solely on the gospel, which, with some catechisms, they have in their old dialect, consisting of a mixture of French and Italian.. In this language their simple worship was performed, till their old Barbes (uncles, teachers) became extinct, in 1603. They then received preachers from France, and since that time their preaching has been in French. These teachers, however, form no distinct priesthood, and are supplied from the academies of the Calvinistic churches. Their rites are limited to baptism and the supper, respecting which they entertain the notions of Calvin. The constitution of their congregations, which are chiefly employed in the cultivation of vineyards, and in the breeding of cattle, and which are connected by yearly synods, is republican. Each congregation is superintended by a consistory composed of elders and deacons, under the presidency of the pastor, which maintains the strictest moral discipline, and adjusts small differences. From the time of their origin, the Waldenses have been distinguished from their Catholic neighbors by their pure morals and their industry, and have been esteemed

as the best subjects.

After they had entered into a religious communion with the Calvinists, in the sixteenth century, they were also exposed to the storm which was intended to sweep away the reformation, the doctrines of which they had already cherished for upwards of three centuries. This was the cause of their extirpation in France, and their chequered fate in Piedmont. Those who had settled in the marquisate of Saluzzo were totally exterminated by 1733; and those in the other valleys, having received from the court of Turin, in 1654, new assurances of religious freedom, were treacherously attacked in 1655, by monks and soldiers, treated with brutal cruelty, and many shamefully murdered. The rest of their male population took up arms; and their bravery, aided by the mediation of the Protestant powers, finally procured them a new, though more limited ratification of their freedom by the treaty concluded at Pignerol, August 18, 1655. New oppressions, in 1664, gave rise to a new contest and treaty. The persecution exercised in 1685, through French influence, obliged thousands to emigrate into Protestant countries. In London, they united with the French Huguenots; in the Netherlands, with the Walloons; in Berlin, with the French congregations: nearly 2000 went to Switzerland. Some of these returned by force to Piedmont, in 1689, and, with those who had remained, maintained themselves, under many oppressions, to which limits were finally put, in 1725, in consequence of Prussian mediation. They now enjoy religious freedom and civil rights in their old valleys of Lucerne, Perusa, and St. Martin, in western Piedmont, where they have thirteen parishes, containing about 20,000 souls. Their church service is under the direction of a synod. After long negotiations, in the way of which great difficulties were thrown by the religious zeal of the Tübingen theologians, several hundred of the abovementioned fugitives settled in Würtemberg, in 1699, where their descendants have ten parishes, and are 1600 in number. They are next to the Calvinists in the simplicity of their worship, and in their ecclesiastical constitution, but in intellectual cultivation, they are behind the other Protestants. In later times, England and Prussia have afforded aid to the Waldenses. By contributions which they collected from all Europe, in 1824, they erected an hospital. The latest accounts of them were collected on the spot, in

1823, by W. St. Gilly, an English clergyman--Narrative of an Excursion to the Mountains of Piedmont, and Researches among the Vaudois, Protestant Inhabitants of the Cottian Alps, &c. (second edition, London, 1825, 4to.). Also see Hugh Dyke Akland's Sketch of the History and present Situation of the Waldenses in Piedmont (London, 1826), and the same author's History of the glorious Return of the Vaudois to their Valley, in 1689 (from the original accounts of their pastor, H. Arnaud), with a Compendium of the History of that People, &c. (London, 1827, 1 vol.).

WALDIS, Burkard. (See Burkard Waldis.)

WALDSTÆDTE (i.e. the Forest Towns), or VIERWaldstædte (i. e. the Four Forest Towns); a name given, in Switzerland, to the cantons of Lucerne, Uri, Schweitz, and Unterwalden, probably on account of the number of forests found in them. (See the articles.)



(See Vierwald

WALDSTEIN-WARTEMBERG; a Bohemian family, known since the thirteenth century, and from which sprung the famous Wallenstein. (q. v.) There are at present two lines, with large possessions, in Bohemia and Moravia, containing 90,000 inhabitants. The late Francis Adam, count of Wallenstein, after having served in several wars, travelled for seven years in Hungary, to study the plants of the country, and published, in 1812, Descriptiones et Icones Plantarum rariorur Hungariæ (Vienna, folio), which procured him the membership of several learned societies. Wildenow (q. v.) called a plant, after him, Waldstenia, in his Species Plantarum Linnæi. He died in 1823.

WALES; a principality in the west of Great Britain, washed on the north and west by the Irish sea, and on the south and south-east by the Bristol channel. It is from 130 to 180 miles in length from north to south, and from 50 to 80 in breadth, comprising an area of 8125 square miles. The population, in 1811, was 611,788; in 1821, 717,438; in 1831, 805,236. It is divided into North and South Wales, containing twelve counties, Anglesey, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth and Montgomery in the former, and Brecknock, Cardigan, Caermarthen, Glamorgan, Pembroke and Radnor in the latter division. The general aspect of Wales is mountainous, affording numerous views of wild scenery, interspersed with delightful valleys. The loftiest

summits in North Wales are Snowdon (3579 feet), Plinlimmon, and Cader Idris. Numerous small lakes are scattered among the mountains; and there are several navigable rivers, such as the Severn, the Coye, the Conway, the Towy, and the Dee. The climate is colder than in England, and humid; but the air is, in general, salubrious, and the country healthy. The Cambrian goat is found here in a wild state; and goat-hunting is a favorite diversion of the people. The mineral kingdom is rich in silver, copper, lead, iron and coal. The agriculture of Wales is, in general, much behind that of England, though, of late years, the implements of farming, and the management of the land, have been much improved. The roads have also been, until recently, in a bad state. The Ellesmere, Montgomery, Brecknock, Cardiff, and other canals, facilitate the internal intercourse. (See Canals.) The woollen manufactures are extensive; the commerce inconsiderable. The common Welsh still retain many peculiar superstitions and customs, and, in many parts, their peculiar language. The gentry, however, are, at present, educated in England; and the influence of their example is gradually exterminating the old Welsh peculiarities. Many remains of the ancient literature are yet extant, and societies have been formed for preserving such relicts. (See Bard.) The Welsh are descendants of the ancient Britons, who, being driven out of England by the Anglo-Saxons, took refuge in these fastnesses, or fled to the continent of Europe, where they gave their name to Brittany. (See Gael.) The Welsh language is Celtic. (See Roberts's Cambrian popular Antiquities (London, 1815), and Collectanea Cambrica. Wales formerly sent twenty-four members to parliament, one for each county, and one for each of twelve boroughs. By the reform act of 1832, the number is increased to twenty-nine, two from each of the counties of Caermarthen, Denbigh and Glamorgan, one from each of the other nine, and fourteen from as many boroughs, of which Merthyr Tydvil and Swansea are the two created by the act. It belongs to the province of York in ecclesiastical matters, and has four bishoprics, St. David's, Bangor, Llandaff, and St. Asaph. Wales was long an independent and separate sovereignty from England. Its dimensions have been contracted by taking from it the whole county of Monmouth, and a part of several of the adjacent English counties. It was originally peopled

by the British Ordovices and Silures, and was anciently called Cambria. In the ninth century, it was divided into three sovereignties, called North Wales, South Wales, and Powis Land. In the thirteenth century, it was subdued by Edward I, its last prince Llewellyn ap Gryffyth having fallen in battle in 1285. Since that time, it has been annexed to the English crown, and gives his title to the eldest son of the king of England. It was not completely united with England until the reign of Henry VIII, when the government and laws were formed agreeably to those of England. (For the judicial administration, see Assizes.)

WALES, NEW; a name given to a part of North America, situated south-east and south-west of Hudson's bay, and divided into North and South: the former name is lost in the more general term of Labrador. New South Wales is situated northwest of Canada, and extends along the south borders of Hudson's bay, 450 miles, from lon. 85° to 90° W., lat. 54° to 58° N.

WALES, NEW SOUTH. (See New South Wales.)

WALES, PRINCE OF; the title of the heir apparent of the British throne, first conferred by Edward I on his son (afterwards Edward II), at the time of his conquest of that principality. (See Edward I.) The heir apparent is made prince of Wales and earl of Chester by special creation and investiture, but, as the king's eldest son, is, by inheritance, duke of Cornwall, without any new creation. To compass or conspire the death of the prince of Wales is as much high treason as to conspire the death of the king. The eldest daughter of the king is styled the princess royal, unless there are no sons, when she is created princess of Wales. The arms of the prince of Wales are the royal arms, with the addition of the motto Ich dien (I serve), said to have been adopted by the Black Prince, from a prince of Bohemia, whom he slew at Cressy. Another account says Edward I presented his infant son to the Welsh, who had agreed to accept a native prince from him, with the words Eich dyn (This is your man).

WALKER, John, a philological writer, born in 1732, joined with a Mr. Usher, about the year 1767, in setting up a school at Kensington; but the speculation not succeeding to his wishes, he settled in London, where he gave lectures on elocution, having, it is said, in the earlier part of his life, studied the art with a view to making the stage his profession,

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