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which was evidently present. Some miners, bolder than their companions, made a new attempt on Friday, and, guided by the traces of his work, found the unfortunate man lying on his face, in a cavity. He could raise his head, but his hands and feet were cold, and pulsation almost extinct. Immediate relief was afforded; but next morning he became indifferent about food, and, having announced his own dissolution, expired in a few minutes, on Sunday afternoon, after fasting seven days. This example illustrates the opinion of Hippocrates, though it is not corroborated by others, namely, that fasting less than seven days, is not invariably fatal; but after that period, notwithstanding individuals may survive and take food, their previous abstinence will occasion death. It is to be observed, that here was an instance of absolute privation. In the year 1768, captain Kennedy was shipwrecked, with twelve companions, in the West Indies. They preserved a small quantity of provisions, which were totally consumed in seven days, amidst extraordinary distresses. During eight succeeding days, though in absolute want, both of meat and drink, and exposed in an open boat, the whole survived; but, after obtaining relief, some of the people perished. In this case, they were evidently supported by being frequently drenched with sea-water. Sir William Hamilton, in an account of a dreadful earthquake which devastated Sicily and Calabria, in the year 1783, relates that he saw two girls who were miraculously preserved in the ruins of a house. One had survived eleven entire days, and the other six, totally deprived of food. It must not escape observation, that the difference between absolute privation of food and a supply of any portion of it is incommensurable. The same may almost be said of water; for it materially contributes to preserve life; and hence the difficulties of ascertaining what is truly protracted fasting. The negro couriers, who traverse the deserts on the western coast of Africa, perform long and fatiguing journeys on about four ounces of food daily. It is said that, in common situations, both they and the Moors are frequently seen to subsist eight days on three ounces of gum daily, without sensible diminution of health or vigor; and some maintain, that they can fast three days without any inconvenience. The whole store of a courier, at his outset, consists only of a pound of gum, a little grilled rice, and several ounces of hard
animal jelly, compounded with a fourth of its weight in gum. This substance is decidedly nutritious; for we are told that, when the whole provisions of a caravan had been exhausted in the deserts between Abyssinia and Egypt, a thousand persons subsisted on gum, which was found to form part of the merchandise; and the caravan reached Cairo in safety, without any remarkable accidents from hunger or disease. The compound of the negro couriers may possess particular qualities in repelling hunger, such as that which, among the primitive inhabitants of Great Britain, is said to have proved sufficient, if equivalent to a bean, for a whole day; and some of the American Indians, when engaged in long excursions, have expedients for blunting the keen sensations which they would otherwise experience. A composition of calcined shells and tobacco juice is formed into a mass, from which, when dry, pills of a proper size, to be kept dissolving between the gum and the lip, are made. Long and perilous voyages have been accomplished without more than a ship's biscuit divided into a number of pieces daily. Captain Inglefield and eleven men, of the Centaur man-of-war, which foundered at sea in the year 1782, sailed 800 miles in a yawl, during a period of ten or fifteen days, while their sole provisions consisted of a twelfth part of a biscuit for each of two meals a day, and a glass of water. Still more perilous was the voyage of captain Bligh and eighteen men, of the Bounty, who sailed a great portion of 3600 miles in an open boat, in stormy seas, on an allowance of an ounce and a quarter of biscuit daily; and sometimes, when a bird, the size of a pigeon, was accidentally caught, it served for a meal to the whole crew. We shall not be much surprised, therefore, at the experiments made by some people on themselves, from which it appeared that fasting on half a pound of bread daily, with a pint of liquid, was productive of no inconvenience. Still there is an infinite difference between all this and absolute privation. Sea-weed has afforded many grateful meals to famished sailors. In the year 1652, two brothers, accidentally abandoned on an islet in a lake of Norway, subsisted twelve days on grass and sorrel. Few instances can be given of absolute privation both of solids and liquids; but in the case above referred to, where seventy-two persons took shelter in the shrouds of a vessel, fourteen actually survived during twenty-three days, without food,
though a few drops of rain were occasionally caught in their mouths as they fell. Some of the survivors also drank sea-water; but it was not so with all. In the year 1789, Caleb Elliott, a religious visionary, determined to fast forty days. During sixteen, he obstinately refused all kinds of sustenance, and then died, being literally starved to death. It is said, that two convicts in the jail of Edinburgh lived fourteen days without food, and receiving liquids only; and in the records of the Tower of London, there is reported to be preserved an instance of a Scotchman, who, strictly watched, was seen to fast during six weeks, after which he was liberated on account of his uncommon powers of abstinence. Morgagui, an Italian physician, refers to an instance of a woman who obstinately refused all sustenance, except twice, during fifty days, and took only a small quantity of water, when she died. An avalanche, some years ago, overwhelmed a village in Switzerland, and entombed three women in a stable, where there was a she-goat and some hay. Here they survived thirty-seven days, on the milk afforded them by the goat, and were in perfect health when relieved. But one of the best authenticated instances of excessive fasting in modern times, and in which there is no evidence of any particular morbid affection of the body, is related by doctor Willan. In the year 1786, a young man, a religious visionary, and supposing himself to labor under some inconsiderable complaints, thought to operate a cure by abstinence. He suddenly withdrew from his friends, occupied himself in copying the Bible in short hand, to which he added his own commentaries, and resolved to abstain from all solid food, only moistening his mouth, from time to time, with water slightly flavored with the juice of oranges. He took no exercise, slept little, and spent most of the night in reading, while his daily allowance was between half a pint and a pint of water, with the juice of two oranges. In this state of abstinence he persisted sixty days; but during the last ten, his strength rapidly declined, and, finding himself unable to rise from bed, he became alarmed. The delusion which had hitherto impressed him of being supported by preternatural means now vanished, and along with it his expectation of some remarkable event, which should follow his resolution of self-denial. On the sixty-first day of his fast, doctor Willan was summoned to his
aid; but the miserable object was then reduced to the lowest state of existence; and, although his eyes were not deficient in lustre, and his voice entire, he exhibited the appearance of a skeleton, on which the flesh had been dried; and his personal decay was attended with manifest mental imbecility. Nevertheless, with proper regimen, he so far recovered, as in a few days to be enabled to walk across his room; and a clergyman who had previously been admitted to visit him, dispelled his religious aberrations; but on the seventh day from the commencement of this system, his recollection failed, and he expired on the seventy-eighth from the date of his abstinence. An analogous case has been quoted by the same physician, of an insane person, who survived forty-seven days on a pint and a half of water daily, during which time he obstinately stood thirty-eight days in the same position. From extreme weakness, he lay down during the remainder, still refusing any thing but water; nor did this extraordinary abstinence prove fatal. Perhaps we should find many examples of fasting for a much longer period, on recurring to morbid conditions of the body; such as that of Janet McLeod, a young Scottish female, who, after epilepsy and fever, remained five years in bed, seldom speaking, and receiving food only by constraint. At length, she obstinately refused all sustenance, her jaws became locked, and, in attempting to force them open, two of her teeth were broken. A small quantity of liquid was introduced by the aperture, none of which was swallowed; and dough made of oatmeal was likewise rejected. She slept much, and her head was bent down to her breast. In this deplorable state, the relatives of the patient declared she continued to subsist four years without their being sensible of her receiving any aliment, except a little water; but, after a longer interval, she began to revive, and subsisted on crumbs of bread, with milk or water sucked from the palm of her hand. It is not evident that her convalescence ever was complete; and it rather is to be inferred that she always remained in a debilitated condition. After these extraordinary instances, chiefly belonging to our own era, to which many more might be added, we shall probably be less incredulous in listening to the accounts of the older authors. In regard to the sensations excited by protracted fasting, and its effects on the person of the sufferer, there is a difference resulting from the vigor both of body and
mind, to which the influence of climate may be joined; but the most direful and lasting consequences frequently ensue. At first, every substance is ravenously devoured, to appease the cravings of hunger; every animal, the most loathsome reptiles, are welcome sustenance; and a paste is baked by the New Hollanders, composed of ants and worms, intermixed with the bark of trees. John Lery, who endured the extremity of famine in a voyage to Brazil, emphatically declared, that a mouse was more prized in the ship than an ox had been ashore; and he also informs us, that three or four crowns were paid for each. The natives of New Caledonia swallow lumps of earth to satisfy their hunger, and tie ligatures, continually increasing in tightness, around the abdomen. They seem to do so with impunity, although the custom of eating earth, in Java, which is done to reduce personal corpulence, is slowly, but invariably destructive. Last of all, recourse is had to human flesh, instances of which have occurred in all countries of the habitable world, on occasion of famine from sieges, shipwreck, or the failure of expected crops of grain. During this period, a material alteration is taking place in the mind: men become wild and ferocious; they view each other with malevolence; they are quarrelsome, turbulent, and equally regardless of their own fate as of the safety of their neighbors; they actually resemble so many beasts of prey. The sensations of hunger from protracted fasting are not alike in all; or it may be, that immediate languor operates strongly on those by whom it is not so severely felt. But it is certain that, after a particular time, little inclination for food is experienced, though great desire remains of quenching thirst. Captain Inglefield, of the Centaur, expresses his consolatory feelings on seeing one of his companions perish, that dying of hunger was not so dreadful as imagination had pictured. A survivor of that miserable shipwreck, during which so many people hung twenty-three days in the shrouds, observes, that he did not suffer much during the first three from want of food; that, after more had elapsed, he was surprised to have existed so long, and concluded that each succeeding day would be his last. To these examples may be added that of captain Kennedy, who considered it singular that, although he tasted neither meat nor drink during eight entire days, he did not feel the sensations of hunger and thirst. Without
timely succor, the human frame yields under such privations; idiocy succeeds ferocity, or the sufferer dies raving mad. Should the consequences not be fatal, lasting diseases are frequently occasioned by the tone of the different organs being injured, sometimes incurably, and sometimes admitting palliation. It is evident, however, from the preceding observations, that protracted fasting is not so destructive as is commonly credited, and that mankind may, without danger, remain entire days destitute of food. Liquids are an effectual substitute for solids in preserving life; and drenching the body with salt or fresh water, or laving it copiously on the head, materially contributes in averting death by famine.-See Philosophical Transactions (1783); Memoirs of the Manchester Society for 1785 (vol. iii.); Lerius, Navigationes in Braziliam; Asiatic Researches (vol. iv, p. 386); Syme's Embassy to Ava (p. 130); Mackay's Narrative of the Shipwreck of the Juno; Annual Register for 1768, and 1783; Gentleman's Magazine (1789); Licetus, De his qui diu vivunt sine Alimento.
FELLATAHS. (See Foulahs.)
FITZWILLIAM, earl, was born in 1748. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Eton school, where he was contemporary with Charles Fox, lord Carlisle, and many other conspicuous characters. His agreeable and generous disposition endeared him to his fellow scholars. He finished his studies at King's college, Cambridge. In 1770, soon after he came of age, he married lady Charlotte Ponsonby; a union which united him more closely with the great whig families. Lord Fitzwilliam was decidedly hostile to the war against America. Under the administration formed by his uncle, the marquis of Rockingham, he did not hold any office; but, in his senatorial capacity, he strenuously supported his friends. Till the year 1793, his lordship continued to act with the whigs. In 1794, lord Fitzwilliam was appointed president of the council, and in the following year was sent over as viceroy to Ireland. In that unhappy and misgoverned country, his presence was fitted to produce great benefit. Holding one of the largest estates in Ireland, he had always been popular there, for the manner in which he treated his tenants. He was, besides, known to be friendly to the removal of the disabilities of the Cath
olics. The viceregal dignity was accepted by lord Fitzwilliam only on condition that he should be at liberty to take all such measures as were necessary to conciliate the Irish. He began to put his plans in execution, by removing from office those who were obnoxious to the people. But the influence of the men whom he had removed occasioned his recall. In 1798, he was made lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1806, during the short administration of the whigs, lord Fitzwilliam was lord president of the council. Since that period, he has gradually withdrawn from politics. After the unhappy affair at Manchester (1821), he was one of those who attended a meeting at York, to call for an inquiry into the conduct of the official persons criminated; for which his lordship was dismissed from the lordlieutenancy of Yorkshire.-His eldest son, lord Milton, has repeatedly sat in parliament for Yorkshire and Northamptonshire, and distinguished himself by his active support of the reform bill, although his father returned five members by his property and influence.
FIVE NATIONS. (See Iroquois.) FLACCUS. (See Horatius Flaccus.) FLAT HEADS. (See Choctaws.) FLEMISH SCHOOL OF PAINTERS. Netherlandish School.)
FLERUS. (See Fleurus.)
FLEUR-DE-LIS. (See Lily.)
FORGERY, at common law; the fraudulent making or alteration of a writing to the prejudice of another man's rights, or a making, malo animo, of any written instrument for the purpose of fraud and deceit; the word making, in this last definition, being considered as including every alteration of, or addition to, a true instrument. Besides the offence of forgery at common law, which is of the degree only of misdemeanor, there are very numerous forgeries especially subjected to punishments, by the enactments of a variety of English statutes, which, for the most part, make the forgeries to which they relate capital offences. The offence of forgery may be complete though there be no publication or uttering of the forged instrument; for the very making with a fraudulent intention, and without lawful authority of any instrument, which, at common law, or by statute, is the subject of forgery, is of itself a sufficient comple
tion of the offence before publication. Most of the statutes, however, which relate to forgery, make the publication of the forged instrument, with knowledge of the fact, a substantive offence. It is said by Hawkins (P. C., c. 70, s. 2), that the notion of forgery does not seem to consist in the counterfeiting of a man's hand and seal, which may often be done innocently, but in endeavoring to give an appearance of truth to a mere deceit and falsity, and either to impose that upon the world as the solemn act of another, which he is no way privy to, or at least to make a man's own act appear to have been done at a time when it was not done, and, by force of such a falsity, to give it an operation which, in truth and justice, it ought not to have. A deed forged in the name of a person who never had existence, is forgery at law, as was determined in Bolland's case. (O. B., 1772; 1 Leach, 83; 2 East's P. C., 19, sec. 49.) A writing is forged where one, being directed to draw up a will for a sick person, doth insert some legacies therein falsely out of his own head. It is not material whether a forged instrument be drawn in such manner that, if it were in truth that which it counterfeits, it would be valid. The punishment of forgery at common law is, as for a misdemeanor, by fine, imprisonment, and such other corporal punishment as the court in its discretion shall award. The punishments ordained for the offence by the statute law in England are, with scarcely an exception, capital. In the U. States, the punishment is generally imprisonment, with hard labor for a term of years, or for life, according to the degree of the offence.
FOSSIL REMAINS. (See Organic Remains.)
Fox, Henry Richard. (See Holland, Lord.)
FRACTURE (from frango, to break) is applied to the bones, and is divided into simple and compound; simple, when the bone only is injured; compound, when the soft coverings are so injured that either one of the fractured ends protrudes through the skin, or the skin and muscles are so lacerated as to expose the bone. The long cylindrical bones of the limbs are most frequently fractured; next the flat, particularly of the cranium (for those of the pelvis and scapula must be excluded); and, lastly, the round, irregularly-shaped bones of the tarsus, carpus and vertebræ. The bones are fractured by external violence, disease, and the action of the muscles. The long cylindrical bones are not
unfrequently broken in more than one point: they are generally fractured at the centre of their shafts, in which case the fracture is more or less oblique; whereas, when it occurs near the extremes, it becomes more and more transverse; hence fractures have been divided into oblique and transverse. The spongy bones are also fractured transversely; the flat bones in various directions, occasionally stellated. A comminuted fracture occurs when a bone is broken in different places at once, and divided into several fragments or splinters. Longitudinal fractures also occur to the long cylindrical bones. Complicated fractures are those accompanied with luxation, severe contusions, wounded blood-vessels, pregnancy, gout, scurvy, rickets, fragilitas ossium, and syphilis, which diseases prevent the union of the bones, and also cause them to be very easily broken. Cold renders the bones more fragile; and they are also more brittle in old age. The superficial are more exposed to fracture than the deep-seated bones; thus the clavicle is more so than the os innominatum. Others, from their functions, are more exposed; as, for example, the radius, from its affording support to the carpus. When a fracture takes place, there is an effusion of blood from the vessels of the bone, periosteum and contiguous soft parts; the muscles are violently excited; the periosteum and truncated ends of the bone inflame; and, after the inflammation subsides, the vessels of the periosteum and ends of the bone secrete callus, which is an effusion of gelatin that is gradually converted into cartilage, and, lastly, into bone, by the secretion of phosphate of lime, precisely in the same manner as the formation and conversion of bone in the fœtus. During the inflammatory action, no diseased secretion takes place; nay, even the healthy natural ones are more or less suspended, so that no advantage is gained by setting a fracture immediately after the injury: on the contrary, this primary setting, as it is termed, reexcites the already spasmodic action of the muscles, and, in nine cases out of ten, disappoints the hopes of the surgeon. Callus does not harden for many days: in the adult, it begins generally about the tenth or twelfth day; Boyer, however, says that it is not formed until between the twentieth and seventieth day. The treatment of a simple fractured bone is, to lay the limb in the easiest position for the patient; to apply leeches and anodyne fomentations or poultices; to put him on low diet, enjoin
perfect rest, and administer gentle laxatives, until all inflammatory action is subdued; then to extend the limb to its natural length, or apply pasteboard splints dipped in warm water, with wooden ones exterior to them, and fastened with tapes. This latter is termed secondary setting, and is applicable to all the bones of the extremities.
FRANCE SINCE 1830. The revolution of July, 1830, had driven one dynasty from the throne of France, and seated another in its place: it had thus prevented a return to the despotic government of the seventeenth century, and preserved the little share of liberty which the charter of 1814 had granted, with a sparing hand, to the French nation. In theory, it sanctioned the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people, and dealt a fatal blow to the absurd notion of passive obedience; but in practice, it has done little towards realizing the expectations of those who looked to see a monarchy surrounded by republican institutions substituted for the charter government. The popular or revolutionary party, or "party of the movement," as they have been called, demanded that the work of reform should go on, and that more power should be lodged in the hands of the people; while the conservatists, or juste milieu (proper medium) party, resisted all further change, and were desirous to go as little out of the way of legitimacy as possible. The majority of the chamber of deputies, which had been elected previous to the revolution, was of the latter party, while the ministry was divided. Lafayette, Lamarque, Dupont de l'Eure, OdillonBarrot, &c., were among the most prominent of the movement party of these, Lafayette was commander-in-chief of the national guards, Dupont de l'Eure keeper of the seals, and Odillon-Barrot prefect of the Seine. In the month of August, four of the ex-ministers, Peyronnet, Guernon de Ranville, Chantelauze, and Polignac, had been arrested; and, on the 23d of September, a committee of the chamber of deputies reported resolutions in favor of impeaching them of treason, for having falsified the elections, arbitrarily changed the institutions of the kingdom, and excited civil war. After two days' discussion, the report was accepted: on the 30th, the impeachment was sent up to the peers. The accused were then examined before a commission appointed by the peers for this purpose, and the 15th of December was finally fixed upon for the trial of the impeach