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features. We do not find the olive color of the Mongolian variety with the features of the Malay; nor the brown color of the Malay with the features of the Mongolian; nor the black skin of the Ethiopian variety, or the red color of the American, united with any set of features but those which characterize their respective varieties. It, however, by no means follows that the hypothesis of different races having been originally formed, must be adopted, because climate is not adequate to the production of the radical varieties of complexion which are found among mankind. Man, as well as animals, has a propensity to form natural varieties.
CONDE, Louis Henry Joseph de Bourbon, duke of Bourbon and prince of Condé, of whom we have given an account under the head Condé, put an end to his own life at his château of St. Leu, Aug. 27, 1830. He is supposed to have committed this act while laboring under derangement produced by the revolution which had just taken place, and had promised to repair to Paris to take the oath to the new government, on the morning when he was found dead in his chamber, suspended by his own handkerchief. We have to add here an account of his will, and of the singular suit to which it gave rise. By this will, written with his own hand, and dated Aug. 30, 1829, his whole fortune passes to the duke d'Aumale, son of Louis Philippe, king of the French, and to Mrs. Dawes, baroness de Feuchères, an English woman with whom he lived. The legacies to this lady, including several châteaux and seats, were valued at about fifteen millions of francs, the residue of his fortune being left to the duke d'Aumale. This will was disputed by the princes of Rohan, on the ground that the baroness de Feuchères had used improper influence over the prince; and it was contended by their counsel that the prince had been murdered by persons interested. It was not till Feb. 22, 1832, that the judgment of the court was finally pronounced in favor of the duke d'Aumale and madame Feuchères.
CONGELATION. (See Freezing.)
COOMASSIE. (See Cummazee.)
CORREA DA SERRA. To what is said in the body of the work we add, that this statesman was Portuguese minister to the U. States from 1816 to 1819, when he was nominated member of the financial council. He returned to Lisbon by the way of London and Paris, and in 1823 was chosen deputy to the cortes. His death took place the same year. Correa da Serra was the author of many papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London, in the Transactions of the Philadelphia Philosophical Society, in the Archives littéraires de l'Europe, and the Annales du Muséum d'Histoire naturelle, in Paris.
COSMIC RISING. (See Ortus Cosmicus.)
COTTON-TREE. (See Plane-Tree.)
CRABBE, George, died at Trowbridge, in February, 1832.
CRAVEN, lady, died at Naples, in 1826. CRICHTONITE. (See Titanium.) CROSS STONE. (See Harmotome.) CROWN IMPERIAL. (See Fritillaria.) CRUCIFIXION; a mode of inflicting capital punishment, by affixing criminals to a wooden cross. This was a frequent punishment among the ancients, and practised by most of the nations whose history has reached our knowledge: it is now chiefly confined to the Mohammedans. There were different kinds of crosses, though it cannot be affirmed which was in general use; such as that most familiar to us, consisting of two beams at right angles, and St. Andrew's cross. It is necessary to observe, that the numerous and diversified crosses and crucifixes exhibited in sculpture and painting are entirely fictitious. These were gradually introduced, as the cross itself became an object of superstitious veneration, and when the devout conceived that their salvation was promoted by constantly introducing some allusion to it. Thus it became a universal emblem of piety among them; and crossing the legs of an effigy on a tomb-stone denoted that a Christian was interred below. On condemnation, the criminal, by aggravated. barbarity, was scourged before suffering death; and perhaps this part of his punishment was scarcely inferior to the other.
The scourge was formed of cords armed with bits of lead or bone; or it consisted of simple rods of iron and wood, which latter were called scorpions, when covered with spines. While he suffered, he was bound to a column; and that where Christ underwent scourging, was still extant during the days of St. Jerome, in the fifth century. This being the common custom, and preceding not only crucifixion, but other kinds of capital punishment, it is an error to suppose that Pilate scourged Christ from motives of greater severity towards him. The criminal was compelled to carry his own cross to the place of execution, which was generally at some distance from the habitations of men. This is still the custom in several countries with respect to their capital punishments; and it is probable that inflicting these within the walls of cities was less frequent of old than it is now. A certain gate had its specific name from being the exit of criminals on the way to punishment. It was not the whole cross, according to some, which was borne by the offender, but only the transverse beam, or patibulum, because they suppose the upright part to have remained stationary in the ground, whereas the other was movable. The criminal, having reached the fatal spot, was stripped nearly naked, and affixed to the cross by an iron spike, driven through each hand and each foot, or through the wrists and ankles. Authors are, nevertheless, greatly divided concerning the number and position of the nails in ancient punishments; and it has been conjectured, that in the most simple crucifixion, whereby both hands were nailed above the criminal, and both feet below, all on one perpendicular post or tree, only two were used. The sounder opinion, and that which coincides with modern practice, bestows a nail on each member. That the weight of the body might be the better supported, the arms and legs were encircled by cords, an instance of which occurs in a crucifixion at Algiers, which is thus described by a spectator:-"The criminal was nailed to a ladder by iron spikes through his wrists and ankles, in a posture resembling St. Andrew's cross, and, as if apprehensive that the spikes would not hold from failure of his flesh, the executioners had bound his wrists and ankles with small cords to the ladder. Two days I saw him alive in this torture; and how much longer he lived I cannot tell." If, instead of being nailed to the cross, the criminal was bound
to it by cords, it was designed as a more cruel punishment. The criminal, being fixed on the cross, was left to expire in anguish, and his body remained a prey to the birds of the air. His death, however, was not immediate, nor should it be so in general, considering that the vital organs may escape laceration. We learn from the distinct narrative of the evangelists, that conversations could be carried on among those who suffered, or between them and the by-standers; and Justin, the historian, relates, that Bomilcar, a Carthaginian leader, having been crucified, on an accusation of treason against the state, he bore the cruelty of his countrymen with distinguished fortitude, harangued them from the cross as from a tribunal, and reproached them with their ingrati- ` tude, before he expired. There are repeated instances of persons crucified having perished more from hunger than from the severity of the punishment. The Algerine before spoken of survived at least two days; St. Andrew lived two or three; and the martyrs Timotheus and Maura did not die during nine days. By the Mohammedan laws, certain delinquents are to be punished with crucifixion, and killed on the cross by thrusting a spear through their bodies; and here we find an example of what is narrated in Scripture, of a soldier piercing the side of Jesus Christ with a lance, though he was dead. Among the Jews, we may conclude, from the treatment of the two thieves crucified along with Christ, that it was customary to break the legs of criminals, but whether as a coup de grace, like the former, and resembling some modern European punishments, is not evident. It is denied by Lipsius to have been part of the punishment of crucifixion, or attached to it in particular; yet there are passages in Seneca and Pliny from which we might rather infer that the reverse was the case, at least with the Romans. Certainly it cannot be considered an effectual means of hastening death. We know, however, that there was a peculiar punishment of this description, and perhaps a capital one, called crurifrangium by the ancients, inflicted on Roman slaves and Christian martyrs, as also on women or girls. Augustus ordered the legs of one to be broken who had given up a letter for a bribe; and Ammianus says, "Both the Apollinares, father and son, were killed, according to the sentence, by breaking their legs." Under the reign of Diocletian, twenty-three Christians suffered martyrdom in the
The legs of the criminal were laid on an anvil, and by main force fractured with a heavy hammer, somewhat similar to the modern barbarous custom of breaking the bones of offenders on the wheel by an iron bar. From the narrative of the evangelists, we may conclude, that breaking the legs of the thieves was to promote their death, that they might be taken down the same day from the cross. That spectators might learn the cause of punishment, a label, or inscription, indicating the crime, frequently surmounted the head of the criminal. The offence charged against Jesus Christ, was having called himself king of the Jews. Accordingly, the inscription on his cross was, "This is Jesus, the king of the Jews." By our own customs, a label is sometimes hung from the neck of an offender condemned to lesser punishments, describing his guilt, which is meant to aggravate the ignominy. But among the Romans, this was perhaps also the warrant for putting the sentence in execution. That the object of crucifixion might be fulfilled in exposing the body of the criminal to decay, sentinels were commonly posted beside the cross, to prevent it from being taken down and buried. Privation of sepulture was dreaded as the greatest evil by the ancients, who believed that the soul could never rest or enjoy felicity so long as their mortal remains continued on the earth. Thus it was a great aggravation of the punishment. Besides these, the ordinary modes of inflicting the punishment of crucifixion, assuredly sufficiently cruel in themselves, mankind have sought the gratification of vengeance in deviating from them. Such was the conduct of the Roman soldiers, under Titus, at the siege of Jerusalem, where the miserable Jews were crucified in various postures by their sanguinary enemies. Seneca speaks of crucifixion with the head downwards; and of this we have a noted example in the history of St. Peter, during the first century of the Christian era. Having been seized by the Roman government, and condemned to die on the cross, it is said that he solicited, as a greater degradation, that he might be crucified with his head downwards. It appears that delinquents were sometimes affixed to the cross, and burnt or suffocated to death. With respect to the persons on whom this punishment was inflicted, we have seen that the Carthaginian leaders were not exempt from it; but elsewhere, especially among the Jews and Romans, only the lowest malefactors
were condemned to the cross. It was peculiarly appropriated for slaves. The cross has been made a more terrible instrument of destruction to a vanquished enemy. Thus Alexander the Great, after putting eight or ten thousand Tyrians to the sword, on taking their city, crucified 2000 more along the shores. Not less sanguinary was the vengeance of the Romans against the Jews; Minutus Alexander crucified 800, and Quinctilius Varus 2000, on account of some revolt. Titus, whom we are wont to esteem as humane and merciful, crucified above 500 in a day; and at the sack of Jerusalem, under his command, the Romans, wherever they could seize the affrighted fugitives, either in hatred or derision, nailed them to crosses about the walls of the city, until the multitude was so great, that room was wanting for the crosses, and crosses for the bodies. Crucifixion has been considered the most cruel of punishments, and merited by the most atrocious offences only. That the pain of the cross is cruel cannot be denied; yet we are, perhaps, accustomed to exaggerate it. Examples are not wanting of persons having been taken down from the cross alive, and surviving the laceration of their members. Josephus, the historian, relates, that, on leaving a particular town in Judea, he saw a great many of the enemy crucified; but it grieved him much to recognise three of the number with whom he had been in intimate habits. He hastened to inform Titus of the fact, who immediately ordered them to be taken down, and their wounds carefully healed. Two, nevertheless, perished; but the third survived.
CRUOR. (See Blood.)
CUVIER died at Paris, May 15, 1832.
DAHCOTAHS. (See Indians, American.)
DEATH, APPARENT, was referred to from Asphyxia, for the treatment of persons in a state of suspended animation:
the process will be found described under Drowning.
DECIGRAMME. (See Gramme.) DEMESNE. (See Domain.) DEMURRER. (See Issue.) DENYS, ST., ABBEY OF. (See Denis.) DERTZHAVIN. (See Derschawin.) DESIDERADA, or DESIRADA. (See Deseada.)
DESSOLES died in 1828. DEVA-NAGARA. (See Sanscrit.) DIABETES is an affection of a very peculiar nature, and which, both with respect to its origin, its proximate cause, and its treatment, has given rise to much controversy. Its most remarkable symptoms are, a great increase in the quantity of urine, a voracious appetite, a stoppage of the cutaneous perspiration, thirst, emaciation, and great muscular debility. The urine is not only prodigiously increased in its quantity, but likewise has its composition completely changed; the substance named urea, which it contains in the healthy state, is entirely removed, or exists in very small proportion, while in its stead we find a large quantity of a body possessing the physical and chemical properties of sugar. Whether diabetic differs essentially from vegetable sugar, is to be regarded more as a chemical question, than as what, in any respect, influences either our pathology or our practice; and it has been a subject of controversy whether there be a proper diabetes insipidus, that is, a disease attended with the increased discharge of urine, the voracious appetite, and the morbid state of the skin, but where the urine does not contain sugar. There is much obscurity respecting the origin of diabetes: it has been attributed to improper diet, to the use of spirituous liquors; to large quantities of watery fluids; to exposure to cold during perspiration; to violent exercise; and, in short, to any thing which might be supposed likely to weaken the system generally, or the digestive organs in particular. It does not, however, appear that any of these circumstances so commonly precede the disease, as to entitle it to be regarded as the cause, although many of them may contribute to aggravate it, or to bring it into action, when the foundation is laid in the constitution. The proximate has been no less the subject of controversy than the exciting cause; and on this point two hypotheses have divided the opinions of pathologists: some have ascribed it to a primary affection of the stomach and the function of assimilation, and others to a primary dis
ease of the kidney. With respect to the treatment which may afford the best chance of success, or which may possibly remove the complaint in its incipient state, we should recommend that a moderate bleeding be premised, and that a diet be employed, of which vegetable matter should form only a small proportion: at the same time we may administer vegetable tonics, and may endeavor to restore the natural action of the skin by diaphoretics and the warm bath.
DIARRHEA; a very common disease, which consists in an increased discharge from the alimentary canal, the evacuations being but little affected, except in their assuming a more liquid consistence. They are generally preceded or accompanied by flatulence, and a griping pain in the bowels, and frequently by sickness; but this should, perhaps, rather be attributed to the same cause which produces the diarrhoea, than be considered as a part of the disease itself. The symptoms of this complaint are so obvious as seldom to leave any doubt respecting its existence; but there are two diseases that resemble it, and from which it is important to distinguish it-dysentery and cholera. For the most part, an attention to the nature of the evacuations is sufficient to point out the distinction; or if, as occasionally happens, the diseases appear to run into each other, our remedies must be administered accordingly, always adapting them rather to the symptoms than to a technical nomenclature. The exciting causes of diarrhoea are various; perhaps the most frequent is repletion of the stomach, or the reception into it of some kind of indigestible food: cold applied to the surface of the body, and especially to the legs and feet, is also an exciting cause of diarrhoea; and it is occasionally produced by impressions upon the nervous system, or even by mere mental emotions. In children, the peculiar irritation produced by teething seems to be a frequent exciting cause of diarrhoea, as well as that which arises from the presence of worms in the alimentary canal. Diarrhoea is often symptomatic of some other disease: of these, one of the most violent is the colliquative discharge from the bowels, which occurs in the latter stages of hectic fever. It is also a frequent attendant or sequel of the affections of the liver that come on after a residence in hot climates, and is then found to be one of the most unmanageable symptoms of these diseases. In its simple form, diarrhoea is not difficult of cure, and, perhaps, in a
great majority of cases, would be relieved by the mere efforts of nature. The proximate cause of diarrhoea appears to be an increase of the peristaltic motion of the intestines, which may depend either upon a stimulating substance applied to them, or upon an increased sensibility in the part, rendering it more easily affected by the ordinary stimuli. In cases of the first description, which constitute a great majority of those that fall under our observation, the most effectual remedies are mild purgatives, given in small doses, and frequently repeated. Along with the purgatives large quantities of mild diluents will be found serviceable; and the food should be of the least stimulating kind, and be composed as much as possible of liquids. The choice of the purgative will depend upon the state of the stomach, and various other circumstances: neutral salts, castor oil, rhubarb and magnesia, are, perhaps, among those that are the most generally applicable: the last will be especially proper when we have reason to suspect an acid state of the alimentary canal. After the due exhibition of purgatives, we shall generally find the complaint to subside without the use of any other remedies; and, by a proper regulation of the diet, the parts resume their healthy action. Considerable advantage has been gained by the use of warm clothing, and particularly of flannel worn next to the skin, in those who are subject to frequent attacks of diarrhoea; and sometimes it has appeared that the warm bath, or even the removal to a milder climate, has been of permanent utility.
DICKINSON, Jonathan, first president of Nassau hall, the college of New Jersey, was born at Hatfield, Massachusetts, April 22, 1688, graduated at Yale college in 1706, and, a few years after, became the minister of the first Presbyterian church in Elizabethtown, New Jersey. In 1746, he was appointed president of the new college, but died Oct. 7, in the following year. His numerous theological writings are much esteemed.
DIOCLETIAN, ERA OF. (See Epoch.) D'ISRAELI, Isaac, is the only son of an Italian merchant, of a Jewish family, who was long a resident in England. At a very early period of youth, he had a passion for reading, and even attempted to write little tales concerning giants and ghosts. But, though fond of reading, he was averse from regular study. He first went to an academy at Enfield, near his father's country-house; but there he learnt nothing more than a little imperfect Latin. Nor did he make much greater progress
under several private masters. He was then sent over to a private seminary in Amsterdam. Young D'Israeli now applied himself ardently to study. In classical literature, however, he made no great progress; but he gained an intimate acquaintance with several modern languages, and with the authors who have written in them. At the end of two years, Mr. D'Israeli returned to his native country. He next made a tour in France and Italy, and returned with a valuable collection of books, and a confirmed predilection for French literature. While he was at Amsterdam, he first tried to write verse, and took Pope for his model. His earliest effort in England appears to have been a Poetical Epistle on the Abuse of Satire, which was an attack on Peter Pindar (printed in the 59th volume of the Gentleman's Magazine). In 1791, he published a poem, entitled a Defence of Poetry, which was addressed to the poet laureate. It was an animated composition; but, when only a few copies were sold, Mr. D'Israeli destroyed the whole edition. His next work was the first volume of the Curiosities of Literature (1791), a selection made with taste and judgment, and which was so well received that he prefixed his name to the second volume (1793). The work has since passed through several editions. The seventh edition, published in 1824, forms five octavo volumes. Since that publication, he has constantly appeared in the character of a writer, with success. His works display extensive reading, a lively fancy, and a pleasant wit, and are written in a flowing and spirited style. The following is a list of them, in their order of publication:-a Dissertation on Anecdotes (1793); Essay on the Manners and Genius of the Literary Character (1795); Miscellanies, or Literary Recreations (1796); Vaurien, a Satirical Novel (2 vols., 1797); Romances (1798); Narrative Poems (1803); Despotism, or the Fall of the Jesuits, a novel (2 vols.); Flim Flams, or Life of my Uncle, a kind of satirical biography (3 vols.); Calamities of Authors, including some Inquiries respecting their Moral and Literary Characters (1812-13, 2 vols., 8vo.); Quarrels of Authors, or some Memoirs for our Literary History, including Specimens of Controversy, to the Reign of Elizabeth (1814, 3 vols., 8vo.); a new Series of the Curiosities of Literature, consisting of Researches in Literary, Biographical and Political History (3 vols., 8vo., 1823); and Commentaries on the Reign of Charles I (5 vols., 1831).—His son is the author of