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features. We do not find the olive COOMASSIE. (See Cummazee.)
Philadelphia Philosophical Society, in the
when the devout conceived that their CONGELATION. (See Freezing.) salvation was promoted by constantly inConstant died at Paris, December 8, troducing some allusion to it. Thus it 1830.
became a universal emblem of piety CONSTANTINOPLE, ERA OF. (See Ep- among them; and crossing the legs of an och.)
effigy on a tomb-stone denoted that a CONSUMPTION. (See Pulmonary Con- Christian was interred below. On consumption.)
demnation, the criminal, by aggravated Convent. (See Monastery.)
barbarity, was scourged before suffering Cony. (See Jerboa.)
death; and perhaps this part of his punCOOLIES. (See Palanquin.)
ishment was scarcely inferior to the other.
The scourge was formed of cords armed to it by cords, it was designed as a more with bits of lead or bone ; or it consisted cruel punishment. The criminal, being of simple rods of iron and wood, which fixed on the cross, was left to expire in latter were called scorpions, when covered anguish, and his body remained a prey with spines. While he suffered, he was to the birds of the air. His death, howbound to a column; and that where ever, was not immediate, nor should it be Cbrist underwent scourging, was still ex- so in general, considering that the vital tant during the days of št. Jerome, in organs may escape laceration. We learn the fifth century. This being the com- from the distinct narrative of the evanmon custom, and preceding not only gelists, that conversations could be carried crucifixion, but other kinds of capital on among those who suffered, or between punishment, it is an error to suppose that them and the by-standers; and Justin, the Pilate scourged Christ from motives of historian, relates, that Bomilcar, a Carthagreater severity towards him. The crim- ginian leader, having been crucified, on inal was compelled to carry his own cross an accusation of treason against the state, to the place of execution, which was he bore the cruelty of his countrymen generally at some distance from the hab- with distinguished fortitude, harangued itations of men. This is still the custom them from the cross as from a tribunal
, in several countries with respect to their and reproached them with their ingraticapital punishments; and it is probable iude, before he expired. There are rethat inflicting these within the walls of peated instances of persons crucified har. cities was less frequent of old than it is ing perished more from hunger than from now. A certain gate had its specific the severity of the punishment. The name from being the exit of criminals on Algerine before spoken of survived at the way to punishment. It was not the least two days; St. Andrew lived two or whole cross, according to soine, which three ; and the martyrs Timotheus and was borne by the offender, but only the Maura did not die during nine days. By transverse beam, or patibulum, because the Mohammedan laws, certain delinthey suppose the upright part to have re- quents are to be punished with crucimained stationary in the ground, whereas fixion, and killed on the cross by thrusting the other was movable. The criminal, a spear through their bodies, and here having reached the fatal spot, was strip- we find an example of what is narrated ped nearly naked, and affixed to the cross in Scripture, of a soldier piercing the side by an iron spike, driven through each of Jesus Christ with a lance, though he hand and each foot, or through the wrists was dead. Among the Jews, we may and ankles. Authors are, nevertheless, conclude, from the treatment of the two greatly divided concerning the number thieves crucified along with Christ, that and position of the nails in ancient pun- it was customary to break the legs of ishments; and it has been conjectured, criminals, but whether as a coup de grace, that in the most simple crucifixion, where- like the former, and resembling, some by both hands were nailed above the modern European punishments, is not criminal, and both feet below, all on one evident. It is denied by Lipsius to have perpendicular post or tree, only two were been part of the punishment of cruciused. The sounder opinion, and that fixion, or attached to it in particular; yet which coincides with modern practice, there are passages in Seneca and Pliny bestows a nail on each member. That from which we might rather infer that the the weight of the body might be the bet- reverse was the case, at least with the Roter supported, the arms and legs were en- mans. Certainly it cannot be considered circled by cords, an instance of which an effectual means of hastening death. occurs in a crucifixion at Algiers, which We know, however, that there was a peis thus described by a spectator :-“ The culiar punishment of this description, and criminal was nailed to a ladder by iron perhaps a capital one, called crurifranspikes through his wrists and ankles, in a gium by the ancients, inflicted on Roman posture resembling St. Andrew's cross, slaves and Christian martyrs, as also on and, as if apprehensive that the spikes women or girls. Augustus ordered the would not hold from failure of his flesh, legs of one to be broken who had given the executioners had bound his wrists up a letter for a bribe ; and Ammianus and ankles with small cords to the says, “ Both the Apollinares, father and ladder. Two days I saw him alive in son, were killed, according to the senthis torture; and how much longer he tence, by breaking their legs.” Under lived I cannot tell." If, instead of being the reign of Diocletian, twenty-three nailed to the cross, the criminal was bound Christians suffered martyrdom in the
same manner. The legs of the criminal were condemned to the cross. It was were laid on an anvil, and by main force peculiarly appropriated for slaves. The fractured with a heavy hammer, some- cross has been made a more terrible wbat similar to the modern barbarous instrument of destruction custom of breaking the bones of offenders quished enemy. Thus Alexander the on the wheel by an iron bar. From the Great, after putting eight or ten thousand narrative of the evangelists, we may con- Tyrians to the sword, on taking their city, clude, that breaking the legs of the thieves crucified 2000 more along the shores. was to promote their death, that they Not less sanguinary was the vengeance might be taken down the same day from of the Romans against the Jews; Minutus the cross. That spectators might learn Alexander crucified 800, and Quinctilius the cause of punishment, a label, or in- Varus 2000, on account of some revolt. scription, indicating the crime, frequently Titus, whom we are wont to esteem as surmounted the head of the criminal. humane and merciful, crucified above 500 The offence charged against Jesus Christ, in a day; and at the sack of Jerusalem, was having called himself king of the under his command, the Romans, wherevJews. Accordingly, the inscription on er they could seize the affrighted fugihis cross was, “This is Jesus, the king of tives, either in hatred or derision, nailed the Jews." By our own customs, a label is them to crosses about the walls of the sometimes hung from the neck of an of- city, until the multitude was so great, that fender condemned to lesser punishments, room was wanting for the crosses, and describing his guilt, which is meant to crosses for the bodies. Crucifixion has aggravate the ignominy. But among the been considered the most cruel of punRomans, this was perhaps also the war- ishments, and merited by the most atrorant for putting the sentence in execu- cious offences only. That the pain of the tion. That the object of crucifixion cross is cruel cannot be denied ; yet we might be fulfilled in exposing the body of are, perhaps, accustomed to exaggerate the criminal to decay, sentinels were coin- it. Examples are not wanting of persons monly posted beside the cross, to prevent having been taken down from the cross it from being taken down and buried. alive, and surviving the laceration of their Privation of sepulture was dreaded as the members. Josephus, the historian, relates, greatest evil by the ancients, who believed that, on leaving a particular town in Juthat the soul could never rest or enjoy fe- dea, he saw a great many of the enemy licity so long as their mortal remains con- crucified; but it grieved him much to tinued on the earth. Thus it was a great recognise three of the number with whom aggravation of the punishment. Besides he had been in intimate habits. He these, the ordinary modes of inflicting the hastened to inform Titus of the fact, who punishment of crucifixion, assuredly suf- immediately ordered them to be taken ficiently cruel in themselves, mankind down, and their wounds carefully healed. have sought the gratification of vengeance Two, nevertheless, perished; but the in deviating from them. Such was the third survived. conduct of the Roman soldiers, under CRUOR. (See Blood.) Titus, at the siege of Jerusalem, where the CRYSTALLIZATION. (See Cohesion.) miserable Jews were crucified in various CUBEBs. (See Pepper.) postures by their sanguinary enemies. CUCUMBER-TREE.(See Magnolia.) Seneca speaks of crucifixion with the Cumulus. (See Clouds.) head downwards; and of this we have a Cuvier died at Paris, May 15, 1832. noted example in the history of St. Peter, Cuzco. (See Cusco.) during the first century of the Christian CYANOMETER. (See Heaven.) era. Having been seized by the Roman government, and condemned to die on the cross, it is said that he solicited, as a
D. greater degradation, that he might be crucified with his head downwards. It appears that delinquents were sometimes Dahcotans. (See Indians, American.) affixed to the cross, and burnt or suffo- DALMATIA, DUKE OF. (See Soult.) cated to death. With respect to the per
DARK AGES. (See Middle Ages.) sons on whom this punishment was in- Davy, sir Humphrey, died in 1831. flicted, we have seen that the Carthaginian De Bay. (See Baius.) leaders were not exempt from it; but DEATH, APPARENT, was referred to elsewhere, especially among the Jews from Asphyria, for the treatment of perand Romans, only the lowest malefactors sons in a state of suspended animation: the process will be found described under ease of the kidney. With respect to the Drowning.
treatment which may afford the best DECIGRAMME. (See Gramme.) chance of success, or which may possiDEMESNE. (See Domain.)
bly remove the complaint in its incipient DEMURRER. (See Issue.)
state, we should recommend that a modDenys, Sr., ABBEY of. (See Denis.) erate bleeding be premised, and that a Dertzhavin. (See Derschawin.) diet be employed, of which vegetable
DESIDERADA, or DESIRADA. (See De- matter should form only a small proporseada.)
tion: at the same time we may adminisDessoles died in 1828.
ter vegetable tonics, and may endeavor to Deva-Nagara. (See Sanscrit.) restore the natural action of the skin by
Diabetes is an affection of a very pe- diaphoretics and the warm bath. culiar nature, and which, both with re- DIARRHEA; a very common disease, spect to its origin, its proximate cause, and which consists in an increased discharge its treatment, has given rise to much con- from the alimentary canal, the evacuatroversy. Its most remarkable symptoms tions being but little affected, except in are, a great increase in the quantity of their assuming a more liquid consistence. urine, a voracious appetite, a stoppage of They are generally preceded or accompathe cutaneous perspiration, thirst, emacia- nied by flatulence, and a griping pain in tion, and great muscular debility. The the bowels, and frequently by sickness; urine is not only prodigiously increased but this should, perhaps, rather be attribin its quantity, but likewise has ils com- uted to the saine cause which produces position completely changed; the sub- the diarrhæa, than be considered as a part stance named urea, which it contains in of the disease itself. The symptoms of the healthy state, is entirely removed, or this complaint are so obvious as seldom to exists in very small proportion, while in leave any doubt respecting its existence; its stead we find a large quantity of a but there are two diseases that resemble body possessing the physical and chemi- it, and from which it is important to discal properties of sugar. Whether diabetic tinguish it-dysentery and cholera. For differs essentially from vegetable sugar, is the most part, an attention to the nature to be regarded more as a chemical ques- of the evacuations is sufficient to point tion, than as what, in any respect, influ- out the distinction; or if, as occasionally ences either our pathology or our prac. happens, the diseases appear to run into tice; and it has been a subject of contro- each other, our remedies must be adminversy whether there be a proper diabetes istered accordingly, always adapting them insipidus, that is, a disease attended with rather to the symptoms than to a technithe increased discharge of urine, the vo- cal nomenclature. The exciting causes racious appetite, and the morbid state of of diarrhæa are various; perbaps the the skin, but where the urine does not most frequent is repletion of the stomach, contain sugar. There is much obscurity or the reception into it of some kind of respecting the origin of diabetes: it has indigestible food: cold applied to the surbeen attributed to improper diet, to the face of the body, and especially to the use of spirituous liquors; to large quanti- legs and feet, is also an exciting cause of ties of watery fluids; to exposure to cold diarrhæa; and it is occasionally produced during perspiration; to violent exercise; by impressions upon the nervous system, and, in short, to any thing which might or even by mere mental emotions. In be supposed likely to weaken the system children, the peculiar irritation produced generally, or the digestive organs in par- by teething seems to be a frequent exciting ticular. It does not, however, appear cause of diarrhæa, as well as that which that any of these circumstances so com- arises from the presence of worms in the monly precede the disease, as to entitle it alimentary canal. Diarrhea is often to be regarded as the cause, although ma- symptomatic of some other disease: of ny of them may contribute to aggravate these, one of the most violent is the colit, or to bring it into action, when the liquative discharge from the bowels, foundation is laid in the constitution, which occurs in the latter stages of hectic The proximate has been no less the sub- fever. It is also a frequent attendant or ject of controversy than the exciting cause; sequel of the affections of the liver that and on this point two hypotheses have come on after a residence in hot clidivided the opinions of pathologists: mates, and is then found to be one of the some have ascribed it to a primary affec- most unmanageable symptoms of these tion of the stomach and the function of diseases. In its simple form, diarrhæa is assimilation, and others to a primary dis- not difficult of cure, and, perhaps, in a great majority of cases, would be relieved under several private masters. He was by the mere efforts of nature. The proxi- then sent over to a private seminary in mate cause of diarrhea appears to be an Amsterdam. Young D’Israeli now applied increase of the peristaltic motion of the in- himself ardently to study. In classical testines, which may depend either upon a literature, however, he made no great stimulating substance applied to them, or progress; but he gained an intimate acupon an increased sensibility in the part, quaintance with several modern lanrendering it more easily affected by the guages, and with the authors who have ordinary stimuli. In cases of the first de- written in them. At the end of two years, scription, which constitute a great major- Mr. D’Israeli returned to his native counity of those that fall under our observa- try. He next made a tour'in France and tion, the most effectual remedies are mild Italy, and returned with a valuable colpurgatives, given in small doses, and fre- lection of books, and a confirmed prediquently repeated. Along with the purga- lection for French literature. Wbile he tives large quantities of mild diluents will was at Amsterdam, he first tried to write be found serviceable; and the food should verse, and took Pope for his model. His be of the least stimulating kind, and be earliest effort in England appears to have composed as much as possible of liquids. been a Poetical Epistle on the Abuse of The choice of the purgative will depend Satire, which was an attack on Peter upon the state of the stomach, and vari- Pindar (printed in the 59th volume of the ous other circumstances: neutral salts, Gentleman's Magazine). In 1791, he castor oil, rhubarb and magnesia, are, per- published a poem, entitled a Defence of haps, among those that are the most gen- Poetry, which was addressed to the poet erally applicable : the last will be es- laureate. It was an animated composipecially proper when we have reason to tion; but, when only a few copies were suspect an acid state of the alimentary sold, Mr. D’Israeli destroyed the whole canal. After the due exhibition of pur- edition. His next work was the first gatives, we shall generally find the com- volume of the Curiosities of Literature plaint to subside without the use of any (1791), a selection made with taste and other remedies; and, by a proper regula- judgment, and which was so well receivtion of the diet, the parts resume their ed that he prefixed his name to the second healthy action. Considerable advantage volume (1793). The work has since has been gained by the use of warm cloth- passed through several editions. The ing, and particularly of flannel worn next seventh edition, published in 1824, forms to the skin, in those who are subject to fre- five octavo volumes. Since that publicaquent attacks of diarrhæa; and some- tion, he has constantly appeared in the times it has appeared that the warm bath, character of a writer, with success. His or even the removal to a milder climate, works display extensive reading, a lively has been of permanent utility.
fancy, and a pleasant wit, and are written Dickinson, Jonathan, first president of in a flowing and spirited style. The folNassau hall, the college of New Jersey, lowing is a list of them, in their order of was born at Hatfield, Massachusetts, publication :-a Dissertation on AnecApril 22, 1688, graduated at Yale college dotes (1793); Essay on the Manners and in 1706, and, a few years after, became Genius of the Literary Character (1795); the minister of the first Presbyterian Miscellanies, or Literary Recreations church in Elizabethtown, New Jersey. (1796); Vaurien, a Satirical Novel (2 vols., In 1746, he was appointed president of 1797); Romances (1798); Narrative Pothe new college, but died Oct. 7, in the ems (1803); Despotism, or the Fall of following year. His numerous theologi- the Jesuits, a novel (2 vols.); Flim cal writings are much esteemed.
Flams, or Life of my Uncle, a kind of DIOCLETIAN, ERA OF. (See Epoch.) satirical biography (3 vols.) ; Calamities
D'ISRAELI, Isaac, is the only son of an of Authors, including some Inquiries Italian merchant, of a Jewish family, who respecting their Moral and Literary Charwas long a resident in England. At a acters (1812–13, 2 vols., 8vo.); Quarrels very early period of youth, he had a pas- of Authors, or some Memoirs for our sion for reading, and even attempted to Literary History, including Specimens of write little tales concerning giants and Controversy, to the Reign of Elizabeth ghosts. But, though fond of reading, he (1814, 3 vols., 8vo.); a new Series of the was averse from regular study. He first Curiosities of Literature, consisting of went to an academy at Enfield, near his Researches in Literary, Biographical and father's country-house; but there he learnt Political History (3 vols., 8vo., 1823); and nothing more than a little imperfect Latin. Commentaries on the Reign of Charles I Nor did he make much greater progress (5 vols., 1831).—His son is the author of