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days, many trials of locomotive wagons have been made, of which the steamwagon, lately brought to such perfection, is the most important. The wind has also been frequently used to propel wagons. Simon Stevin, of Bruges, invented a sailing wagon for twenty-eight persons, which, on even ground, is said to have travelled fourteen Dutch leagues in two hours! Mr. Slater, an Englishman, travelled in a sailing wagon from Alexandria to Bassora.-Respecting the invention of wagons, harnesses, &c., among the ancients, see the work of Ginzrot (Munich, 1817, 2 vols.). Kites have also been used to propel wagons. (See Velocipede, and Steam.)
WAGRAM, BATTLE OF, on July 5 and 6, 1809, gained by Napoleon over the archduke Charles. It decided the fate of Austria, on the same field on which Rodolph of Hapsburg (q. v.), in 1278, had been victorious over the proud Ottocar, and laid the foundation of Austria's power. The severe loss which Napoleon had sustained in the battle of Aspern (q. v.), on the occasion of his unsuccessful attempt to pass the Danube, made repose necessary for his army. He also needed reinforcements. These he received in the army of the viceroy of Italy, who had forced the Austrians, at last, from that country to Hungary. Bernadotte was also approaching with the Saxons; and other divisions were on the way. The archduke Charles, on the left bank of the Danube, was in a less fortunate situation. His loss, also, had been severe; and his army consisted, in a great measure, of raw troops hastily levied. Napoleon remained in Vienna, and prepared every thing for a decisive struggle, whilst his antagonist appeared to stand merely on the defensive; at least nothing was done by him to disturb the French in their preparations on the islands of the Danube. Heavy ordnance was carried from the arsenals of Vienna to the well-constructed works on these islands. Materials for bridges were provided, and every precaution taken to prevent a second failure in the attempt to pass the river. The position of the antagonists permitted the most accurate knowledge of all the movements of both armies. July 1, Napoleon concentrated his forces, and fixed his head-quarters at Lobau. Presburg had been occupied by Davoust a few days previously. Vandamme guarded the Danube as far as Lintz. The whole number of the French forces has been estimated at 180,000; and if this number is over
rated, it is certain that the Austrian force was not half as great. From July 2, the French attempted, at several points on the islands, to establish a secure communication with the opposite bank, without being prevented by the fire of the Austrians; and on July 4, Napoleon concentrated the greatest part of his troops on the island of Lobau. At ten o'clock in the evening, the first troops, in small numbers, passed in boats over the Danube, and established themselves on the left bank, during a tremendous storm, and supported by a warm fire from all the batteries, directed against Enzersdorf and the Austrian redoubts erected on those spots where a landing was expected. Enzersdorf was in flames, and shed a brilliant light on the Danube. With great skill and promptness, excellent bridges were thrown over the river, and as early as two o'clock, the whole army had reached the left bank. It seems to have been in consequence of a settled plan, that Charles did not endeavor to prevent the passage of Napoleon, and that the Austrians immediately made a retrograde movement. On the morning of the 5th, the French army extended itself in the Marchfeld (a plain many leagues in length, on the left bank of the Danube, and containing the town of Wagram). A numerous artillery along the whole French line played incessantly. The Austrians were slowly forced back during the day. In point of fact, the archduke Charles had at this time but three divisions to oppose to the French forces. It was not till towards night that his other forces could be brought into action. It is impossible for us to give the details of the battle, or to describe the repeated assaults on Wagram by the Saxons. The French army bivouacked on some places very near the enemy. Some have believed that the retreat of Charles, on July 5, was in order to place the French troops between his forces and those which were approaching, under the archduke John, from Hungary. But the army of the archduke John was much too weak to produce a decisive effect, and, moreover, would have been opposed by the disposable French divisions, and the 10,000 Bavarians under Wrede. Early in the morning of July 6, the extreme left wing of the French, under Bernadotte and Masséna, was extended to Hirschstätten; the centre, comprising the guards and the Italian army, was at Raschdorf; to the right were Marmont and Oudinot; and Davoust was on the extreme right. The archduke
Charles now projected an attack, en echélon, from his right, against the French left. Thus it was hoped that the Austrian army might relieve itself from the extreme pressure upon its left wing. At first, this attack was successful: the French were forced back as far as Enzersdorf. The Austrian centre was not so fortunate: it could not advance equally with the right wing, and thus a dangerous extension of the Austrian forces took place. Napoleon knew how to keep them in this situation, and thus to obstruct their further attacks; and soon after, having turned the Austrian left wing, he began to act on the offensive, and endeavored to decide the battle by destroying the enemy's centre. Masséna attacked Aderklaa most violently; and, had he succeeded, all would have been lost; but the Austrians fought with great bravery against the cavalry, artillery and guards, and repeated attacks were repulsed. Had the archduke John arrived at this time on the left wing, as he was ordered to do, a favorable result might have been obtained; but he did not come up, and the French troops spread far to the right. Upon the third attack, they occupied the height of Markgrafen-Neusiedel, and the Austrian right wing was deprived of the advantages which it had gained. The Austrians retreated. The archduke John, it is said, was detained near Presburg in collecting his corps. It was not until late in the evening, that he heard from the field of battle that every thing was decided. To save his own troops, he again retreated from the Marchfeld. Both armies had displayed great valor. The loss of the Austrians may have amounted to 27,000 men killed and wounded (they had taken, however, 7000 prisoners, twelve eagles and colors, and eleven cannons). The loss of the French cannot be reckoned at less. On the 7th, 9th and 10th, the archduke retreated, constantly fighting, to the heights of Znaym, where Marmont and Masséna reached him. On the 11th, a battle was fought, which, however, was interrupted by the armistice offered by Austria, and concluded, July 12, at Znaym, after which the negotiations for peace commenced. For information respecting the whole campaign, see general Pelet's (aid-de-camp of Masséna) Memoire sur la Guerre de 1809, en Allemagne, avec les Opérations particulières des Corps d'Italie, de Pologne, de Saxe, de Naples, et de Walcheren (Paris, 1825, seq., 4 vols., with an atlas).
WAGTAIL (motacüla); small birds which
seem to be peculiar to the eastern continent. They differ from the warblers only in their longer legs, more slender form, and longer tail. They never perch on trees or shrubs, but frequent the margins of ponds and water-courses, and are continually elevating and depressing the tail; hence the name. The common European wagtail (M. alba) is a familiar bird, which seems to seek the society of man and domestic animals, and is even seen frequently to rest upon the backs of cattle while they are grazing. The vicinity of mills is observed to be its favorite resort. The plumage is a mixture of black, white and gray. It is widely diffused throughout the eastern continent.
WAHABEES, WAHABITES, or WECHABITES, is the name of several Arab tribes, who profess the religious faith which Sheik Mohammed, son of Abdel Wahab, taught in the middle of the eighteenth century, and, like the founder of the religion of the Koran, sought to propagate by art and courage. Sheik Mohammed, belonging to the great tribe of the Tamini (born in 1729, in the town of Ajen, situated near the desert, in the district of Al Ared), had acquired great learning in Bassora, Bagdad and Damascus. He taught at first in Ajen, and soon made proselytes of the inhabitants of the district of Al Ared. Claiming divine inspiration, he taught, like the Koran, the doctrines of which he but partially received, the existence of an only God, the Author of the world, the Rewarder of the good, and the Punisher of the bad; but he rejected all the stories contained in the Koran, especially those concerning Mohammed, whom he considered merely a man beloved of God, but branded the worship of him as a crime directly opposed to the true adoration of the Divinity. He also prohibited the wealth and splendor which are found in the mosques of the Mohammedans. All who should oppose this new doctrine were to be destroyed by fire and sword. Mohammed first converted to his newdoctrines the sovereign of Derayeh and Lahsa, Ebn-Sehud, whom he proclaimed prince (emir) and protector of the new sect, of which he declared himself high-priest, thus separating the spiritual and secular authorities, which were afterwards hereditary in the families of Ebn-Sehud and Sheik Mohammed. The principal seat of the Wahabees was the city of Derayeh, in the province of Nedsjed, and Jamama, 250 miles west of Bassora. As the votaries of the new faith were all inspired with the highest enthusiasm, prepared for
all trials, indefatigable, brave and cruel (conversion or death being their watchword), their dominion spread with incredible rapidity among the surrounding Arab tribes, of which, in a short time, twentysix were subjugated, incorporated with the original Wahabees, filled with hatred of Mohammedanism, and taught to delight in plundering the treasures of the mosques. Sehud's son and successor, Abd-Elaziz, could bring into the field 120,000 cavalry. Well provided with camels and horses, and armed with sword and spear, the Wahabites, though resembling the Bedouins (q. v.), and destitute of any considerable artillery, which they obtained only by conquest, were dangerous enemies. The nature of the country, their mode of life, and their religious creed, formed their character, which, from the mountainous regions of their original seat, is even more savage and bold than that of the first followers of Mohammed. The disorders which prevailed in all parts of the dominions of the Porte, including the Arabian countries under its protection, was especially favorable to the enterprises of the Wahabees, who, from their seat between the Persian gulf and the Red sea, had reached several parts of Asiatic Turkey, before the slightest measures were taken to put a stop to their devastations and conversions. In 1801, the pacha of Bagdad first received orders to proceed, with the tribes which had adhered to Mohammedanism, against the Wahabees, who, however, by great presents, bribed the generals sent against them to retreat, and then attacked the town of Iman Hussein, destroyed it, and, after acquiring much plunder, fled back to their deserts. On this occasion, they also pillaged the mosque of Ali, which was highly venerated by the Persians. The Persian monarch, Fath Ali, threatened them with his vengeance, but was prevented from executing his purpose by civil wars. The daring Wahabites now turned an eager gaze upon the far greater treasures of Mecca, the holy city. Here Ghaleb, a younger brother, had deprived his elder brother, Abd-Al-Mein, of the sherifate. On pretence of avenging this wrong, Abd-Elaziz sent his son Sehud, with 100,000 men, to Mecca, where he put Ghaleb to flight, but was prevented, for a while, from conquering the city, by the arrival of the great caravan, under the escort of the pacha of Damascus, who, however, entered into a treaty, not to stay *The use of coffee and tobacco, as well as of silk clothing, was forbidden by their law.
more than three days in Mecca, and not to interfere in the contest of the brothers respecting the sherifate. After the departure of the caravan, the Wahabees took the holy city without resistance, murdered many sheiks and Mohamme dans, who persisted in their religious faith, and reinstated, indeed, Abd-AlMein, but destroyed all the sacred monuments, and carried off immense treasures. Leaving behind only a small garrison of 100 men, Sehud next attempted, in vain, the conquest of Jidda and Medina, after which he returned to Derayeh, where, meanwhile, his father had been murdered, in 1803, by a Persian. Sehud was now prince of the Wahabees. Their highpriest was Hussein the Blind, the eldest son of Sheik Mohammed. The misfortunes which they suffered were soon repaired. In 1806, the Wahabees appeared more numerous than ever; plundered the caravans of pilgrims going to the holy sepulchre; got possession of the Mahmel (a splendid box, in which the grand seignior sends, every year, the presents destined for the tomb of the prophet); and conquered Mecca, Medina, and even Jidda, marking their path by bloodshed and conversions, among which, that of the mufti of Mecca excited the most astonishment. The fear of the Wahabees spread throughout the East, and even the British were apprehensive that their commerce would be endangered, several bands of warriors having proceeded to the Persian gulf, formed a junction with the pirates, and disturbed the communication between Bassora, Mascat and India. The British, therefore, took the imam of Mascat, against whom his brother had rebelled in the country of Oman, under their protection, and, to defend him against the Wahabees, sent him, from Bombay, in 1809, a fleet and army. The chastisement of their common enemies was fully effected in several battles on the sea and coasts, and especially by the demolition of their chief place of assembling, Ras el Elyma (Kherim), where 3200 inhabitants were killed, and 1600 taken prisoners. On the other hand, the British, as a condition of their further assistance, stipulated with the imam for the islands of the Persian gulf, Bahrein and Zebora, celebrated for their rich pearl fisheries. In 1810, the sublime Porte summoned Mohammed Ali, pacha of Cairo, and the pachas of Damascus and Acre, to undertake an expedition against the pacha of Bagdad, Jussuff Pacha, and his allies, the Wahabees. The pacha of Acre obeyed this command with equal
activity and bravery, and conquered Bagdad, the pacha of which, deprived of his treasures, fled to his father, the pacha of Cairo, who had been ordered to take part against him, and with whom he found a favorable reception. Thus the quarrels and jealousies of the Turkish pachas, and of the Persian khans, greatly favored the progress of the Wahabees. Soon after the massacre, perpetrated, by Mohammed Ali, among the beys and mamelukes at Cairo, the Wahabees formed a junction with the relics of them who had fled to Upper Egypt. Mohammed Ali now prosecuted, with indefatigable energy, his preparations for the annihilation of the Wahabees. He conquered Yambo and Nahala in 1811, and, as the fruits of three victories, sent three sacks of Wahabees' ears to Constantinople. No subsequent progress, however, was made: on the contrary, Jussuff Pacha, who now fought, with his father, Mohammed Ali, on the side of the Turks, was forced to retreat (he died soon after of the plague). But the Wahabees, betrayed by their ally, the sherif of Mecca, and abandoned by several Arab tribes, suffered new defeats in the defiles of Sofra and Judeyda, and were altogether driven from the route to Medina. This holy city was weakly garrisoned, and, therefore, easily conquered by the Turks. Mecca, also, soon after fell into their power. The solemn delivery of the keys of the regained cities of the faith, was celebrated with great rejoicings at Constantinople. These victories had done much for the security of Mohamnmedanism, which finds one of its chief supports in the possession of Mecca and Medina, and the uninterrupted pilgrimages of the faithful to those cities. This formidable sect was as yet, however, far from being suppressed. Mohammed Ali, pacha of Egypt, therefore, renewed his preparations; but he lost, by surprise, a fortified place called Kumsidal, containing great stores of arms and ammunition, which the Wahabees took by surprise. The Persian disturbances were also very favorable to them; and they found opportunity to form a new union with several Arab tribes. But their daring was not accompanied with prudence. They undertook the boldest predatory excursions, while their enemy, the pacha of Egypt, adopted judicious measures for their entire overthrow. After the death of their sovereign, Sehud II, in 1814, when quarrels arose on the subject of the succession, they suffered several defeats. A deeisive victory was obtained by Moham
med Ali, in the beginning of 1815, at Bassila, not far from the city of Tarabe. It was, nevertheless, difficult to attack them in the centre of their power. Ibrahim, the son of the pacha, finally succeeded, in 1818, in inflicting a total defeat on the Wahabees, under their sovereign, Abdallah Ben Sund, and in blocking them up in their fortified camp, four days' march from their capital, Derayeh. The camp was stormed September 3, eighty pieces of artillery taken, 20,000 soldiers put to death, and Abdallah himself made prisoner. The inhabitants of the city now surrendered, but demanded an amnesty, and that their lives and houses should be spared; but the conquerors declared that the sultan alone could grant or refuse these terms. Meanwhile, the arrival of the prisoner, who, both as a rebel and an apostate, was of great political importance to the sublime Porte, was celebrated in Constantinople as a national triumph. With his mufti and treasurer, he was then carried in chains before the sultan, tried by the divan, and beheaded, with his fellow prisoners, December 17, 1818. Detached bands of Wahabees are still said to rove through the desert; and the heroic daughter of the founder of the sect is said to be their leader; but the sultan, having left the conquered to the pleasure of the pacha of Egypt, he entirely destroyed their principal seat; and the inhabitants, after the loss of their property, were dispersed.* The severity of Ibrabim, who is remembered as the scourge of Arabia, and the curse of Derayeh, did not, however, put an end to the Wahabite reformation, nor to the spirit of resistance by which its abettors were animated. The war was renewed in 1824, with as much ferocity as ever, and apparently with increased means, on the part of the insurgents, of bringing it to a successful issue. It was protracted during the three follow
*Derayeh, in the Arab province of Nedsjed, protected by deserts and mountains, was situated in 42° 14' E, lon., 26° N. lat. (in the great valley gardens and orchards, twelve days' journey from of Wadyhenisch, 300 miles long), surrounded by Bagdad, and 130 leagues east of Medina, 100 leagues south-west of Bassora, and 160 leagues south-east of Jerusalem. It was two leagues long, half a league broad, exposed to frequent 28 mosques, and 30 schools. The former rulers inundations, and contained 2500 houses of stone, resided in the suburb of Tereif. According to
some accounts, the Wahabees were divided into three classes-soldiers, field laborers, and artisans ; but since, like the other Arabs, every able man was destined for predatory excursions, it is more correct to divide them into priests, soldiers, and slaves. According to late accounts, the sect of the Wahabees is still very numerous in Arabia.
ing years, with alternate advantage; having been, during the latter portion of that interval, allowed to slumber, owing to the struggle made by the Greeks in the Morea, to recover their liberty. In this war, Mohammed Ali (q. v.) first put in practice his improved system of tactics, on the European method; and his success, as in his recent campaigns in Syria, was owing to his being provided with soldiers disciplined by European officers. See Planat's Histoire de la Régénération de l'Egypte (Geneva, 1830), for an account of these campaigns against the Wahabees. WAHLENBERG, George, lecturer on botany in the university of Upsal, and superintendent of the museum of the society of science in that place, was born in the province of Warmeland, in 1784. While a student at the university, he distinguished himself by his progress in scientific studies, and, soon after leaving the university, was enabled, by the assistance of the Swedish patriot barón Hermelin, and of the scientific societies of Upsal and Stockholm, to enter upon a course of botanical and geological inquiries, which led him to make excursions into the remote parts of the Scandinavian peninsula, through Swedish and Norwegian Lapland, and to Gothland. Having examined Scandinavia, he set out upon similar scientific expeditions to foreign countries. In 1810, he visited Bohemia and Hungary, examined the Carpathian mountains, travelled in Switzerland, and, after visiting the principal German universities, returned to Upsal, , in 1814. His Flora Lapponica, Flora Carpathorum, Flora Upsaliensis, and Flora Suecica (2 vols., 1824), take a high rank among works of this nature. Wahlenberg has likewise written some geological essays of value.
WAHLSTADT; a generic German term for field of battle (from Wal, which means fight, and also dead body; hence Walhalla, or Valhalla). As a geographical name, it belongs to a large village in Silesia, near Liegnitz (q. v.), on the Katzbach (q. v.), where Henry II, duke of Silesia, fought a bloody battle, April 9, 1241, against the Tartars, in which he lost his life, and the latter were victorious. In memory of this battle, the place and village were called Wahlstadt. In the same place, Blucher (q. v.) was victorious over the French, Aug. 26, 1813 (see Katzbach), and, in reward of this and other victories, was made prince of Wahlstadt. WAHOO. (See Elm.) WAIFS. (See Estrays.)
the West Riding of Yorkshire, on the river Calder. The parish church is a Gothic structure: the spire is upwards of 237 feet in height. There is a handsome stone bridge over the Calder, built in the reign of Edward III, in the centre of which is a chapel, in the richest style of Gothic or Saracenic architecture, ten yards in length, and about eight in breadth. Wakefield is one of the greatest corn markets in England, and contains immense corn warehouses. Population, 12,232; nine miles south of Leeds. By the reform act of 1832, Wakefield is constituted a borough, returning one member to parliament.
WAKEFIELD, Gilbert, a distinguished scholar and critic, son of the reverend George Wakefield of Nottingham, was born in 1756, and entered, in 1772, Jesus college, in Cambridge, where he pursued his studies with great ardor, in 1776 graduated bachelor of arts, and was soon after elected a fellow. In the same year, he gave the public a small volume of Latin poems, with a few critical notes upon Homer. In 1778, he received deacon's orders, and, on leaving college, engaged in a curacy at Stockport, in Cheshire, and subsequently at another near Liverpool. The dissatisfaction which he entertained at the doctrines and liturgy of the church of England progressively increasing, ho determined to take the first opportunity of resigning his situation in it; which design he fulfilled in 1779, and accepted the office of classical tutor at the dissenting academy at Warrington. He had early formed a design of giving a new version of the New Testament, and published, in 1782, his New Translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew, with Notes Critical, Philological and Explanatory (4to.). On the dissolution of the Warrington academy, he removed to Bramcote, in Nottinghamshire, with a view of taking private pupils. Here he published, in 1784, the first volume of an Enquiry into the Opinions of the Christian Writers of the First Three Centuries concerning the Person of Jesus Christ, a work which he never concluded. He subsequently removed to Richmond and Nottingham, until, in 1789, he commenced his Silva Critica, the object of which was to illustrate the Scriptures by the philology of Greece and Rome. Of this learned performance, five parts appeared in succession, until 1795, the three first from the Cambridge press. In 1790, he quitted Nottingham, in order to accept the office of classical tutor at the
WAKEFIELD; a town of England, in dissenting college at Hackney. Here his