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cylindrical animals, however various their conformation and modes of life. Even Linnæus included in his class vermes, the oyster, and the other mollusca, as well as the echini, polypi and medusæ, or sea-blubbers, animals which have since been very properly separated.
WORM, in gunnery; a screw of iron, to be fixed on the end of a rammer, to pull out the wad of a firelock, carbine or pistol, being the same with the wad-hook, only the one is more proper for small arms, and the other for cannon.-Worm, in chemistry, is a long, winding, pewter pipe, placed in a tub of water, to cool and condense the vapors in the distillation of spirits.-Worm a cable or hawser, in sea language, is to strengthen it by winding a small line, or rope, all along between the strands.
WORMIUS, Olaus; a learned Danish physician, born in 1588, at Aarhuus, in Jutland, where his father was a burgomaster. After some previous education, he went, in 1605, to the university of Marpurg, and then to Strasburg, where he studied medicine. He subsequently removed to Basle, and took the degree of M. D., having previously travelled in France, Italy, Holland and England. In 1613, he returned to his native country, and was made professor of the belles-lettres in the university of Copenhagen. In 1615, he was transferred to the chair of Greek literature, and, in 1624, to that of physic, which he held till his death. His academical engagements did not prevent him from practising as a physician; and the reputation of his skill occasioned his being employed by his sovereign, Christiern IV, who, in recompense of his services, made him a canon of the cathedral of Lund. His death took place in 1654. He was the author of several works relative to his profession, and also wrote in defence of the Aristotelian philosophy; but his most important productions are those concerning the antiquities of Denmark and Norway, among which may be mentioned Fasti Danici; Litteratura Danica Antiquissima; Monumentorum Danicorum Libri sex; Lexicon Runicum; and Series Regum Daniæ.
WORMS; an old German city on the left bank of the Rhine, formerly one of the free imperial cities. By the peace of Luneville, in 1801, it was ceded, with the whole left bank of the Rhine, to France; and since the peace of Paris (q. v.), it has belonged to the province of Rhenish Hessia in Hesse-Darmstadt. It lies in an agreeable and fertile country,
the Wonnegau (land of joy), so much praised by the Minnesingers (q. v.), and contains a population of 8000 inhabitants, who are supported chiefly by the cultivation of the vine, and the navigation of the Rhine. There are also some manufactures. The Protestant religion is the prevailing one. The Catholics have two churches, one of which is the cathedral, of which the foundation was laid in the eighth century, but which was not finished until the twelfth century. It is about 740 feet long, and 220 feet wide. The Lutherans have two churches, and the Reformed or Calvinists one. Among several excellent sorts of wine made here, the Liebfrauenmilch (milk of our dear lady) is distinguished. The grapes grow around the church of Our Lady, from which it has its name. Worms is one of the most ancient cities of Germany, and' one of the most distinguished in the early history of the country. The Romans had a colony here; and the early Frankish kings, and even Charlemagne and the later Carlovingians, spent much time here. At a later period, it was the seat of the RhenoFrankish dukes. In the history of the middle ages and that of modern times, Worms is also conspicuous. Many diets have been held here, of which those of 1495 and 1521 are the principal. The two held in the former year did much to establish order in Germany. At the latter, Luther defended his faith boldly before the emperor and the assembled members of the empire, concluding his address with the words, "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise: so help me God! amen." Worms derived importance also from its manufactures, commerce, and population, which, even towards the end of the thirty years' war (q. v.), amounted to 30,000 souls, and, as a member of the confederation of the Rhenish cities, was engaged in the principal quarrels with the neighboring princes. It has declined during the two last centuries, particularly on account of the endless wars between Germany and France. In 1689, this city, as well as Spires, was almost entirely destroyed by the French, by the orders of Louvois. (q. v.) The city has been since rebuilt; yet there are even now many gardens where formerly there were buildings. In the early part of the French revolutionary war, Worms again suffered much, being occupied alternately by both the hostile armies. Worms was formerly a bishop's see, the prince-bishop of which was always the archbishop of Mayence.
WORMWOOD (artemisia); a genus of compound flowers, which may be recognised by the dissected and usually downy leaves, and the small roundish heads of flowers. The common species (A. absinthium) is tonic, anthelmintic, stomachic, and slightly stimulating, and has been used with advantage in intermittents, gout, scurvy and dropsy. The seed is used by the rectifiers of British spirits, and the plant is a good deal cultivated in certain parts of England for this purpose. The leaves and points of the shoots of the tarragon (A. dracunculus) are used as an ingredient in pickles. A simple infusion of the plant in vinegar makes a pleasant fish sauce: it is eaten along with beef-steaks, and is employed, both in Europe and Persia, to correct the coldness of salad herbs, and season soups and other dishes. The plant is of the easiest culture, but, like the other species, requires a dry soil. From the acrid leaves of A. Chinensis, moxa is obtained—a substance much in use among the Chinese as an actual cautery. For this purpose, the moxa is laid upon the part affected, and set on fire. Numerous species of artemisia are found upon the plains of Missouri.
WORONZOFF; a distinguished Russian family. Three females belonging to it are conspicuous in Russian history:-1. Elizabeth Woronzoff; the mistress of the grand prince, afterwards emperor Peter III. She ubsequently married the senator Polanski. 2. The countess Butterlin. 3. The princess Daschkoff, for some time the confidant of Catharine II. She took a very active part in the dethroning of the emperor, whose mistress her sister was, and in the elevation of Catharine to the throne. The uncle of these two, the high chancellor count Michael Woronzoff, was the head of the Swedish party, and the enemy of the chancellor Bestuscheff, the head of the Danish party. When the latter fell into disgrace, in 1757, count Woronzoff was made chancellor of the empire. Count Alexander Woronzoff was made, in 1802, chancellor of the empire by the emperor Alexander, and received the direction of the department of foreign affairs. His brother, S. Woronzoff, was Russian ambassador in London when the French revolution broke out, and took an active part in all the negotiations between England and Russia during the reigns of Catharine, Paul I, and Alexander. He died in London in June, 1832. His son, Michael Woronzoff, is governor of New Russia (residing at Odessa). He was a general of infantry
in the wars of his country in 1813, '14 and '15, against France. In 1826, he was deputed by the emperor Nicholas, with Ribeaupierre, to negotiate, at Akermann, with the Turkish commissioners, respecting the misunderstandings between Russia and the Porte.
WORSHIP OF GOD. The expression of veneration for the highest of beings, of submission to his will, and of thankfulness for his goodness, though it may be offered in the secret stillness of the heart, will often be conveyed by external visible signs, through which the feelings of awe and love endeavor to manifest themselves in the most forcible and lively manner. These acts of homage to a superior power will be characterized by more or less of rudeness or elevation, as the conceptions of the object of worship are more or less gross or spiritual. Prayer and sacrifice, accompanied with various ceremonies, are the most general external acts, by which the feelings of religious veneration are expressed; and while some nations and sects are eager to surround these acts with all the splendor of earthly pomp, others think to render them more worthy of the Being to whom they are addressed, by the absence of all worldly show. If the worship of God, says Paley, be a duty of religion, public worship is a necessary institution; because without it the greater part of mankind would exercise no religious worship at all. Besides, assemblies appointed for this purpose afford regularly recurring opportunities for moral and religious instruction to those who would otherwise receive no such instruction. If we advert to facts, it will be found that the general diffusion of religious knowledge among all orders of Christians, compared with the intellectual condition of barbarous nations, can be ascribed to no other cause than the regular establishment of assemblies for divine worship; in which portions of Scripture are recited and explained, or the principles of Christian erudition are so constantly taught in sermons, incorporated with liturgies, or expressed in extempore prayer, as to imprint, by the very repetition, some knowledge and memory of these subjects upon the most unqualified and careless hearer. But while the different forms of Christian worship resemble each other in their fundamental principle, there is almost every variety in the details of the ceremony; and there have been not less violent controversies and causes of offence, afforded by different views of the ceremonial arrangements of worship,
than by differences of opinion in matters of dogmatical theology or ecclesiastical government. The heathens objected to the early Christians, that their worship had none of the external splendor of other religions-no temple, no altars, no images. The primitive Christians assembled together in social worship, but they did not attribute any peculiar sanctity to the spot of their meeting, which, in fact, was commonly the house of one of the congregation. In the course of time, however, as they became more numerous, they met in rooms or buildings appropriated for the purpose. When the congregation was assembled, the first act of divine service performed was the reading of the Holy Scriptures, as was the custom in the Jewish synagogues. (q. v.) At first, the Old Testament was of course alone used for this purpose; but in process of time, as the books of the New Testament were composed, these were also read in the churches. The reading of the Scriptures was followed by a short and familiar address, explaining and applying what had been read, and exhorting the hearers to piety and virtue, and by the singing of psalms or hymns, selected from the Scriptures, or composed for the purpose. The congregation then rose up, and joined in prayer, with their faces turned towards the east. It is a subject of dispute whether precomposed forms or extempore effusions were used in prayer. (See Liturgy, Mass, Lord's Supper, &c.)
Worship, Minister of Public (in French, Ministre du Culte; in Prussia, Minister des Cultus). In those countries in which the direction of every thing is in the executive, and the whole action of society is regulated by the government (a system more consistently and effectually pursued in Prussia than, probably, in any other country), not only the administration of justice, but even of religious worship, is under the superintendence of a minister-an abuse which at one time was carried to a great extreme in Prussia. There is still in that country a "minister for the supervision of ecclesiastical affairs, of schools, and medicine." The use of the word cultus has been discontinued. The minister of public worship, however, does not superintend merely the forms of religious worship, but all ecclesiastical affairs. He appoints the various examinations which candidates for the ministry must pass through before they can be admitted to holy orders; investigates complaints against clergymen, or directs in
quiries to be made, &c.; settles disputes between Catholics and Protestants, &c. In France, the ministry of public instruction is generally connected with that of the "culte," which latter has the management of ecclesiastical affairs in as far as they have a political character (in other respects they are under the control of the bishops, &c.). These two departments, however, are not always connected. At present, for instance (1832), M. Guizot is minister of public instruction, but, being a Protestant, is not the minister of public worship.
WORSLEY, Sir Richard, son of sir Thomas Worsley, born in 1751, in the Isle of Wight, succeeded to the title in his eighteenth year, and soon after visited the continent, where he cultivated his taste for antiquities by the study of the remains of ancient Rome, and made some large purchases of statues, marbles, and other articles of virtù, which, on his return to England, it formed his principal amusement to classify and arrange. A catalogue of this collection was afterwards published under the title of Musaum Worsleianum, in two folio volumes. (See Visconti.) Sir Richard published a History of the Isle of Wight (in 1 vol., 4to., with engravings of the principal seats, views, &c., by Godfrey). He was many years in parliament as representative of the borough of Newport, and held a situation about the person of king George III, as comptroller of the royal household. He was also governor of the island, where he died in 1805.
WORSTED; a thread spun of wool that has been combed, and which, in the spinning, is twisted harder than ordinarily. It is chiefly used either to be knit or woven into stockings, caps, gloves, &c. Worsted has obtained its name from Worstead, a market-town in the county of Norfolk, England, where the manufacture of the article was first introduced. The manufactures, which derived their name from the place, are now removed to Norwich and its vicinity.
WORT. (See Brewing, and Malt.)
WOTTON, Sir Henry, a conspicuous political and literary character in his own age, youngest son of sir Robert Wotton, was born in 1568. After receiving a classical education at Winchester school, he was entered at Oxford, where he much distinguished himself by his attention to logic and philosophy, and composed a tragedy. Having studied civil law, under an eminent Italian professor, he became a proficient in the Italian language. His
father bequeathing him a moderate income, he determined, in 1589, to travel, and visited all the principal countries of the continent. On his return, he was appointed secretary to the earl of Essex, whom he attended in his maritime expeditions against the Spaniards, and afterwards to Ireland. On the fall of that nobleman, he quitted the kingdom, and resided at Florence, where he composed a treatise, printed after his death, entitled the State of Christendom. While thus employed, the grand-duke of Tuscany having intercepted some letters disclosing a plot to take away the life of James, king of Scotland, he engaged Wotton to carry secret intelligence of it to that prince. This service he ably performed in the character and guise of an Italian, and returned to Florence. When James came to the English crown, he sent for Wotton, knighted him, and, in 1604, employed him as an ambassador to the republic of Venice. As Wotton passed through Augsburg, being desired to write in an album, he wrote, in Latin, that "an ambassador is a good man, sent abroad to lie for the good of his country." This innocent sally was, by the malignity of Schioppius, represented as a state maxim, avowed by the religion of the king of England. James, who thought nothing relative either to king-craft or state-craft a subject for wit, was, in consequence, highly displeased; and, on his return, Wotton remained five years unemployed. At length he recovered the royal favor, and was trusted with a mission to the United Provinces, and subsequently restored to his former post at Venice, where he remained three years. Other missions followed, to the duke of Savoy, and to various princes in Germany, on the affairs of the elector palatine. A third embassy to Venice closed his diplomatic labors, from which he did not return until the death of James, when, in 1624, he was made provost of Eton college, as a reward for his various services. The first fruits of his leisure were his Elements of Architecture. The statutes of the college requiring him to assume a clerical character, he took deacon's orders, and spent the remainder of his life in literary leisure, social hospitality, and innocent amusement. He had planned a life of Luther; but, by the persuasion of Charles I, he laid it aside for a history of England, in which he made very little prog
The arrears of his demands on the crown remaining unpaid, he continued embarrassed to his death, which took
place in December, 1639, in the seventysecond year of his age. Sir Henry Wotton was a person of sound understanding, poignant wit, and great accomplishments, in whom the scholar and the man of the world were very happily blended. In addition to the works already mentioned, there is a collection of miscellanies published, after his death, under the title of Reliquiæ Wottoniana, several times reprinted. It consists of lives, letters, poems and characters, displaying a lively fancy and penetrating understanding, though somewhat obscured by the pedantry of the age. Of his poems, one, entitled a Hymn to God in my latter Sickness, is admired for energy of expression and harmonious versification. There is a Life of Sir H. Wotton by Walton.
WOTTON, William, an English clergyman of distinguished learning, was born in 1666, and, under his father's tuition, acquired such a knowledge of languages, during his childhood, as caused him to be regarded as the wonder of the time. In his sixth year, he could construe the Latin, Greek and Hebrew tongues, chiefly by the aid of an extraordinarily retentive memory. In consequence of this precocity, he was entered at Catharine hall, Cambridge, before he was ten years old. He took the degree of bachelor of arts in his thirteenth year, some time before which he had been celebrated in a copy of verses, not only for his acquaintance with the learned languages, including Arabic, Syriac and Chaldee, but for his knowledge of geography, logic, philosophy and mathematics. In 1691, he was made chaplain to the earl of Nottingham, who, in 1693, presented him to a rectory. The first fruit of his extensive reading appeared in 1694, in his Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning, the plan of which was to institute a comparison between the ancients and moderns in all that regarded arts, science and literature. To a second edition, in 1697, was annexed doctor Bentley's Dissertation on Phalaris, which involved Wotton in the controversy respecting the merits of the ancients and the moderns, and subjected him to the satire of Swift, in the Battle of the Books. Embarrassed in circumstances, in consequence of some irregularities, he was obliged, in 1714, to retire into South Wales, where he employed himself in writing on ecclesiastical antiquities and kindred subjects. He also wrote various other pieces, but none which made any addition to his fame: and he may be enumerated among the
instances in which early proficiency,
quate to the passage of the thicker part of it, which can only enter by forcibly dilating, stretching and otherwise injuring the fibres of the wounded flesh. A third description of wounds are the contused and lacerated, which strictly comprehend, together with a variety of cases produced by the violent application of hard, blunt, obtuse bodies to the soft parts, all those interesting and common injuries denominated gunshot wounds. Many bites rank also as contused and lacerated wounds. In short, every solution of continuity which is suddenly produced in the soft parts by a blunt instrument or weapon which has neither a sharp point nor edge, must be a contused, lacerated wound. It has been remarked that, in case of violent death by gunshot wounds, the expression of the countenance is always that of languor, whatever may be the natural energy of the sufferer's character; but in death from a stab, the countenance preserves its traits of feeling or ferocity, and the mind its bias, to the last.-Poison
WOUNDS are divided, by writers on surgery, into several kinds, the distinctions being founded either upon the sort of weapon with which the injury has been inflicted, or upon the circumstance of a venomous matter having been introduced into the part, or, lastly, upon the nature of the wounded parts themselves, and the particular situation of the wound. Hence we have cuts, incisions, or incised wounds, which are produced by sharpedged instruments, and are generally free from all contusion and laceration. The fibres and texture of the wounded part have suffered no other injury but their mere division; and there is, consequently, less tendency to inflammation, suppuration, gangrene, and other bad consequences, than in the generality of other species of wounds. Incised wounds, also, may usually be healed with great-ed wounds are those which are complier quickness and facility than other wounds which are accompanied with more or less of contusion and laceration: the surgeon has only to bring the opposite sides of the wound into contact with each other, and keep them in this state a few hours, and they will unite and grow together. Another class of wounds are stabs, or punctured wounds, made by the thrust of pointed weapons, as bayonets, lances, swords, daggers, &c., and also by the accidental and forcible introduction of considerable thorns, nails, &c., into the flesh. These wounds frequently penetrate to a great depth, so as to injure large blood-vessels, viscera, and other organs of importance; and, as they are generally inflicted with much force and violence, the parts suffer more injury than what would result from their simple division. It also deserves notice that a great number of the weapons or instruments by which punctured wounds are occasioned, increase materially in diameter from the point towards their other extremity; and hence, when they penetrate far, they must force the fibres asunder like a wedge, and cause a serious degree of stretching and contusion. It is on this account that bayonet wounds of the ordinary soft parts are very often followed by violent inflammation, an alarming degree of tumefaction, large abscesses, fever, delirium, and other very unfavorable symptoms. The opening which the point of such a weapon makes is quite inade
cated with the introduction of a venomous matter or fluid into the part. Thus the stings and bites of a variety of insects afford us examples of poisoned wounds; and the surgeon, in the dissection of putrid bodies, or in handling instruments infected with any venomous matter, is exposed to the danger of poisoned wounds from cuts. The most dangerous, however, of this class of wounds, occur from the bites of the viper, the rattlesnake, &c. (see Venomous Animals), or from those of rabid animals. (See Hydrophobia.) Wounds may, likewise, be universally referred to two other general classes, the simple and complicated. A wound is called simple when it occurs in a healthy subject, has been produced by a clean, sharp-edged instrument, is unattended with any serious symptoms, and the only indication is to reunite the fresh-cut surfaces. A wound, on the contrary, is said to be complicated whenever the state of the whole system, or of the wounded part, or wound itself, is such as to make it necessary for the surgeon to deviate from the plan of treatment requisite for a simple wound. The differences of complicated wounds must, therefore, be very numerous, as they depend upon many incidental circumstances, the principal of which, however, are hemorrhage, nervous symptoms, contusion, the unfavorable shape of the injury, the discharge or extravasation of certain fluids, indicating the injury of par