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New Hampshire troops. He was em- been employed chiefly in the army, to ployed to assist in arranging the terms of punish trifling offences, committed by sutcapitulation, and in conducting the sur- jers, Jews, brawling women, and such rendered army to their encampment on persons. It is a kind of circular wooden Winter hill, in the vicinity of Boston. In cage, turning on a pivot, and, when set 1778, he shared in the unsuccessful expe- in motion, whirling round with such dition to Rhode Island, under general velocity that the delinquent becomes exSullivan. In 1780, he was chosen a rep- tremely sick. The punishment was genresentative to the general assembly of erally public. This instrument is someNew Hampshire, and was several times times used in insane hospitals, to overreelected. “In 1782, he was appointed by come the obstinacy of lunatics. Mr. Morris, the superintendent of finance, WHIRLPOOL. When two opposite curreceiver of public moneys for New rents, of about equal force, meet, they Hampshire-an office which infirm health sometimes, especially in narrow channels, obliged him to relinquish in 1784. In turn upon a centre, and assume a spiral the former year, he was also appointed a form, giving rise to eddies or whirlpools. judge of the superior court of judicature. The most celebrated of these are the EuHe died in November, 1785.

ripus, near the island of Eubea, in the WHIP-POOR-WILL (caprimulgus vocife- Grecian Archipelago; Charybdis (9. v.), rus, Wilson). This remarkable and well- in the strait between Sicily and Italy; and known bird arrives in the Middle States the Maelstrom (q. v.), off the coast of about the close of April or the beginning Norway. When agitated by tides or of May, and continues his migrations to winds, they sometimes become dangerous the centre of Massachusetts. In the in- to navigators. terior, it is said to proceed as high as Hud, WHIRLWINDS sometimes arise from son's bay. It is a nocturnal bird, and winds blowing among lofty and precipicontinues the cry, from which it derives tous mountains, the form of which influits name, till midnight, except in moon- ences their direction, and occasions gusts light nights. The whip-poor-will, when to descend with a spiral or whirling engaged in its nocturnal rambles, is seen motion. They are frequently, however, to Ay within a few feet of the surface of caused by two winds meeting each other the earth, in quest of moths and other at an angle, and then turning upon a ceninsects. During the day, these birds re- When two winds thus encounter tire into the darkest woods, usually on one another, any cloud which happens high grounds, where they pass the time to be between them is, of course, conin silence and repose, the weakness of densed, and turned rapidly round; and all their sight compelling them to avoid the substances, sufficiently light, are carried glare of the light. Their food appears up into the air by the whirling motion to be large moths, beetles, grasshoppers, which ensues. The action of a whirlants, and such insects as frequent the wind at sea occasions the curious phebark of decaying timber. Sometimes, in nomenon called a water-spout, which is the dark, they will skim within a few thus described by those who have witfeet of a person, making a low chatter as nessed it:--From a dense cloud a cone they pass. They also, in common with descends, in the form of a trumpet, with other species, flutter occasionally round the smalí end downwards: at the same domestic cattle, to catch the insects which time, the surface of the sea under it is approach or rest on them; and hence the agitated and whirled round, the waters mistaken notion of their sucking goats. are converted into vapor, and ascend, The whip-poor-will is nine and a half with a spiral motion, till they unite with inches long, and nineteen in the stretch of the cone proceeding from the cloud: frethe wings; mouth very large, and beset quently, however, they disperse before along the sides with a number of long, the junction is effected. Both columns thick bristles, the longest extending more diminish towards their point of contact, than half an inch beyond the point of the where they are not above three or four bill; the plumage above intricately varie- feet in diameter. In the middle of the gated with black, brownish-white and rust cone forming the water-spout, there is a color, sprinkled with numerous streaks white transparent tube, which becomes

less distinct on approaching it; and it is WHIRLIGIG ; an instrument of punish- then discovered io be a vacant space, in ment, frequently used in the middle ages, which none of the small particles of and, in later times, on the continent of water ascend; and in this, as well as Europe. In England, it seems to have around the outer edges of the water


and spots.

spout, large drops of rain precipitate have done. 5. None of the players may themselves. In calm weather, water- take up or look at their cards while they spouts generally preserve the perpendic- are dealing out. When this is the case, ular in their motion; but when acted on the dealer, if he should happen to miss by winds, they move on obliquely. Some- deal, bas a right to deal again, unless it times they disperse suddenly; at others, arises from his partner's fault; and if a they pass rapidly along the surface of the card is turned up in dealing, no new deal sea, and continue a quarter of an hour or can be called, unless the partner was the more before they disappear. A notion cause of it. 6. If any person deals, and, has been entertained that they are very instead of turning up the trump, he dangerous to shipping, owing to the de- puts the trump card upon the rest of scent, at the instant of their breaking, of his cards, with the face downwards, he a large body of water sufficient to sink a loses his deal.—Of Playing out of Turn. ship; but this does not appear to be the 7. If any person plays out of his turn, it case, for the water descends only in the is in the option of either of his adversaform of heavy rain. It is true, that small ries to call the card so played, at any time vessels incur a risk of being overset if in that deal, provided it does not make they carry much sail; because sudden him revoke; or either of the adversaries gusts of wind, from all points of the may require of the person who ought to compass, are very common in the vicinity have led, the suit the said adversary may of water-spouts.

choose. 8. If a person supposes he has WHISKEY; signifying originally water, won the trick, and leads again before his but applied, in Ireland, and in the high- partner has played, the adversary may lands and islands of Scotland, to strong oblige his partner to win it if he can. waters, or distilled liquors. From these 9. If a person leads, and his partner countries, the name has now spread into plays before his turn, the adversary's many others. In the U. States, whiskey partner may do the same. 10. If the ace is distilled in large quantities, generally or any other card of a suit is led, and the from wheat, rye or maize. Potsheen is last player should happen to play out of a kind of whiskey which the Irish distil his turn, whether his partner has any of illegally in their hovels. Mountain dew the suit led or not, he is neither entitled (q. v.) is a kind of Scotch whiskey. Us- to trump it, nor to win the trick, provided quebaugh (q. v.) is etymologically related you do not make him revoke.- Of Reto whiskey.

voking. 11. If a revoke happens to be Whist. The laws of this game, as made, the adversary may add three to taken from Hoyle, are as follows:—of their score, or take three tricks from the Dealing. l. If a card is turned up in revoking party, or take down three from dealing, the adverse party may call a new their score; and if up, notwithstanding deal, if they think proper; but if either the penalty, they must remain at nine : of them have been the cause of turning the revoke takes place of any other score up such card, then the dealer has the op- of the game. 12. If any person revokes, tion. 2. If a card is faced in the deal, and discovers it before the cards are there must be a fresh deal, unless it hap- turned, the adversary may call the highest pens to be the last deal. 3. It is the duty or lowest of the suit led, or call the card of every person who plays, to see that he then played, at any time when it does not has thirteen cards. If any one happens to cause a revoke. 13. No revoke can be have only twelve, and does not find it out claimed till the trick is turned and quitted, till several tricks are played, and the rest or the party who revoked, or his partner, have their right number, the deal stands have played again. 14. If a revoke is good, and the person who played with the claimed by any person, the adverse party twelve cards is to be punished for each re- are not to mix their cards


forfeiture voke, provided he has made any. But if of the revoke. 15. No person can claim any of the rest of the players should hap- a revoke after the cards are cut for a new pen to have fourteen cards, in that case the deal. Of calling Honors. deal is lost. 4. The dealer should leave person calls, except at the point of eight, his trump card upon the table till it is his the adversary may call a new deal if they turn to play; and after he has mixed it think proper. 17. After the trump card with his other cards, no one has a right to is turned up, no person must remind his demand what card was turned up, but partner to call

, on penalty of losing one may ask what is trumps. In consequence point. 18. No honors in the preceding of this law, the dealer cannot name a deal can be set up, after the trump card wrong card, which otherwise he might is turned up, unless they were before


16. If any

claimed. 19. If any person calls at eight, Scripture Prophecies, were printed in and his partner answers, and the adverse 1708 (8vo.). He had now conceived party have both thrown down their cards, doubts concerning the doctrine of the and it appears they have not the honors, Trinity; and, having at length adopted they may either stand the deal or have a Arian opinions, he was expelled from the new one. 20. If any person answers university in 1710, and, the following without having an honor, the adversary year, was deprived of his professorship. may consult, and stand the deal or not. He then removed to the metropolis, and 21. If any person calls at eight, after he gave lectures on astronomy; but the pub. has played, it is in the option of the ad- lication of his Primitive Christianity reverse party to call a new deal.— Of sep- vived, in 1712 (5 vols., 8vo.), subjected arating and showing the Cards. 22. If him to the notice of the convocation, and any person separates a card from the rest, he was prosecuted as a heretic, though the adverse party may call it, provided he the proceedings were ultimately terminames it and proves the separation; but nated by an act of grace in 1715. Being if he calls a wrong card, he or his partner refused admission to the sacrament at his are liable for once to have the highest or parish church, he opened his own house lowest card called in any suit led during for public worship, using a liturgy of his that deal. 23. If any person, supposing own composition; and towards the close the game lost, throws his cards upon the of his life he became a Baptist. In 1719, table, with their faces upwards, he may he published a letter On the Eternity of not take them up again, and the adverse the Son of God and his Holy Spirit, party may call any of the cards when which prevented him from being chosen they think proper, provided they did not a fellow of the royal society, where he make the party revoke. 24. If any per- was proposed as a candidate in 1720. son is sure of winning every trick in his He subsequently distinguished himself by hand, he may show his cards; but he is an abortive attempt to discover the longithen liable to have them called.-Oftude, and by his professed opinions relaomitting to play to a Trick. 25. If any tive to an approaching millennium, and person omits playing to a trick, and it ap- the restoration of the Jews. Among his pears he has one card more than the rest, latest labors were his Memoirs of My own it is in the option of the adversary to Life (1749–50, 3 vols., 8vo.). He died have a new deal.-Respecting who played in London in 1752. Besides numerous a particular Card. 26. Each person, in original productions, he published a transplaying, ought to lay his card before him; lation of the works of Josephus, with and if either of the adversaries mix their notes, dissertations, &c. cards with his, his partner may demand WHITAKER, John, an English divine each person to lay his card before him, and antiquary, born at Manchester about but not to inquire who played any partic- 1735, was educated at Oxford, and beular card.

came a fellow of Corpus Christi college. Wuiston, William, an English divine He began to distinguish himself as an and mathematician, born in 1667, stud- inquirer into English antiquities, by the ied at Clare hall, Cambridge, where he publication, in 1771, of the first volume applied himself particularly to mathe- of his History of Manchester, including matics, and displayed his predominant disquisitions relative to the state of Britdisposition by composing religious medi- ain under the dominion of the Romans. tations. Having taken his first degree in The same year appeared his Genuine 1690, he was chosen a fellow of his col- History of the Britons asserted; and this lege, and became an academical tutor. was followed, in 1775, by the second Entering into holy orders, he was ap- volume of his former work, relating to pointed chaplain to doctor Moore, bishop of the Saxon period of English history. Norwich. In 1696, he published a The- Having taken orders, he obtained, in 1778, ory of the Earth, on the principles of the the college living of Ruan Lanyhome, in Newtonian philosophy. In 1700, he was Cornwall. He published, in 1783, a course appointed deputy professor of mathe- of sermons on death, judgment, heaven matics at Cambridge, by sir Isaac New- and hell; and, in 1787, appeared his Maton, who, three years after, resigned the ry Queen of Scots vindicated (3 vols., professorship in his favor. In 1706, he 8vo.), which exhibits much research and published an Essay on the Revelation of zeal for the memory of Mary. Among St. John; and the next year, he became the later productions of his pen were Boylean lecturer; and his sermons on The Course of Hannibal over the Alps that occasion, on the Accomplishment of ascertained (2 vols., 8vo.); The Origin



of Arianism disclosed; The Ancient to pass. By the reform act of 1832, it Cathedral of Cornwall historically sur- was constituted a borough, returning one veyed (2 vols., 4to.); and Gibbon's His- member to parliament. Whitby carries tory reviewed (1791, 8vo.)

. He was a on a great trade in coals, and also exports contributor to the English and Anti-Jaco various articles of provision, tallow, &c.; bin Reviews, and the British Critic. His and the alum works in the neighborhood death took place in October, 1808. employ a great number of hands. Ship

WHITBREAD, Samuel, for several years building is carried on here extensively. a leading member of the house of com- The immense mountain of alum rock, and mons, was the son of an eminent brewer the works for preparing alum, are interof the same name, to whose extensive esting objects. business he succeeded. He was born in Whitby, Daniel, a learned divine, born London, in 1758, and was educated at in 1638, and died in 1726, was a fellow of Eton, whence he was removed to St. Trinity college, Oxford. Having distinJohn's college, Cambridge ; after which guished himself by his zeal in attacking he made the tour of Europe, under the the Catholic writers, he was rewarded by care of Mr. Coxe. Soon after his return, bishop Ward with a prebend in Salisbury he married the daughter of sir Charles cathedral. He took his doctor's degree, (afterwards earl) Grey, and, in 1790, was but soon after incurred censure for a treareturned to the house of commons for the tise entitled the Protestant Reconciler. borough of Steyning; but for the greater He continued his literary labors, and propart of his life, he represented the town duced a Paraphrase and Commentary on

a of Bedford, in which borough and county the New Testament (2 vols., folio); and a he possessed a large landed property. treatise on the “Five Points” controverted He immediately became an active mem- between the Arminians and Calvinists ber of the opposition headed by Mr. Fox, (8vo., 1710). Towards the close of his but distinguished himself by acting, on life, a complete revolution took place in many occasions, agreeably to his own his literary opinions: he became an Arian, views, independently of his party. For and had a dispute on the subject with many years, he was esteemed one of the doctor Waterland. He left a book called most shrewd and vigorous opponents of the Last Thoughts of Doctor Whitby. the Pitt administration, and of the war White. (See Colors.) growing out of the French revolution. White, Henry Kirke; a youthful poet He was also the conductor of the im- of distinguished ability, who was born at peachment against lord Melville, which, Nottingham, March 21, 1785.

He was although terminating in acquittal, threw a the son of a butcher, and was intended for shade over the close of that statesman's life, the same occupation; but the delicacy of and proved a source of extreme coneern to his constitution occasioned his destination the premier. Of the political opinions of to be changed for the more sedentary emMr. Whitbread, those who study the his- ployment of a stocking-weaver. From tory of the period in which he acted a his infancy, he manifested an extraordivery conspicuous part in parliament, will nary love of learning, and, at the age of judge by their own; but few will be dis- fourteen, produced specimens of poetry posed to deny him the praise of being, worthy of preservation. He was now refor many years, a most able, useful and moved from the stocking-loom to be active senator. The close of his life was placed in an attorney's office, and devoted melancholy: an over-anxious attention to his spare time to the study of Latin and business in general, but, more especially, Greek. Increase of knowledge inspired to the intricate concerns of Drury lane him with the desire to obtain more favortheatre, produced a temporary aberrationable opportunities for improving his talof intellect, during which, he suddenly ents; and the advantage of a university terminated his own life, in 1815.

education, with the prospect of entering WHITBY; a seaport of England, in the the church, became the great object of his north riding of Yorkshire, situated at the ambition. At length, through the genemouth of the Esk, on the German sea; rosity of Mr. Wilberforce, and the exer46 miles north-east of York, 243 north tions of the reverend Charles Simeon, he of London ; lon. 1° 55' W.; lat. 54° was admitted a student of St. John's col30' N.; population, in 1821, 10,275; in lege, Cambridge. There he applied him1831, 11,720. The Esk forms the harbor, self to his studies with such unremitting and divides the town into two nearly equal labor, that his health became deranged, parts, connected by a draw-bridge, so and he died Oct. 19, 1806, deeply lamentconstructed as to admit ships of 500 tons ed, both on account of his virtues and his




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talents. He published, in 1803, a poem Mount Adams,

5328 feet. called Clifton Grove; and, after his death,


5058 his Remains, consisting of poems, letters

Washington, . 6234 and fragments, were edited by Robert


4932 « Southey (2 vols., 8vo.).


4711 Wuite Ants. (See Termites.)


4356 Wute BEAR. (See Bear.)

Madison (the eastern White HORSE VALE; a vale in Eng- peak),....

4866 land, in Berkshire, so called from the fig. The base of the mountains, 1770 ure of a horse in a galloping posture, cut in the side of a chalky bill, as is supposed The elevations here given are estimated in memory of a great victory gained by from the level of the ocean. Subsequent Alfred over the Danes in the year 871. measurements made by captain Partridge The villagers in the neighborhood have a do not perfectly agree with these. These custom, from time immemorial, of assem- mountains are decidedly of primitive bling about midsummer for what they formation. The three highest peaks are term “scouring the horse,” when they composed entirely of fragments of rocks, remove every weed or obstacle that may heaped together in confusion, but pretty have obstructed his figure, and retire to firmly fixed in their situations. They spend the evening in various rural consist of granite and gneiss, and are exsports.

cessively rough, from the great size of the White LEAD. (See Ceruse.)

crystals. There is considerable mica in White Mountains; the highest moun- most of them, and in some it is very tains in the U. Staies east of the Mississip- abundant. The granite contains emeralds, pi, situated in the northern part of New tourmaline and garnets. Crystals of Hampshire, nearly in the centre of the quartz, pyrites, jasper, porphyry, magnetic county of Coos, and extending about iron ore, and several other fossils, are twenty miles from north-east to south- found in very small quantities. No indiwest, being the most elevated summits of cations of volcanoes have been discovered. a long range that extends much farther in In sublimity of scenery, these mountains a south-west direction. Their base is far excel any others in New England; eight or ten miles broad. They are about and it bas become fashionable to visit twenty-five miles south-east of Lancaster, them during the warmest months. Some seventy north of Concord, eighty-two of the largest rivers of New England north-by-west from Portsmouth; lat. 44o originate in these mountains. The Saco 13 N.; lon. 71° 20 W. They are cover- flows from their eastern side; the branches ed with ice and snow nine or ten months of the Ameriscoggin from the north; the in the year; and, although more than Amonoosuck, from the west, flows into sixty miles from the nearest part of the the Connecticut; and the Pemigewasset Atlantic coast, are distinctly seen for a flows from the south, and is the principal considerable distance at sea. The high- branch of the Merrimack Trees are est peak is called mount Washington. found on the sides of these mountains; The next, south of this, is Monroe; the but, as the traveller ascends, he sees the next, farther south, is Franklin ; and vegetation become small and meagre, and Pleasant is the third in that direction. it ceases before he reaches the highest The first north of Washington is Jeffer- suminits.— The Notch of the White Mounson; the second is Adams; the eastern tains is a very narrow defile, extending part is Madison. These are the names two miles in length, between two huge commonly given to the principal peaks. cliffs. The entrance of the chasm is formTheir elevation has been a subject of ed by two rocks standing perpendicular much speculation. It was formerly sup- at the distance of twenty-two feet from posed to be ten or eleven thousand feet; each other, one twenty-two, and the other but the barometrical measurements of twelve feet high. The mountain, othercaptain Partridge, and those of Brackett wise a continued range, is here cloven and Weeks, by means of a spirit level, so asunder, opening a passage for the waters nearly agree, that we have no longer any of Saco river. The gap is so narrow that reason to doubt that their height was space has with difficulty been obtained greatly overrated. The measurements of for the road from

Lancaster to Portland. captain Partridge are here given, and the About half a mile from the entrance of mountains are arranged from north to the Notch is seen a most beautiful cascade south :

issuing from a mountain on the rigbt,

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