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New Hampshire troops. He was employed to assist in arranging the terms of capitulation, and in conducting the surrendered army to their encampment on Winter hill, in the vicinity of Boston. In 1778, he shared in the unsuccessful expedition to Rhode Island, under general Sullivan. In 1780, he was chosen a representative to the general assembly of New Hampshire, and was several times reëlected. In 1782, he was appointed by Mr. Morris, the superintendent of finance, receiver of public moneys for New Hampshire-an office which infirm health obliged him to relinquish in 1784. In the former year, he was also appointed a judge of the superior court of judicature. He died in November, 1785.
WHIP-POOR-WILL (caprimulgus vociferus, Wilson). This remarkable and wellknown bird arrives in the Middle States about the close of April or the beginning of May, and continues his migrations to the centre of Massachusetts. In the interior, it is said to proceed as high as Hudson's bay. It is a nocturnal bird, and continues the cry, from which it derives its name, till midnight, except in moonlight nights. The whip-poor-will, when engaged in its nocturnal rambles, is seen to fly within a few feet of the surface of the earth, in quest of moths and other insects. During the day, these birds retire into the darkest woods, usually on high grounds, where they pass the time in silence and repose, the weakness of their sight compelling them to avoid the glare of the light. Their food appears to be large moths, beetles, grasshoppers, ants, and such insects as frequent the bark of decaying timber. Sometimes, in the dark, they will skim within a few feet of a person, making a low chatter as they pass. They also, in common with other species, flutter occasionally round domestic cattle, to catch the insects which approach or rest on them; and hence the mistaken notion of their sucking goats. The whip-poor-will is nine and a half inches long, and nineteen in the stretch of the wings; mouth very large, and beset along the sides with a number of long, thick bristles, the longest extending more than half an inch beyond the point of the bill; the plumage above intricately variegated with black, brownish-white and rust color, sprinkled with numerous streaks and spots.
WHIRLIGIG; an instrument of punishment, frequently used in the middle ages, and, in later times, on the continent of Europe. In England, it seems to have
been employed chiefly in the army, to punish trifling offences, committed by sutlers, Jews, brawling women, and such persons. It is a kind of circular wooden cage, turning on a pivot, and, when set in motion, whirling round with such velocity that the delinquent becomes extremely sick. The punishment was generally public. This instrument is sometimes used in insane hospitals, to overcome the obstinacy of lunatics.
WHIRLPOOL. When two opposite currents, of about equal force, meet, they sometimes, especially in narrow channels, turn upon a centre, and assume a spiral form, giving rise to eddies or whirlpools. The most celebrated of these are the Euripus, near the island of Euboea, in the Grecian Archipelago; Charybdis (q. v.), in the strait between Sicily and Italy; and the Maelstrom (q. v.), off the coast of Norway. When agitated by tides or winds, they sometimes become dangerous to navigators.
WHIRLWINDS sometimes arise from winds blowing among lofty and precipitous mountains, the form of which influences their direction, and occasions gusts to descend with a spiral or whirling motion. They are frequently, however, caused by two winds meeting each other at an angle, and then turning upon a centre. When two winds thus encounter one another, any cloud which happens to be between them is, of course, condensed, and turned rapidly round; and all substances, sufficiently light, are carried up into the air by the whirling motion which ensues. The action of a whirlwind at sea occasions the curious phenomenon called a water-spout, which is thus described by those who have witnessed it:-From a dense cloud a cone descends, in the form of a trumpet, with the small end downwards: at the same time, the surface of the sea under it is agitated and whirled round, the waters are converted into vapor, and ascend, with a spiral motion, till they unite with the cone proceeding from the cloud: frequently, however, they disperse before the junction is effected. Both columns diminish towards their point of contact, where they are not above three or four feet in diameter. In the middle of the cone forming the water-spout, there is a white transparent tube, which becomes less distinct on approaching it; and it is then discovered to be a vacant space, in which none of the small particles of water ascend; and in this, as well as around the outer edges of the water
spout, large drops of rain precipitate themselves. In calm weather, waterspouts generally preserve the perpendicular in their motion; but when acted on by winds, they move on obliquely. Sometimes they disperse suddenly; at others, they pass rapidly along the surface of the sea, and continue a quarter of an hour or more before they disappear. A notion has been entertained that they are very dangerous to shipping, owing to the descent, at the instant of their breaking, of a large body of water sufficient to sink a ship; but this does not appear to be the case, for the water descends only in the form of heavy rain. It is true, that small vessels incur a risk of being overset if they carry much sail; because sudden gusts of wind, from all points of the compass, are very common in the vicinity of water-spouts.
WHISKEY; signifying originally water, but applied, in Ireland, and in the highlands and islands of Scotland, to strong waters, or distilled liquors. From these countries, the name has now spread into many others. In the U. States, whiskey is distilled in large quantities, generally from wheat, rye or maize. Potsheen is a kind of whiskey which the Irish distil illegally in their hovels. Mountain dew (q. v.) is a kind of Scotch whiskey. Usquebaugh (q. v.) is etymologically related to whiskey.
WHIST. The laws of this game, as taken from Hoyle, are as follows:-Of Dealing. 1. If a card is turned up in dealing, the adverse party may call a new deal, if they think proper; but if either of them have been the cause of turning up such card, then the dealer has the option. 2. If a card is faced in the deal, there must be a fresh deal, unless it happens to be the last deal. 3. It is the duty of every person who plays, to see that he has thirteen cards. If any one happens to have only twelve, and does not find it out till several tricks are played, and the rest have their right number, the deal stands good, and the person who played with the twelve cards is to be punished for each revoke, provided he has made any. But if any of the rest of the players should happen to have fourteen cards, in that case the deal is lost. 4. The dealer should leave his trump card upon the table till it is his turn to play; and after he has mixed it with his other cards, no one has a right to demand what card was turned up, but may ask what is trumps. In consequence of this law, the dealer cannot name a wrong card, which otherwise he might
have done. 5. None of the players may take up or look at their cards while they are dealing out. When this is the case, the dealer, if he should happen to miss deal, has a right to deal again, unless it arises from his partner's fault; and if a card is turned up in dealing, no new deal can be called, unless the partner was the cause of it. 6. If any person deals, and, instead of turning up the trump, he puts the trump card upon the rest of his cards, with the face downwards, he loses his deal.-Of Playing out of Turn. 7. If any person plays out of his turn, it is in the option of either of his adversaries to call the card so played, at any time in that deal, provided it does not make him revoke; or either of the adversaries may require of the person who ought to have led, the suit the said adversary may choose. 8. If a person supposes he has won the trick, and leads again before his partner has played, the adversary may oblige his partner to win it if he can. 9. If a person leads, and his partner plays before his turn, the adversary's partner may do the same. 10. If the ace or any other card of a suit is led, and the last player should happen to play out of his turn, whether his partner has any of the suit led or not, he is neither entitled to trump it, nor to win the trick, provided you do not make him revoke.-Of Revoking. 11. If a revoke happens to be made, the adversary may add three to their score, or take three tricks from the revoking party, or take down three from their score; and if up, notwithstanding the penalty, they must remain at nine: the revoke takes place of any other score of the game. 12. If any person revokes, and discovers it before the cards are turned, the adversary may call the highest or lowest of the suit led, or call the card then played, at any time when it does not cause a revoke. 13. No revoke can be claimed till the trick is turned and quitted, or the party who revoked, or his partner, have played again. 14. If a revoke is claimed by any person, the adverse party are not to mix their cards upon forfeiture of the revoke. 15. No person can claim a revoke after the cards are cut for a new deal. Of calling Honors. 16. If any person calls, except at the point of eight, the adversary may call a new deal if they think proper. 17. After the trump card is turned up, no person must remind his partner to call, on penalty of losing one point. 18. No honors in the preceding deal can be set up, after the trump card is turned up, unless they were before
claimed. 19. If any person calls at eight, and his partner answers, and the adverse party have both thrown down their cards, and it appears they have not the honors, they may either stand the deal or have a new one. 20. If any person answers without having an honor, the adversary may consult, and stand the deal or not. 21. If any person calls at eight, after he has played, it is in the option of the adverse party to call a new deal.-Of separating and showing the Cards. 22. If any person separates a card from the rest, the adverse party may call it, provided he names it and proves the separation; but if he calls a wrong card, he or his partner are liable for once to have the highest or lowest card called in any suit led during that deal. 23. If any person, supposing the game lost, throws his cards upon the table, with their faces upwards, he may not take them up again, and the adverse party may call any of the cards when they think proper, provided they did not make the party revoke. 24. If any person is sure of winning every trick in his hand, he may show his cards; but he is then liable to have them called.-Of omitting to play to a Trick. 25. If any person omits playing to a trick, and it appears he has one card more than the rest, it is in the option of the adversary to have a new deal.-Respecting who played a particular Card. 26. Each person, in playing, ought to lay his card before him; and if either of the adversaries mix their cards with his, his partner may demand each person to lay his card before him, but not to inquire who played any partic
WHISTON, William, an English divine and mathematician, born in 1667, studied at Clare hall, Cambridge, where he applied himself particularly to mathematics, and displayed his predominant disposition by composing religious meditations. Having taken his first degree in 1690, he was chosen a fellow of his college, and became an academical tutor. Entering into holy orders, he was appointed chaplain to doctor Moore, bishop of Norwich. In 1696, he published a Theory of the Earth, on the principles of the Newtonian philosophy. In 1700, he was appointed deputy professor of mathematics at Cambridge, by sir Isaac Newton, who, three years after, resigned the professorship in his favor. In 1706, he published an Essay on the Revelation of St. John; and the next year, he became Boylean lecturer; and his sermons on that occasion, on the Accomplishment of
Scripture Prophecies, were printed in 1708 (8vo.). He had now conceived doubts concerning the doctrine of the Trinity; and, having at length adopted Arian opinions, he was expelled from the university in 1710, and, the following year, was deprived of his professorship. He then removed to the metropolis, and gave lectures on astronomy; but the pub lication of his Primitive Christianity revived, in 1712 (5 vols., 8vo.), subjected him to the notice of the convocation, and he was prosecuted as a heretic, though the proceedings were ultimately terminated by an act of grace in 1715. Being refused admission to the sacrament at his parish church, he opened his own house for public worship, using a liturgy of his own composition; and towards the close of his life he became a Baptist. In 1719, he published a letter On the Eternity of the Son of God and his Holy Spirit, which prevented him from being chosen a fellow of the royal society, where he was proposed as a candidate in 1720. He subsequently distinguished himself by an abortive attempt to discover the longitude, and by his professed opinions relative to an approaching millennium, and the restoration of the Jews. Among his latest labors were his Memoirs of My own Life (1749-50, 3 vols., 8vo.). He died in London in 1752. Besides numerous original productions, he published a translation of the works of Josephus, with notes, dissertations, &c.
WHITAKER, John, an English divine and antiquary, born at Manchester about 1735, was educated at Oxford, and became a fellow of Corpus Christi college. He began to distinguish himself as an inquirer into English antiquities, by the publication, in 1771, of the first volume of his History of Manchester, including disquisitions relative to the state of Britain under the dominion of the Romans. The same year appeared his Genuine History of the Britons asserted; and this was followed, in 1775, by the second volume of his former work, relating to the Saxon period of English history. Having taken orders, he obtained, in 1778, the college living of Ruan Lanyhorne, in Cornwall. He published, in 1783, a course of sermons on death, judgment, heaven and hell; and, in 1787, appeared his Ma ry Queen of Scots vindicated (3 vols., 8vo.), which exhibits much research and zeal for the memory of Mary. Among the later productions of his pen were The Course of Hannibal over the Alps ascertained (2 vols., 8vo.); The Origin
of Arianism disclosed; The Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall historically surveyed (2 vols., 4to.); and Gibbon's History reviewed (1791, 8vo.). He was a contributor to the English and Anti-Jacobin Reviews, and the British Critic. His death took place in October, 1808.
WHITBREAD, Samuel, for several years a leading member of the house of commons, was the son of an eminent brewer of the same name, to whose extensive business he succeeded. He was born in London, in 1758, and was educated at Eton, whence he was removed to St. John's college, Cambridge; after which he made the tour of Europe, under the care of Mr. Coxe. Soon after his return, he married the daughter of sir Charles (afterwards earl) Grey, and, in 1790, was returned to the house of commons for the borough of Steyning; but for the greater part of his life, he represented the town of Bedford, in which borough and county he possessed a large landed property. He immediately became an active member of the opposition headed by Mr. Fox, but distinguished himself by acting, on many occasions, agreeably to his own views, independently of his party. For many years, he was esteemed one of the most shrewd and vigorous opponents of the Pitt administration, and of the war growing out of the French revolution. He was also the conductor of the impeachment against lord Melville, which, although terminating in acquittal, threw a shade over the close of that statesman's life, and proved a source of extreme concern to the premier. Of the political opinions of Mr. Whitbread, those who study the history of the period in which he acted a very conspicuous part in parliament, will judge by their own; but few will be disposed to deny him the praise of being, for many years, a most able, useful and active senator. The close of his life was melancholy: an over-anxious attention to business in general, but, more especially, to the intricate concerns of Drury lane theatre, produced a temporary aberration of intellect, during which, he suddenly terminated his own life, in 1815.
WHITBY; a seaport of England, in the north riding of Yorkshire, situated at the mouth of the Esk, on the German sea; 46 miles north-east of York, 243 north of London; lon. 1° 55′ W.; lat. 54° 30 N.; population, in 1821, 10,275; in 1831, 11,720. The Esk forms the harbor, and divides the town into two nearly equal parts, connected by a draw-bridge, so constructed as to admit ships of 500 tons 14
to pass. By the reform act of 1832, it was constituted a borough, returning one member to parliament. Whitby carries on a great trade in coals, and also exports various articles of provision, tallow, &c.; and the alum works in the neighborhood employ a great number of hands. Shipbuilding is carried on here extensively. The immense mountain of alum rock, and the works for preparing alum, are interesting objects.
WHITBY, Daniel, a learned divine, born in 1638, and died in 1726, was a fellow of Trinity college, Oxford. Having distinguished himself by his zeal in attacking the Catholic writers, he was rewarded by bishop Ward with a prebend in Salisbury cathedral. He took his doctor's degree, but soon after incurred censure for a treatise entitled the Protestant Reconciler. He continued his literary labors, and produced a Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testament (2 vols., folio); and a treatise on the "Five Points" controverted between the Arminians and Calvinists (8vo., 1710). Towards the close of his life, a complete revolution took place in his literary opinions: he became an Arian, and had a dispute on the subject with doctor Waterland. He left a book called the Last Thoughts of Doctor Whitby.
WHITE. (See Colors.)
WHITE, Henry Kirke; a youthful poet of distinguished ability, who was born at Nottingham, March 21, 1785. He was the son of a butcher, and was intended for the same occupation; but the delicacy of his constitution occasioned his destination to be changed for the more sedentary employment of a stocking-weaver. From his infancy, he manifested an extraordinary love of learning, and, at the age of fourteen, produced specimens of poetry worthy of preservation. He was now removed from the stocking-loom to be placed in an attorney's office, and devoted his spare time to the study of Latin and Greek. Increase of knowledge inspired him with the desire to obtain more favorable opportunities for improving his talents; and the advantage of a university education, with the prospect of entering the church, became the great object of his ambition. At length, through the generosity of Mr. Wilberforce, and the exertions of the reverend Charles Simeon, he was admitted a student of St. John's college, Cambridge. There he applied himself to his studies with such unremitting labor, that his health became deranged, and he died Oct. 19, 1806, deeply lamented, both on account of his virtues and his
talents. He published, in 1803, a poem called Clifton Grove; and, after his death, his Remains, consisting of poems, letters and fragments, were edited by Robert Southey (2 vols., 8vo.).
WHITE ANTS. (See Termites.) WHITE BEAR. (See Bear.) WHITE HORSE VALE; a vale in England, in Berkshire, so called from the figure of a horse in a galloping posture, cut in the side of a chalky hill, as is supposed in memory of a great victory gained by Alfred over the Danes in the year 871. The villagers in the neighborhood have a custom, from time immemorial, of assembling about midsummer for what they term "scouring the horse," when they remove every weed or obstacle that may have obstructed his figure, and retire to spend the evening in various rural sports.
WHITE LEAD. (See Ceruse.)
WHITE MOUNTAINS; the highest mountains in the U. States east of the Mississippi, situated in the northern part of New Hampshire, nearly in the centre of the county of Coos, and extending about twenty miles from north-east to southwest, being the most elevated summits of a long range that extends much farther in a south-west direction. Their base is eight or ten miles broad. They are about twenty-five miles south-east of Lancaster, seventy north of Concord, eighty-two north-by-west from Portsmouth; lat. 44° 15 N.; lon. 71° 20 W. They are covered with ice and snow nine or ten months in the year; and, although more than sixty miles from the nearest part of the Atlantic coast, are distinctly seen for a considerable distance at sea. The highest peak is called mount Washington. The next, south of this, is Monroe; the next, farther south, is Franklin; and Pleasant is the third in that direction. The first north of Washington is Jefferson; the second is Adams; the eastern part is Madison. These are the names commonly given to the principal peaks. Their elevation has been a subject of much speculation. It was formerly supposed to be ten or eleven thousand feet; but the barometrical measurements of captain Partridge, and those of Brackett and Weeks, by means of a spirit level, so nearly agree, that we have no longer any reason to doubt that their height was greatly overrated. The measurements of captain Partridge are here given, and the mountains are arranged from north to south:
The elevations here given are estimated from the level of the ocean. Subsequent measurements made by captain Partridge do not perfectly agree with these. These mountains are decidedly of primitive formation. The three highest peaks are composed entirely of fragments of rocks, heaped together in confusion, but pretty firmly fixed in their situations. They consist of granite and gneiss, and are excessively rough, from the great size of the crystals. There is considerable mica in most of them, and in some it is very abundant. The granite contains emeralds, tourmaline and garnets. Crystals of quartz, pyrites, jasper, porphyry, magnetic iron ore, and several other fossils, are found in very small quantities. No indications of volcanoes have been discovered. In sublimity of scenery, these mountains far excel any others in New England; and it has become fashionable to visit them during the warmest months. Some of the largest rivers of New England originate in these mountains. The Saco flows from their eastern side; the branches of the Ameriscoggin from the north; the Amonoosuck, from the west, flows into the Connecticut; and the Pemigewasset flows from the south, and is the principal branch of the Merrimack. Trees are found on the sides of these mountains; but, as the traveller ascends, he sees the vegetation become small and meagre, and it ceases before he reaches the highest summits.-The Notch of the White Mountains is a very narrow defile, extending two miles in length, between two huge cliffs. The entrance of the chasm is formed by two rocks standing perpendicular at the distance of twenty-two feet from each other, one twenty-two, and the other twelve feet high. The mountain, otherwise a continued range, is here cloven asunder, opening a passage for the waters of Saco river. The gap is so narrow that space has with difficulty been obtained for the road from Lancaster to Portland. About half a mile from the entrance of the Notch is seen a most beautiful cascade issuing from a mountain on the right,