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his mutilated body dragged with a hook service under Morelos as a volunteer. In and thrown into the Tiber, A. D. 69, after 1814, he was appointed captain-general a reign of one year, except twelve days. in the province of Vera Cruz-a very im
VITERBO (anciently Volturna); a town portant post, as the whole communication of Italy, in the States of the Church, cap- with Europe was through the ports of ital of a delegation, formerly capital of that province. Here Vittoria distinguishthe Patrimonio; thirty-four miles north. ed himself by his activity and energy, west of Rome; lon. 12° 6 E.; lat. 42° and soon became the terror of the Span25 N.; population, 12,600. This city is ish troops, maintaining an incessant and a bishop's see, and lies in a beautiful and destructive guerilla war. Notwithstandfertile valley : the streets, for the greater ing the great efforts of the royal compart, are broad and well paved, the houses manders, and their great numerical sugood, but thinly peopled, though the num- periority, he sustained a struggle for two ber of churches, convents and hospitals years, at the end of which time, his sucis not less than sixty-nine. Four popes cessive losses, and the disastrous state of lie interred in the cathedral. Not far the revoldtionary party in the country, from the city is a warm mineral spring. left him without a single follower. De
VITRIOL, GREEN. (See Copperas.) termined not to yield to the Spaniards,
VITRIOL, Oil of; the old name for and refusing their offers of pardon, prosulphuric acid. (See Sulphur.)
motion and reward, he retired alone into VITRUVIUS Pollio, Marcus; a cele- the mountains of the province, with nothbrated writer on architecture, who is sup- ing but his sword. For upwards of six posed to have flourished in the time of months, he was pursued by 1000 men, in Julius Cæsar and Augustus, and of whose small detachments, with such ardor and parentage and place of nativity no cer- vigilance, that his escapes were often altain knowledge can be obtained. The most miraculous; and wherever it was most probable opinion is, that he was found that his wants had been relieved, born at Formia, a city of Campania, now the whole village was immediately burnt called Mola di Gaeta. He plainly appears to the ground. In this way he was reto have been liberally educated; and that duced to such extremities, that he often he travelled for information and improve- went four or five days without taking ment, we learn from his writings. The any thing but water: for thirty months, only public edifice which he mentions as he never tasted bread, nor saw a human being constructed from his designs, is a being. When Mr. Ward, author of Mexbasilica at Fano. He wrote, at an ad- ico (2d ed., London, 1829), from which vanced age, his work De Architectura we have taken this account, first saw him, Lib. X, which he dedicated to Augustus, in 1823, he was unable to eat above once under whose reign he had held the of- in twenty-four or even thirty-six hours. fice of inspector of the military ma- On the breaking out of the revolution of chines. This treatise was first printed at 1821, he was found, by a former follower, Venice, 1497, folio ; and, among modern who came in search of him, but who, far editions, the most valuable are those of from recognising his commander in the Schneider (Leipsic, 1808, 4 vols., 8vo.), naked phantom, emaciated, and covered and of Stratico (Ettingen, 1828, 4 vols.). with hair, which stood before him, took to An English translation of the work of flight, and was recalled only by the sounds Vitruvius, with a commentary, by Wil- of his voice. Vittoria, on receiving intelliliam Newton, appeared in 1771, folio, re. gence of the new state of things, descended published 1791, 2 vols., folio; and a new to the low country, and immediately found translation, by W. Wilkins, with an Intro- himself at the head of a body of repubduction, containing an Historical View lican troops, attracted by his old reputaof the Rise and Progress of Architecture tion. He now joined Iturbide; but, as among the Greeks, was published in 1812, bis wishes were set on the establishment folio.
of a liberal government, and not on a VITTORIA, or Victoria, Fernandez change of masters, he was again forced Guadalupe, late president of the Mexican to retire to the mountains, when that republic, was born at Durango, where his general carried into successful execution father was a considerable land-holder, in his ambitious projects, and only reappear1790, and had just finished his studies ed again to give the signal for the overfor the bar, in the capital, when the revo- throw of the emperor. (See Iturbide, and lution broke out (1810). He immediately Santa Ana.) On the expulsion of the espoused the cause of his native land emperor, and the establishment of the new against the Spaniards, and entered the constitution, in 1824, Vittoria was chosen
the first president of the new republic, general Maurice Matthieu of Barce-
VITTORIA, BATTLE OF, was fought on muscles of the extremities and other parts June 21, 1813. In the middle of Februa- are thrown into various involuntary mory, 1813, the disastrous state of the French tions, and perform, in an irregular manarmy in Russia was made known to the ner, those motions which are dictated by French troops in Spain, with orders to the will. The approach of the disease is send whatever forces could be spared to commonly slow, and is indicated by a loss Germany. 30,000 troops set off immedi- of the usual vivacity, by a variable and ately for that country. Their departure, often ravenous appetite, a swelling and and Marmont's defeat in the year previous, hardness in the lower belly, in most cases, obliged the French to give up Madrid, but, in some, a lank and soft belly, and, in and to retire behind the Ebro. Welling- general, a constipated state of the bowels. ton followed, and passed the Ebro, June Slight, irregular, involuntary motions are 15. At last, the two armies met on the soon observed, especially of the muscles great plain of Vittoria (a town in Alava, of the face, which after a while become lon. 2° 41' W., lat. 42° 47' N., with a more violent. These convulsive motions population of 6500, much occupied in vary considerably. The muscles of the the manufacture of sword-blades). The extremities, and of the face, those moving French were commanded by king Joseph the lower jaw, the head and the trunk of and Jourdan. They had on their left a the body, are, at different times and in difchain of gentle hills, on their right Vitto- ferent instances, affected by it. In this ria, in front the rivulet of Zadora. On state, the patient does not walk steadily : the 20th, Wellington united all his col- bis gait resembles jumping or starting : umns, and ordered general Hill, on the he sometimes cannot walk, and seems 21st, to pass over the Zadora at day- palsied ; nor can he perform the common break, and to attack the centre of the motions with the arms. In a word, when French. He was repulsed, but the strug- be wishes to be at rest, the muscles are gle was obstinate; and general Graham, perpetually moving, and distorting the in the mean time, turned the right wing limbs, face and trunk; and when any of the French, and came upon their rear, motion is attempted by the will, it is perso that they were cut off from the road to formed irregularly and with difficulty, afBilboa, and forced to retreat towards Pam- ter several efforts. The convulsive mopeluna, which they did in the greatest dis- tions sometimes continue even in sleep. order. They had been so certain of vic- In the progress of the disease, articulation tory, that little provision had been made becomes impeded, and is frequently comfor the case of defeat; and many of the pletely suspended. Deglutition is also wives of the officers, the whole of Jo- occasionally performed with difficulty. seph's baggage, &c., fell into the hands of The eye loses its lustre and intelligence ; the English. 15,000 dead and wounded the countenance is pale and expressive of lay on the field of battle ; 3000 French languor. This disease attacks both sexes, were taken prisoners. The English took but chiefly those who are of a weak con151 cannons, and 400 wagons with mili- stitution, or whose health and vigor have tary stores, and the military chest. Their been impaired by confinement, or by the booty was immense. General Clauzel want of sufficient or proper nourishment. arrived the day after the battle, with two It appears most commonly from the eighth divisions, at Vittoria, and, with great skill, to the fourteenth year. Many causes have retreated towards Saragossa, so that the been assigned for this disorder, such as pursuit was less destructive than it would worms in the alimentary canal, and the otherwise have been, and the remains repulsion or drying up of cutaneous erupof the French army were enabled to tions; also rheumatisins, acute fevers, disrally at the foot of the Pyrenees, where eases of the stomach, the use of mercury, Soult put them again in order, and strove terror, and other strong mental impresto oppose Wellington, who was prevented sions. The remedies which have been also, by other circumstances, from follow- adopted belong to the two classes of ing up his victory as he could have tonics and evacuants. The connexion wished; since Suchet, after the unsuccess- of the name of St. Vitus with this disease ful attempt of general Murray on Tarra- seems to have originated, during the days gona, kept possession of Valencia, and of fanaticism and superstition, in the sev
enteenth century. Gregorius Horstius superior to Apollonius himself. In 1664, and Juncker relate that a belief prevailed he was honored with a pension from among the people of Germany, that, by Louis XIV, and, in 1666, the grand duke presenting gifts, and dancing before the of Tuscany, who employed him both in image of St. Vitus, on his festival, in May, public works and in negotiation, gave him they should live in health and safety dur- the title of his first mathematician. In ing the ensuing year; and that, for this 1669, he was chosen to fill a chair in the purpose, they repaired to a chapel dedi- royal academy of sciences of Paris, which cated to their saint, where they danced honor induced him to finish three books night and day, until they were seized of his Divination of Aristeus, and address with delirium, and fell down in a sort of them to the king of France (Divinatio in trance.
Aristæum, 1701). He died in 1703, in the Vives, Giovanni Ludovico, one of the eighty-first or eighty-second year of his revivers of literature, was born at Valen- age. Fontenelle speaks warmly of the tia, in Spain, in 1492, and studied at Paris integrity and simplicity of manners of and Louvain. He then visited England, Viviani, who composed several mathehaving previously become one of the first matical treatises in the Latin and Italian fellows of Corpus Christi college, Oxford. languages, besides those already alluded He was patronised by Catharine of Arra- to, the principal of which is entitled gon, and, in 1522, dedicated his Commen- Enodatio Problematum (1677), comprising tary upon St. Augustine's De Civitate Dei the solution of three problems which had to king Henry VIII. He was also ap- been submitted to all the mathematicians pointed to instruct the princess Mary in of Europe. polite literature and the Latin language.
(See Iron, vol. vii, p. During his residence at Oxford, he was 69.) admitted doctor of laws, and acquired VIZIER is a title of honor with the much favor with Henry VIII; but, ven- Turks, belonging to all the pachas of turing to write against his divorce from three tails (i. e. the highest pachas). BeCatharine, he was disgraced and impris- sides these, there are at Constantinople oned. On regaining his liberty, he re- six viziers, called viziers of the bench paired to Brussels, where he married, and (i. e. of the council of state), because they remained, for the rest of his life, as a have seats in the divan. Men acquainted teacher of the belles-lettres. He died in with the laws, and such as have already 1541. His works were printed at Basle held offices of importance, are chosen for in 1555, in 2 vols., folio; but this collection this station ; but they have no decisive does not include his Commentary on St. voice in this council, and cannot give Augustine, which was esteemed too bold their opinion until the grand vizier asks and free by the Louvain doctors. Among it. They have small salaries, but are his works are De prima Philosophia ; De privileged to wear a turban like that of Explanatione Essentiarum ; De Censura the grand viziers, this being a mark of Veri; De Initüis, Sectis et Laudibus Phi- high distinction with the Turks. They losophiæ ; and De corruptis Artibus et tra- can also affix the name of the sultan to dendis Disciplinis.
the orders sent into the provinces. The VIVIANI, Vincent, a celebrated Italian grand vizier (vizier azem) stands high mathematician, was born at Florence, in above these. He is the representative of 1622. From the sixteenth year of his the sultan, conducts the deliberations of age, he pursued the study of geometry the divan, and decides alone. He receives with such diligence and success, that the a seal at the time of his appointment, on great Galilei gave him the advantage of which the sultan's name is engraved, and his own instructions, and treated him as a which he must always wear on his bosom. son. After Galilei's death, he undertook By this seal, he is authorized to rule, with the restoration of the five books of Aris- absolute power, in the name of the grand tæus, a celebrated Grecian mathematician, sultan. entitled De Locis lis, which were lost, VLIESSINGEN. (See Flushing.) with the exception of the names of the VOCAL Music; music produced by the propositions. This labor he, however, dis- human voice (q. v.) alone, or accompanied continued, in order to restore the lost fifth by instruments. It is contradistinguished book of the Conic Sections of Apollonius. from instrumental music (q. v.), which is This work he published in 1659, in folio, produced by instruments alone. The comunder the title De Mazimis et Minimis poser of such music must have a thorGeometrica Divinatio in quintum Conico- ough knowledge of voices, and their murum Apollonii Pergai, which was esteemed sical effect, their power, and the peculiarities by which the human voice differs so nant, and the larynx is double, and some decidedly from instruments. Vocal mu- of which (the singing birds) have lamelsic has many advantages over instrument- læ in the bronchiæ, capable of vibration, al, in the fine blending of the tones, in its the voice is fitted for the most varied endless variety of intonation and expres- sounds. The mammalia possess but one sion, and in the support which it derives larynx; and with them the sound is from its connexion with words. The forined by a strong expiration, whilst different forms of vocal music are, the air, the ligaments of the glottis (according to arietta, cavatina, and the like; recitativo, the opinion of Ferrein) vibrate like the duetto, terzetto, quartetto, &c.; the cho- strings of an instrument, and produce varus, the song, hymn, &c. ; the opera, ora- rious sounds, as they are more or less torio, cantata, &c. (See Music, division tense ; or (according to the opinion of History of; see also Voice.)
Dodart and Cuvier) form certain cavities, Vogler, George Joseph, a distinguished in which the tones are produced, as in practical and theoretical musician, was wind instruments; or, perhaps, operate in born at Würzburg, in 1749. He studied both ways at the same time. But the law, but early showed great talent for length of the windpipe, which can be inplaying on the organ, and for composing. creased or shortened, and the magnitude The elector of the Palatinate, Charles of the lungs in proportion to the width of Theodore, sent him to Italy, about 1773, the glottis, also contribute much, at least to study music. In about three years, hé to the strength of the tone. The voice, returned to Manheim, the residence of his however, is more influenced by the epiprincely patron. In the year 1780, and glottis, by the greater or less length of the the following years, he travelled in Ger- canal which extends from the glottis to many, France, Holland, Sweden, Eng. the opening of the mouth, and by all the land, Spain, and (as Gerber says) even in voluntary modifications which can be Africa and Greece. In 1786, he was ap- there given to the tone. The influence pointed chapel-master to the king of Swe- of the nerves of the voice is also to be den. In 1790, he was in London, where remarked: if the nerve is cut on one side, his performance on the organ was heard the voice becomes weaker, and if cut on with great pleasure. He delivered lec- both sides, ceases entirely. The positive tures on music in Stockholm and in pole of the galvanic battery affecting the Prague. In 1807, he was appointed chapel- nerve produces high, the negative pole master to the grand duke of Hesse-Darm- deep, hoarse tones. Liscovius,
in his Thestadt, and remained in Darmstadt until ory of the Voice (in German, Leipsic, his death, in 1814. He invented a new 1814), maintains that the voice is proinstrument, called orchestrion, in which duced by the pressure of the breath the tone was determined in quite a new through the narrow opening of the windway, by the increase and diminution of pipe, in a similar way as the tones are the wind; and the sound was increased by produced by the mouth in whistling. Aca suspended copper vessel. He also in- cording to Gottfried Weber (Cæcilia, vol. vented a mode of simplifying the con- i, p. 92), the organ of voice, as a soundstruction of organs. He wrote various ing membrane, or lamella, acts like the works on music, and likewise composed tongue-work in the organ. The uvula several pieces for the theatre, sympho- has, of course, considerable influence in pies, &c.
producing the tones, and is subject to Voice is the body of sounds produced diseases in singers, orators, and others acby the organs of respiration, especially customed to great exertion of the vocal the larynx of men or animals. It can, organs.*
* The voice of men and animals therefore, only be found in animals in is a very interesting subject of inquiry. which the system of respiration is devel- The tones by which animals express oped, and the lungs and larynx actually their feelings, the sweet and powerful melexist. Many insects intentionally produce odies of the small birds, the tones which a noise by the motion of their wings, convey the ideas and emotions of rational which takes the place of a voice, but man, and furnish his noblest music, are cannot be called by this name. The well fitted to awaken the curiosity of the fishes, being deprived of lungs, and breath- naturalist, physiologist and philosopher.ing through gills, are dumb; but the am- For some remarks on the organs of the phibious animals, which have the lungs and larynx in an imperfect state, have,
* See Magendie's Report on Doctor Bennati's therefore, a limited voice. In birds, how" (physician to the Italian opera in Paris) Memoir
on the Diseases of the Uvula, read March 7, ever, in which the lungs are so predomi- 1831, in the French academy.
voice in animals and men, we refer the consonants, we remark, that while any reader to Blumenbach's Manual of continued or vowel sound is passing Comparative Anatomy (translated by W. through the mouth, if it be interrupted, Lawrence, revised by Coulson, London, whether by a complete, closure of the 1827). Respecting the sounds of human mouth, or only by an approximation of language, by the various combinations of parts, the effect on the ear of a listener is which such a variety of words is pro- so exceedingly different, according to the duced, we will add a few remarks. 'Be- situation in the mouth where the intersides the lungs, the windpipe, &c., the ruption occurs, and to the manner in finely-arched roof of the mouth, and the which it occurs, that many most distinct pliability of the lips (enabling us to give modifications thence arise. Thus any a great variety of forms to the mouth, continued sound, as a, if arrested by a which are almost the sole means of giving closure of the mouth at the external contheir peculiar character to the different fine or lips, is heard to terminate with the vowels), are of the greatest importance. modification expressed by the letter p; Under the articles on the separate letters that is, the syllable ap has been prothe reader will find an account of the way nounced: but if, under similar circumin which the sounds represented by thein stances, the closure be made at the back respectively are produced. “The modi- of the mouth, by the tongue rising against fications of voice, easily made (says Mr. the palate, we hear the modification exAmott, in his Elements of Physics), and pressed by the letterk, and the syllable ak easily distinguishable by the ear, and, has been pronounced: and if the closure therefore, fit elements of language, are be made in the middle of the mouth, by about fifty in number; but no single lan- the tip of the tongue rising against the guage contains more than about half of roof, the sound expressed byť is prothem. They are divisible into two very duced, and the syllable at is heard: and distinct and nearly equal classes, called so of others. It is to be remarked, also, rowels (q. v.) and consonants.” (q. v.) In that the ear is equally sensible of the pethe article Consonant, the natural division culiarities, whether the closure precedes of words is shown cease with syllables: the continued sound or follows it; that is they are one sound, and the division into to say, whether the syllables pronounced vowels and consonants, ingenious and use- are ap, at, ak, or pa, ta, ka. The modififul as it is, does not, in fact, exist to the cations of which we are now speaking degree which we usually take for granted, appear, then, not to be really sounds, but from the circumstance of considering only manners of beginning and ending them as totally distinct from early child- sounds; and it is because they can thus hood. Consonants are, generally speak- be perceived only in connexion with voing, only the beginning or end of vowels; cal sounds, that they are called consoi. e. the mouth must in some way be nants."—We refer the reader to Mr. Aropened to produce a vowel sound, and nott's work, for further remarks on the elosed to conclude the vowel sounds; and pronunciation of the various vowels and this mode of opening or closing gives rise consonants, and add here only his table to that which we call a consonant. The of articulations, in which, if we consider circumstance that consonants cannot be the perpendicular line on the left as the pronounced without the aid of vowels, opening of the mouth, and the line on the shows, that the strict division into vowels right as the back part of the mouth, the and consonants is one which nature has four divisions indicate the places where not made. Mr. Arnott says (p. 488 of the the letters are pronounced.See the artiAmerican ed.): “ To explain the second cles on the letters and on writing. class of the modifications of sound, called