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prebendary of Westminster, to Frances, the daughter of Dr. Chauncy, a physician at Derby, by whom he had six sons and three daughters. Upon his marriage he took a house in Essex-street, in the Strand, where he continued to read his anatomical lectures till the year 1750. After which he laid them aside, and devoted himself more entirely to the practice of physic, in which he had for many years a considerable share of business, which he obtained solely by the reputation of his skill and integrity; for he laboured under the disadvantage of very frequent, and severe fits of deafness, and knew no art of success but that of deserving it.

In the same year, 1744, he was chosen fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London, where he read suceessively all the lectures instituted in that society, with great reputation both for his professional knowledge, and for the purity and elegance of his Latin; nor did he confine himself to the oral instruction of his contemporaries, for in the year 1756, he published a medical disputation, De Hydrope, and, in 1757, Pralectiones Medica, and, in 1759, De Naturâ Musculorum Prælectiones Tres; and when the colJege published the works of Dr. Harvey, in 1766, Dr. Lawrence wrote the Life which is prefixed to that edition, for which he had a compliment of one hundred guineas. In 1759, he was chosen elect, and _1767, president, of the College of Physicians, to which office he was re-elected for the seven succeeding years.

In 1773, an event happened in his family, which, as it gave occasion to a very elegant Latin Ode addressed to him by Dr. Johnson, and which is now published, it may not be impertinent to relate in this place. The East India Company being then in the meridian of their power, the second of his sons then alive, 'a young man of very lively parts and aspiring hopes, was so dazzled by the splendid accounts brought home by the servants of the company, and had so much fixed his mind upon trying his fortune in that part of the world, that his friends were induced to persuade his father to comply with his inclinations in this point: yet such was his opinion of the corruptions and temptations of the East Indies, that, though his son went out with many advantages of connection and recommendation, the grief of so parting with him, dwelt long upon his mind. The supreme court of judicature being established at Calcutta a few years after, Mr. Lawrence complied with the wishes of his friends, in returning to the law, for which profession he had been educated, and became an advocate in that court;

he died at Madras, whither he went for the recovery of his health, in December, 1783, having obtained the rank of second advocate to the East India Company.

About this time Dr. Lawrence's health began to decline, and he first perceived the symptoms of that disorder on the breast, which is called by the physicians the Angina pectoris, and which continued to afflict him to the end of his life; notwithstanding, he remitted little of his attention, either to study or business; for no man of equal sensibility had a greater contempt of giving way to suffering of any kind; he still continued his custom of rising at very early hours, that he might secure leisure for study in the quiet part of the day; and his old friend and instructor, Dr. Nicholls, dying in the beginning of the year 1778, he paid a tribute of friendship and gratitude to his memory by writing an account of his life, which was printed in 1780.*

The death of his friend was soon followed by a nearer Joss, for on the 2d of January, 1780, it pleased God to afflict him by the death of his wife, with whom he had lived with great happiness for above thirty-five years; from this time his health and spirits began rapidly to decline.

The following year, the lease of his house in Essexstreet being expired, he had nearly agreed for another, which was more commodious, when his family observing the hourly and alarming alteration of his health, put a stop to the negociation, and prevailed with him to retire from business and London: his own choice inclined him to Oxford, but it being objected that that city was not so eligible as some others, for a family that would consist chiefly of women, he at length fixed upon Canterbury, where he hoped that the cathedral would supply him with a society as suitable, if not so numerous, as that of Oxford.

In consequence of this resolution, a house was hired at Canterbury, and Dr. Lawrence removed thither with his family, on the 16th of June, 1782. But so rapid was the progress his disorder, which now indubitably appeared to be paralytic, had made during the course of the preceding winter, that, before the necessary preparations for the removal of his family could be finished, it had, by slight but repeated strokes, nearly deprived him of the power of speech, and entirely of the use of his right hand. He continued in this state for almost a year, and died on the 6th of June, 1783, loved, honoured, and lamented, by all who knew him. 1787, March.

[* See p. 182. of this volume. E.]

XLIV. A short Sketch of the Life and Character of ROBERT RAIKES, of Gloucester, the Founder of the Sunday Schools.

THE outlines of a character so distinguished in the annals of this country, as that of Mr. Raikes, cannot fail to engage the attention of the reader: in proportion as he feels himself interested in the welfare of mankind, he will interest himself in every particular which concerns this bright example of unbounded philanthropy. His present biographer (who is taking this liberty with him without his permission or knowledge,) does not mean to puff him up with ideas of superiority to the rest of mankind; while, at the same time, he cannot withhold from him that commendation which is due to the instrument of so much benefit to the world.

The founder of Sunday Schools was born in the city of Gloucester, in the year 1735, of as worthy and respectable parents as any in that city which gave him birth or in any other. Mr. Raikes, his father, had for many years distinguished himself as the editor and sole proprietor of a Weekly Journal, which, as it was remarkable for the judicious se lection of its contents, was, of course, very extensive in its circulation, and very generally approved: the Gloucester Journal for a considerable period stood unrivalled, extending itself through the counties of Gloucester, Somerset, Hereford, Monmouth, and even to the farthest part of South Wales.

The education which this excellent man received was liberal, and well adapted to his future designation. At a proper time of life he was initiated into the employment of his father, which was not limited to the business of a journalist, but extended itself to other branches of typography: and, though I will not compliment my hero by comparing his literary attainments with those of a Bowyer or a Franklin; yet I can venture to pronounce, that he entered on his line of business with acquirements superior to the nature of his employment; which, however, has always been considered, when conducted by men of science and education, as very respectable; and in which he is not less remarkable for his accuracy, than he is for his fidelity and integrity in every part of his conduct.

The first object which drew forth the exertions of this friend to mankind, was the wretched state of the county bridewell, within the city of Gloucester, which being a part of the county gaol, the persons committed by the magistrate

out of sessions for petty offences, associated, through necessity, with felons of the worst description; with little or no means of subsistence from labour; with little, if any, allowance from the county; without either meat, drink, or clothing; dependent chiefly on the precarious charity of such as visited the prison, whether brought thither by business, curiosity, or compassion.

- We shall not wonder to find the "Father of the poor" exerting himself in behalf of these forlorn and destitute creatures, in order to render their situation supportable at least, if not, in some degree, comfortable. He was earnest in his solicitations, through the channel of his paper, and in personal applications to his friends, for money to procure them the necessaries of life. We remember to have seen remonstrances, memorials, and addresses, to those whom it more immediately concerned, to remedy an evil which did such dishonour to our national humanity.

And whereas extreme ignorance was very properly considered by him as the principal cause of those enormities which brought them into their deplorable situation, precluding all hope of any lasting or real amendment from their punishment; his great desire was, if possible, to procure for them some moral and religious instruction. If among the prisoners he found one that was able to read, he gladly made use of him to instruct his fellow-prisoners, encouraging his diligence and fidelity in this undertaking by pecuniary rewards, and procuring for him such other kinds of indulgence as his situation would admit of. Having thus put them in a method of improving their time, he has met with instances of persons, especially among the younger offenders, who have attained to a competent proficiency in reading; which has served both as an amusement to them during their confinement, and as a recommendation of them in their restoration to the community.

It may more easily be conceived than expressed, what that benevolent heart must have felt (and this pleasure he has often received,) when he has heard the prisoner thank God, that by being detected in his crimes, apprehended, and imprisoned, he has had opportunities afforded him of learning that good, which otherwise he would probably have never known in his whole life. The choice of books being judiciously made, and religious instruction going hand-inhand with other information, the teacher himself has often learnt while he' was instructing others, and from the very nature of his employment, became imperceptibly a better

man.

But the care of this philanthropist was not confined merely to the business of literary improvement; it was not less his desire to form their hearts, if it were possible, to sentiments of kindness to each other. Indeed, it was one of his prin-. cipal endeavours to subdue in them, if it were possible, that savage ferocity of temper and behaviour which only served to render their situation more hateful and intolerable. Observing that idleness was the parent of much mischief among them, and that they quarrelled with one another because they had nothing else to do, he endeavoured to procure employment for such as were willing, or even permitted, to work: I say, permitted; because, strange as it may seem, though, to the dishonour of our police, not singular, there were no materials or employment found for such as were sentenced to confinement and hard labour; nor were they allowed to earn, by the labour of their hands, what would have been sufficient, and much more than sufficient, for their subsistence.* Hence I will venture to say, that infinitely more mischief arose from the imprisonment of petty delinquents, both to themselves and the community, than any benefit which could possibly result from it. The refractory apprentice, whom solitude, and silence, and labour, might have brought to his senses, and returned welldisposed to his duty, was herded with the felon and atrocious villain; and he, who, though destitute of virtuous principles, had yet been inured to labour before his confinement, could not but contract such habits of idleness, during a long imprisonment, as would render him, perhaps, an useless and worthless member of society all the rest of his life.

It has been owing to the unparalleled exertions of one t of the best men, and the remonstrances of others, his fellow labourers in the same good cause, and, in no small degree, to the spirited representations repeatedly inserted in the Gloucester Journal by Mr. Raikes, that this matter has been very seriously agitated; and such a system of reform in this respect has already begun to take place, and is about to be generally adopted throughout the kingdom, as will do

*See Thoughts on Prisons, in a letter to W. Mainwaring, Esq. sold by Gardner, No. 200, Strand, in which there is a striking description of the economy of a well-regulated prison.

On this occasion the truly respectable names of Howard and Hanway, will be uppermost in the mind of every reader; the first of whom has raised himself a monument, ære perennius; and the latter of whom is reaping the fruits of his labours in the harvest of a blessed eternity.

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