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indicates how deeply the feeling of the hour reflects the emotions of the short but eventful period the country has just passed through. This list includes three Generals, of whom two have borne prominent, if not equal parts in the military operations; two Admirals, of whom nearly the same may be said; next there is the representative of the Sultan, in whose cause the allies drew the sword, Musurus Bey; and the Earl of Clarendon, the Minister and negotiator of England who signed the treaty of peace.

The anxiety to gain admission to the Theatre was excessive, and taxed to the utmost the kindness of all those privileged to pass a friend through the barriers, which were guarded with almost military severity. The ladies and the under graduates had a priority in this respect; the upper gallery, it is needless to say, was rapidly filled by the latter. Anything and everything was cheered, as usual, and anybody at all objectionable, was duly apprised of the sentiments of the Upper Thousand toward them. Some local notabilities were received in a manner indicating they were better known than liked in the higher regions; but on the whole, a commendable amount of good temper was exhibited. The selection of ladies' bonnets commenced early, but the positive colors were soon exhausted, and we observe that the neutral tints escape notice, being difficult to define with sufficient exactness. So, when the cheers for "the Red, White, and Blue " had been given, "the lady with the fan," and "the lady with the opera-glass" were picked out; as there were scores of glasses and hundreds of fans, this was also a very general compliment. Then came cheers for individuals, known and unknown. "Omar Pasha" fell flat; so did "the Sultan," they seemed rather abstract ideas; but "Musurus" obtained great success. So did" the Earl of Clarendon ; ""Lord Stratford" found no response, and to " 'Cardigan" there were dissentients. The cheers for Prince Albert were unanimous, and for "General Williams," enthusiastic. Between the expression of private antipathies and public homage, the time wore on, till, at 11 o'clock, the procession of University authorities, in all the splendor of robes and maces, entered the Theatre. The Chancellor, (the Earl of Derby,) took his seat, having his Royal Highness, Prince Albert, on his right hand, and Prince Frederick William, of Prussia, and the Prince of Baden on his left. The principals of the several colleges and the candidates for the honors of the day were around and below them.

The Chancellor then read the list of those on whom the degree of D. C. L. was to be conferred, honoris causâ; they were:

His Royal Highness, Prince Frederick William, of Prussia.

His Royal Highness, the Prince of Baden.

Count Bernstorf.

His Excellency Musurus Bey, Minister Plenipotentiary of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan.

The Right. Hon. the Earl of Clarendon, K. G., G. C. B.
The Right Hon. the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, K. T.

The Right Hon. Lord Ashburton.

Admiral Sir Edmund Lyons, Bart., G. C. B., K. C. H.
Rear Admiral the Hon. Sir. R. Saunders Dundas, K. C. B.
Sir Henry Holland, Bart., M. D., F. R. S.

Major-General Sir Collin Campbell, G. C. B.

Major-General Sir W. Fenwick Williams, of Kars., Bart., R. A., K. C. B. Major-General Sir Harry D. Jones, R. E., K. C. B., Governor of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

Lord Abercorn.

Dr. Sandwith, the English Physician at Kars.

Dr. Barth, the African Traveler.

The name of the Prince of Prussia was received with a loud and hearty burst of applause; so was that of the Prince of Baden; the same token of recognition and approval was bestowed on the Earl of Clarendon, the Earl of Elgin, and Lord Ashburton. The cheers for Sir Edmund Lyons and Sir C. Campbell were very hearty; indeed, all the names were well received; but that of General Williams was welcomed by a perfect storm of applause, which lasted for several minutes, though the Chancellor laid particular emphasis on the words " etiam absens." It was generally regretted that this gallant officer was not present to witness the enthusiasm his name excited in the hearts of so many of his countrymen. It was

a tribute of which any man, whatever his services, might be proud. The names were then proposed seriatim to the doctors and masters by Dr. Travers Twiss, Regius Professor of Civil Law; the under graduates, as usual, volunteering the reply of "placet."

BELGIUM.

CHARITABLE CONGRESS AT BRUSSELS.

A Congress of gentlemen from different nations, interested in the public and private administration of charity, was held at Paris, in July, 1855.

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A second meeting is to be held in Brussels, commencing on the 15th of September next, the object of which is thus stated in the official programme: place in personal relations those who, in different ways, are occupied with the amelioration of the laboring and indigent classes of society, to afford the means of comparing institutions of mutual benefit, of charity, and of public utility in all countries; and, finally, to elucidate, so far as possible, various social problems." Under the last named head the various subjects proposed for discussion are enumerated with some detail. We specify the more important topics.

1. Condition of the working.classes.

2. Means of subsistance.

3. Promotion of health, character of different occupations, lodging houses, baths, &c., &c.

4. Education and Instruction, nurseries, infant schools, primary schools, Sunday schools, industrial schools, popular circulating libraries, popular amusements, gymnastics, &c.

5. Institutions de provoyance, savings banks, mutual aid societies, various kinds of assurance.

6. Pauperism, charitable institutions, legislation, aid at home, hospitals, dispensaries, asylums &c., for the aged, incurable, orphans, foundlings, idiots, blind, deaf and dumb, laws &c., for extinction of begging, Monts de piete, &c.

7. Agricultural colonies, reform schools, farm hospitals, &c.

8. Crime, penetentiary systems, cellular prisons, care of released prisoners. 9. Increase of population, emigration.

These questions or topics cover, it will be seen, nearly the whole field of charitable economy, and are too numerous for full discussion in any single congress. Impressed with this fact, the Societé d'Economie Charitable, of Paris, in accepting the invitation to participate in the meeting at Brussels, decided to limit itself to the examination of four topics, viz. :—

1. Practical application of the principles of association to relief against sickness, old age, want of occupation, to the provision of food, nourishment, &c., the acquisition of property, &c.

2. Organization of museums of domestic economy, and relations to be estabished between the museums of different nations.

3. Amelioration and extension of popular education, measures to be taken against intemperance and debauchery, popular diversions and amusements.

4. Emigration from cities to the country, to colonies, and to foreign lands.

HONDURAS.

Honduras has two universities, one established in the city of Comayagua, and another in Tegucigalpa. They have, nominally, professorships of law, medicine, and theology; but, in fact, their course of instruction is little in advance of the common schools of the United States. In the department of natural sciences,

and in those studies of greatest practical importance to the development of the resources of the country, chemistry, engineering, the higher mathematics, they are entirely deficient, and much behind those of Nicaragua, San Salvador, and Guatemala. Indeed, most of what are called educated men in the state have received their instruction in foreign countries, or at the institution just named. Efforts have been made to elevate the character and efficiency of these establishments in Honduras; but, they have been too feeble to produce any important change. Still the fact that they have been rescued from a state of entire suspension, and are not deficient in pupils in the elementary branches of knowledge, gives encouragement for the future, and, with the restoration of peace and the return of national prosperity, there is reason to believe they may become an honor to the country.

The Lancasterian system was introduced into Central America during the existence of the Federation, and has been continued, with some modifications, in the various States. The requisite data for estimating the public or private schools of Honduras do not exist, since such few returns from the Departments as have been incidentally published in the official paper are confessedly imperfect.

On a very liberal estimate, there may be four hundred schools in the State, with an average attendance of 25 scholars each, or an aggregate of 10,000 pupils, of all classes, in a total population of 350,000.

There are no libraries in the State worthy of mention, and, beside the Government Gazette, no newspapers. There are several presses, but they throw off little except acrimonious political pamphlets, or handbills of a personal character. It follows, from these facts, that the ignorance of the people at large is profound and melancholy.

E. G. SQUIER, Notes on Central America. UNITED STATES.

We have received Legislative Documents, or the Annual Report of the Superintendent, or Commissioner of Public Schools, or Board of Education for the following States, viz. :-Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Ohio, from which we purpose to make, in our next number, a SUMMARY OF THE CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN 1855-56, in the language of those who are entrusted with its administration. The article will be long, but will contain the latest and most reliable view of the state of the common schools, and the efforts which are making, or which are proposed for their improvement.

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The simple apparatus represented in this figure consists of the wheel A, which has a heavy rim, and is suspended in a brass ring, upon steel points, which enter the ends of the axis. The two ears attached to this ring, at the ends of the axis, are indented, to receive the point of the standard, B.

If a rapid rotation is given the wheel A, by winding a cord on the brass spool placed on the axis, and pulling it vigorously, as a boy would spin a top, (the ring being firmly held,) the wheel seems to become endowed with a new power, which, apparently, puts at defiance the laws of gravity. When one of the ears is placed on the point of the standard, B, and the other ear allowed to rest on the finger, supporting the axis in a horizontal position, nothing singular is observed. If the finger is slowly lowered, the end of the axis will fall with it; but, if the finger be drawn away horizontally, leaving the end unsupported, the instrument, with marvelous independence, will proceed to take care of itself, and will not only maintain its horizontal position, but, at once, commence revolving around the standard on which it rests. The entire machine, which weighs over a pound, remains suspended almost on nothing, and a half pound weight may be hung on the unsupported end without changing its inclination.

If the outer end is elevated or depressed by the hand, the axis retains the inclination last given it, except that, if above a horizontal plane, it will gradually rise while the force of the rotation continues sufficient, or, if below, it will slowly fall.

The same phenomena will occur if the Paradox is suspended by a cord fastened to the universal joint on one of the ears. This mode of use is safest, as the delicate mechanism will be materially injured by falling; there is less friction, however, when the ear rests on the iron point.

It will be observed that, when the wheel rotates in one direction, the machine revolves in the opposite direction, as indicated by arrows in the figure. If the horizontal revolution is stopped, the Paradox instantly falls

If the ring is held in the hands by the ears, and one end suddenly raised or lowered, an unexpected resistance is encountered, and a strong tendency to revolve is manifested; or, if held firmly by one ear, and the hand containing it allowed to fall from a horizontal position, the same tendency to revolve will be felt. If suspended by a cord, fastened to the joint on one ear, and swung like a pendulum, it will be found to describe an ellipse; in fact, it will be impossible to swing it in a straight line.

A socket, with branching arms, forming a semi-circle, accompanies each instrument, (though not shown in the cut.) If this socket is placed on the standard, and the Paradox suspended between the arms, by pivots placed in the ring at right angles to the axis, other singular phenomena may be observed.

1. When the Paradox is accurately balanced on the pivots, and the wheel set in rapid motion, the axis will continue to point in one direction, even though the standard be turned entirely round. A more striking illustration of this is seen by placing the socket on a wire at the end of a lever. If the lever be made to describe a horizontal circle, the axis of the wheel will be found to point in the same direction in every part of the circle. Is not this precisely analogous to the parallelism of the Earth's axis, in her revolution round the sun?

2. If, when the Paradox is suspended as in the preceding experiment, a weight is hung on one ear, the paradox does not lose its balance, but immediately begins to revolve horizontally, always stopping the instant the weight is removed. If the weight is hung on the other ear, the revolution is in an opposite direction.

3. If a slight horizontal motion is given to the arms, thus changing the plane of the wheel's rotation, the axis of the wheel will change vertically, and by a few movements of the arms backwards and forwards a vertical revolution of the Paradox will be produced.

This curious instrument is attracting much attention from scientific men; but, the causes of its action are not yet fully explained. Whoever shall account for them satisfactorily to himself, or shall discover new phenomena, will confer a favor by informing the undersigned. The originator of the Mechanical Paradox represented in the above cut, is Mr. Abner Lane, of Killingworth, who has arranged with the Holbrook School Apparatus Co., of Hartford, Conn., for its manufacture and sale. It will be sent, by express, to any person remitting the price, $5,00, $3,00, or $2,50, according to style, to F. C. BROWNELL, Sec'y Hartford, Conn.

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