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fully repaid, and he has hence every encouragement to persevere in his agreeable duty.
I am aware there are numerous exceptions to this mode of receiving these trifling favors; that there exist many examples of all that is elegant in manners, charming in expression, and fascinating in tone, among our accomplished women; but still a false notion prevails with so many others, as to render it important to present the matter as I have done to your attention.
There are few positions in life which furnish so many opportunities for the exercise of good breeding, as travelling. Innumerable occasions occur for removing petty annoyances, promoting the comfort, and adding to the satisfaction of others, which the amiable voyager will not fail to notice and embrace, exciting fellow-travellers to similar acts, increasing the sum of human enjoyment, and proving an authentic claim to the title of a true gentleman.
The late Daniel Webster was remarkable for this; and numerous are the anecdotes related of him illustrative of the fact. Persons familiar with the routes between the seat of government and Boston, during the last thirty or forty years, can state how often the tedium of the journey has been enlivened and charmed by the genuine politeness of the great statesman. Every man cannot be a Webster; but no one is destitute of the ability to be civil and kind, whenever the disposition exists. There is a wide difference in men in regard to refinement of feeling and sensibility to the wants and claims of others; and on this will ever depend complete success in the art of being agreeable, and of ministering to the wants and comforts of fellowbeings.
This, therefore, claims your especial attention. A training in the minute particulars, which perfect and constant good manners involve, should form a part of the labors of every hour while you are in the presence of your pupils; and this to be persevered in to the close of life's toils. The mark which you will thus assist to impress on the successive classes of your school, will be ineffaceable, and continue a glorious monument to your fidelity, long after your mortal part shall have been committed to the tomb, and the undying spirit shall be transferred to the immediate presence, and be beatified by the benignant and unfading smile, of Infinite Love.
XII. INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION:-PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES.*
Lectures Addressed to Young Teachers.
BY WILLIAM RUSSELL, LANCASTER, MASS.
[The circumstances in which the following lecture, and the others of the series were delivered, will, it is thought, account for the prominence given in them to many things merely elementary, as regards the science of mind and the philosophy of education. An audience favored with the advantages of high intellectual culture, or of long experience in instruction, would, doubtless, have required a different treatment of many topics discussed in such a course of lectures as the present. But a long series of years occupied in the training of teachers, has proved to the author of the present communication, that the greater number of candidates for the office of instruction, and of those to whom its duties are comparatively new, need nothing so much as an elementary knowledge of intellectual philosophy, and of logic, in their connection with education, as the science which teaches the appropriate development and discipline of the mind.]
The Teacher's Aim in Instruction.-Few teachers, at the present day, regard knowledge as the great end even of intellectual education. Few are now unwilling to admit that the chief aim of their daily endeavors, as instructors and educators, should be to train, develop, and discipline the powers by which knowledge is acquired, rather than to attempt the immediate accumulation of knowledge itself. In practice, however, and, more particularly, in the case of young teachers, and of those who follow the occupation as a transient one, and not as the vocation of a life-time, the eagerness for definite and apparent results, or even showy acquirements, too often induces the instructor to confine his attention to the mere mechanism of specific processes, -to the committing to memory, and the repetition of a set task, with or without the aid of explanation. This course he knows will nominally secure a single point in practice or effect. He thinks, perhaps, that, although not fully understood or appreciated now, it will certainly benefit the mind of his pupil at some future day, when his
*The series of lectures of which the present forms a part, extended to the departments of physical and moral training. But those on the progress of intellectual culture, are selected as more easily presented in the form of a series of articles for an educational Journal.
VOL. 1, No. 2.-8
mind is more mature. Hence, we still have, in our school routine, too much of mere rule and repetition, detached fact and specific direction, the lesson of the hour and the business of the day, and too little of the searching interrogation, close observation, reflective thought, and penetrating investigation, by which alone the mind can be trained to the acquisition of useful knowledge, or the attainment of valuable truth.
Necessity of Plan and Method. The master builder, when he goes to oversee his workmen, and watch their progress in the work of raising the edifice, for the construction of which he has entered into contract, never fails to carry with him his plan of erection, and with that in his hand, for constant reference, gives directions for even the minutest details in working. He does nothing but in execution of his plan, and in strict accordance with it. The master builder thus reads a lesson to the master instructor, (inward builder,) who, although he needs not plan in hand, for his peculiar work, needs it no less, ever present to his mind, if he wishes to become a workman that needeth not to be ashamed;" if, in a word, he would enjoy the conscious pleasure of referring every day's labor to its destined end of building up the mental fabric in strength, and symmetry, and enduring beauty.
The young teacher, as he reviews the business of the day with his pupils, and would that this were a daily practice in every school!— should ever refer, in his own mind, at least, to the general effect of every exercise, as tending to the great results of education,-to the expansion of the mind, to the formation of habits of observation and inquiry, to control over attention, to the clearing and sharpening of the percipient faculties, to the strengthening of the mind's retentive power, to securing, in a word, intellectual tendency and character, as the basis of moral development and habit. The teacher, not less than the builder, should ever have, in his mind's eye, the plan of his edifice; aud while, during the whole process of erection, he wastes no time on fanciful theory or fantastic ornament, every operation which he conducts should be, to his own consciousness, part of a great whole, tending to a grand consummation. Text-books, processes, exercises, apparatus of every description, are properly, but the pliant tools, or the subject material, in the hands of the skillful teacher, by means of which he does his great work of "building up the building that we are;" and all these aids he arranges, selects, modifies, and applies, according to the system suggested by his plan and purpose.
As the overseer and artificer of the mental fabric of character, the
teacher who is worthy of the name, must necessarily possess a knowledge of the material on which he works. It would be well, were this knowledge always profound and philosophical; and, among the happy anticipations suggested by the establishment of normal schools, none is more cheering than the hope that, ere long, society will be furnished with a numerous class of teachers, competent to understand and guide the young mind through all its stages of growth and development, and furnished with all the requisite means of securing the noblest results of human culture.
Meanwhile, the laborers who are already in the field, and who have not enjoyed, perhaps, extensive opportunities of acquiring a scientific knowledge of the chemistry of mental culture, must be content with such aids as their own observation, reading, reflection, or experience, may furnish.
As a slight contribution to the common stock of professional facilities, the author of the present article would submit the following outline to the consideration of his fellow teachers, as an intended aid to the systematizing of their efforts for the mental advancement of their pupils.
The analysis which follows, extends, it will be perceived, no farther than to the limits of intellectual education. The physical and the moral departments of culture, may be discussed at another opportunity, and must be dismissed for the present, with the single remark, that the natural unity of the human being, demands a ceaseless attention to these, in strict conjunction with that more immediately under consideration.
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS.-Contemplating man's intellectual constitution as subjected to the processes of education, we may conveniently group his mental powers and faculties under the following. denominations-perceptive, reflective, and expressive. In expression, as a function of man at the period of his maturity, the order, in the preceding classification, may be termed the normal or usual one. Man perceives, reflects, speaks. But in education, whether regarded as a natural process or an artificial one, the order of classification suggested by the experience and the history of the human being, in his early and comparatively immature condition, would present the expressive powers as in exercise long before the reflective, and, subsequently, as the appointed means of developing them, through the medium of language.
OUTLINE OF INTELLECTUAL CULTURE.-An outline map, or plan of intellectual culture, as aided by the processes of education, may be carried into practical detail, as suggested by the following prominent points of analysis.
1. Classification of the intellectual faculties, by the different modes, or forms of mental action.
2. Statement of the actuating principle, or impelling power of each class or group of faculties.
3. The tendency, or habit of action in each class.
4. The result, or issue of such action.
5. The educational processes adapted to each class of faculties with a view to aid its natural tendency, and secure its results.
From the imperfection of our language, in relation to topics strictly mental, or purely philosophical, the word faculties is unavoidably employed to represent the diversities in modes of action of the mind, which, in itself, is, properly speaking, one and indivisible. But if we keep fully before us the etymological signification of the term faculties, (resources, means, powers,) we shall regard it but as a figurative expression, suggestive of the indefinitely diversified states, acts, operations, processes, powers, or modes of action, attributable to the mind, -itself a unit.
Adopting the general classification before referred to, we may commence the partial filling up of our outline with
1. THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES.
1. Their modes or forms of action:
a, sensation; b, perception; c, attention: d, observation.
2. Actuating principle, or impelling force, curiosity, or the desire of knowledge.
3. Tendency, or habit of action,-observation.
4. Result, or issue of action,-knowledge.
5. Educational process, forms of exercise, or modes of culture, development, and discipline suggested by the four preceding considerations,-examination, analysis, inspection, interrogation, direction, information, comparison, classification, induction. In other words, the appropriate presentation of objects to the senses, accompanied by mutual question and answer by teacher and pupil;-with a view to quicken sensation, awaken perception, give power of prompt and sustained attention, confirm the habit of careful observation, stimulate curiosity, and insure the extensive acquisition of knowledge. (1.) CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES, BY THEIR
MODES OF ACTION.
(a,) Sensation, the organic action by which objects, facts, and relations are presented to the mind, through the media of the senses, and which form the conditions of perception.
(b) Perception, or cognition,-the intellectual action by which the