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classes in society. Other graduates of the higher schools ultimately take the chief direction of mines, chemical and other manufacturing establishments, works of civil engineering, architectural undertakings, and immense landed estates, or they enter some administrative department of the government which demands a deep knowledge of science, for example, the mint, the inspection of drugs, foods, &c.; while the subordinate positions, either in industrial callings, or in these branches of civil service are filled by those whohave studied in the lower class of schools. There are also special schools of a Literary character. From the institutions for instruction in pure science, and in the highest departments of literature, we accordingly pass to a consideration of those institutions in which the applications of science hold a prominent place, or literary pursuits are followed with some practical aim. Information mostly derived from official sources, will be given concerning all the more important, beginning with those of a literary character.

The following special schools of language and history are established by the French government.

1. The Imperial School of Records, (Ecole des Chartes,) at Paris. This institution, begun in 1821, and connected with the Imperial Library, prepares young men for the duties of librarians and keepers of public archives. Candidates for admission must be not less than 24 years old, and must have received the degree of Bachelier ès Lettres. The course of studies occupies three years, at the end of which those who have passed a successful examination, receive the diploma of Archiviste paléographe. This diploma gives the right to a salary of 600 francs for three years to six former pupils of the school. This right is lost by refusing to accept a position in the public employments open to the archivists, such as the duties of librarians, archive keepers, teachers in the Ecole des Chartes, &c. There are eight scholarships, (bourses,) open to the school, the annual income of each being 600 francs. The pupils are charged with the publication of the Documents inédits de l'histoire de France.

pupils of this

There are seven professors in the school who instruct in the deci phering of manuscripts and documents, in geography and history, the use of seals, value of monies and measures, study of languages, archæology, &c., &c.

2. School of living Oriental Languages. This school, also connected with the Imperial Library, was founded in 1795, with a view to advancing the interests of the government service, military and civil, in Asia and Africa, and at the same time, to encouraging linguistic science. There are nine chairs, namely,-Arabic; Persian; TurNo. 5.-VOL. II, No. 1.1-7.

kish; Armenian; modern Greek, and Greek Palæography; common Arabic; Hindoostani; Chinese; Malay, and Japanese.

3. Course in Archaeology. A course of instruction in Archaeology in connection with the cabinet of medals in the Imperial Library, was commenced in 1795, with a view to making known the monuments of art and the historical monuments of antiquity.

4. French School at Athens, Greece. The object of this school is to give young professors the means of perfecting themselves in the language, history and antiquities of Greece. The members of the school are named by the minister of public instruction, after a special examination in the Greek language, ancient and modern, the elements of palæography and archaeology, and the history and geography of Greece. They reside at Athens two years, (and may do so by special permission for a third year,) during which time they receive a special salary.

We now proceed to consider separately, the higher institutions for instruction in the applications of science. They vary of course in their character, rank, and requirements for admission. Some of them are under the direction of the ministry of public instruction, others under the ministry of agriculture, commerce, and public works, the ministry of the interior, and the ministry of war. As it is difficult to choose a proper order for their enumeration, that of the Annuaire de l'Instruction Publique, will here be followed.

1. Imperial Schools of Agriculture are established at Grignon, Grand-Jouan, and la Saulsaie, and St. Angean. Candidates for admission must be at least 17 years old, and must pass an examination in arithmetic, geometry, and physics, and in French orthography, and grammar. The course of studies lasts three years, at the end of which certificates of capacity are awarded.

In addition to these three high schools of agriculture, there are forty-nine of subordinate farm schools, (fermes-écoles,) situated in the different departments of the empire.

2. Imperial Veterinary Schools are located at Alfert, Lyon, and Toulouse. These schools are to train veterinary surgeons, for military and civil service. The candidates for admission must be between 17 and 25 years old, and the course of studies last four years.

3. Imperial Schools of Arts and Trades have been founded at Châlous sur Marne, since the year of the Republic; at Angers since 1811; and Aix since 1843. Pupils to be adınitted must be between 15 and 17 years old; their instruction continues for three years, and is both theoretical and practical in its character. The scholars are fitted to be the heads of manufacturing establishments, foremen in

shops, &c., receiving a more practical education than in the following higher schools.

4. The Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris, was begun in 1829 as a private institution, intended to prepare civil engineers, directors of manufactories, professors of applied science, &c. It is now under government direction, and prepares its pupils in four specialties; chemistry, mechanics, metal working, and civil engineering. Candidates for admission must be at least 16 years old, and must pass a satisfactory examination in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and designing. The complete course of instruction extends through three years. In the third year pupils may be examined for the diploma of civil engineer, and certificates of capacity may be awarded to those who excel only in some of the departments of study.

5. The Imperial School of Mines, at Paris, is designed to train government engineers, but pupils are received who do not intend to enter the public service. Candidates for entrance must be between 18 and 25 years of age, and must pass an examination in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, rectilinear trigonometry, theory and use of logarithms, elements of analytical geometry, and elements of statics. They must have some acquaintance with the practice of design.

The course of studies last three years, and instruction is gratuitous.

6. School of master workmen in Mines at Alais. This school is for educating foremen of mines, who shall have sufficient practical skill to guide the workmen, and enough theoretical knowledge to understand and execute the orders of the Director of the mine. The candidate for admission must be 16 years old, and must be able to cipher and understand the metrical system of weights and measures. The studies continue through two years, at the end of which the certificate of master miner is given to those who are qualified for it. 7. School of Miners at Saint Etienne. This institution is designed to train directors of mines, metallurgical establishments, &c. No one can be admitted who is less than 16 or more than 25 years of age. The preliminary examination requires a knowledge of the French language, arithmetic, elementary geometry and algebra, and the elements of linear design. The course of instruction, lasting three years is gratuitous. Certificates of capacity are awarded at its close.

8. Imperial School of Forestry, at Nancy. This institution is to train young men for the service of the administration of forests, a department of the government peculiarly important in France, on account of the high price of fuel, timber, &c. Pupils seeking admission, must be not less than 19 years of age, and not more than 22.

They must be free from all physical infirmities and disease, and must have received the degree of Bachelier ès Sciences, or a certificate of corresponding proficiency, and must also pass a satisfactory examination in geometry, trigonometry, physics, chemistry, cosmography mechanics, history and geography of France, and the German language. They must also write a French grammatical exercise, a Latin version, a German theme, and must evince a knowledge of linear and imitative design.

The course of studies lasts two years. At its termination, students who have passed a satisfactory examination have the rank of garde général of forests, and have a right to the vacancies occurring in the employments of that trade. They receive, provisionally, the salary of garde général adjoint, and are employed in the administration.

9. The Imperial School of Bridges and Roads, (Ponts et Chausées,) at Paris, is designed to train engineers of bridges and roads for the service of the government. Such pupils are received only from the Polytechnic school, but others, not intended for the public service, may also be admitted. The subjects of study are, construction of roads, rail-roads, canals, bridges, harbors, improvement of rivers, civil architecture, applied mechanics, agricultural hydraulics, etc.

Candidates for admission must be between 18 and 25 years of age, and must pass a triple examination, the highest studies in which are analytical and descriptive geometry, differential and integral calculus, mechanics, architecture, physics, and chemistry.

10. Imperial Polytechnic School, at Paris. In this institution young men are trained for the following services: military and naval artillery and engineering, the corps of hydographical engineers, the commissariat of the marine, the corps of the Etat Major, roads and bridges, mines, administration of tobacco, telegraphic lines, &c.; in short, those public services which demand a knowledge of physical, chemical, and mathematical sciences. Candidates for admission must be born in France or naturalized, must be between 16 and 20 years of age, and must have received the degree of Bachelier ès Sciences. They must pass a written and oral examination in various studies, including trigonometry, analytical and descriptive geometry, mechanics, physics, and chemistry, the French and German languages, &c. The studies continue through two years. The pupils are under military discipline.

11. Conservatory of Arts and Trades, at Paris. In connection with this great Industrial Museum, lectures are annually given by eminent professors, in the following departments: Geometry applied to the Arts, descriptive Geometry, Mechanics applied to the Arts, Physics

applied to the arts, chemistry applied to industry, chemistry applied to the arts, agricultural chemistry, zoology applied to agriculture and industry, agriculture, ceramic arts, spinning and weaving, dyeing, civil constructions, Industrial administration and statistics, industrial legislation.

Such are the principal higher schools for special scientific instruction. Subordinate schools, more directly practical in their character, have naturally arisen all over the land, some established by public, some by private enterprise. Among the former may be mentioned. nearly fifty farm-schools, (fermes écoles,) and over forty schools of navigation, (hydrographie,) established in the principal maritime towns of the empire, for training captains and masters for commercial


No notice has been given in this article to the schools of design, of the fine arts, and of music, for which liberal provision is also made by the government. Their consideration may hereafter be taken up.

In a recent number of the American Journal of Science, (July, 1856, p. 146,) appears an interesting letter from an American gentleman now in Paris, in relation to the advantages which are offered in the various schools of Science in that city. He gives the following advice to Americans who propose to pursue their scientific studies in France. "Let the student arrive about the 1st of November in a Havre Packet, and establish himself in comfortable lodgings, somewhere on the south side of the Seine, in the neighborhood of the great schools. These may be had, with board, for $5-7 per week. On or about the 15th of November, lectures begin at the Ecole des Mines,' the 'Sorbonne,' the Jardin des Plantes,' a little later at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers,' and the Collège de France.' The Ecole des Mines has many of the most celebrated men among its professors, and its course it is well known is most thorough and exact; but admission to it is not always easy, and the student should not attempt it unless he proposes to remain for the whole term of three years. It is perhaps also a better place to become acquainted with practical mining, than to acquire a knowledge of general principles, and a liberal scientific training. Let the student rather attach himself to particular schools for particular studies. For analytical chemistry, let him enter some one of the excellent private laboratories, of which he will see notices pasted up all over this part of Paris, and at the same time follow the lectures of M. Ballard, the celebrated discoverer of bromium, and an admirable lecturer, or those of his colleague, M. Dumas, at the Sorbonne. For agricultural chemistry, let him resort to M. Boussingault, at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. On particular subjects he will find admirable lectures at the Collège de France, like those of M. Déville, this winter, on volcanoes. If he wish to acquire a thorough knowledge of rocks and minerals, let him follow the lectures of M. Cordier and Dufrénoy respectively, at the Jardin des Plantes, or rather let him follow the 'Cours Pratiques d'Histoire Naturelle' of the Garden, conducted by the Assistant Professor of this magnificent establishment, and which promises to become one of the most important of the scientific advantages of Paris, especially to foreigners. Indeed, it is to the Jardin des Plantes, that the student must chiefly resort for a combination of all the facilities required for the successful study of the natural sciences. We are apt to suppose, in America, that it is nothing more than a great botanical and zoological garden. This is a mistake; its true name is the 'Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle,' and it is a magnificent establishment, devoted to the culture of every branch of scientific knowledge connected with the earth and its inhabitants.

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