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executors schall cause to be made fyve torches ev'ry torche to be of the pryce of iijs and iiijd in the wurshyppe of the fyve pryncypall wounds of our Savyoure Jesus Criste redemer of mankynd the wiche fyve torches I will that fyve pore men schall hold and bayre whylest the dirige and masse with the observncs schalbe in doynge.”. (Chetham Society, vol. li., p. 165.)

The mass of the Five Wounds in the modern missals is assigned to the Friday after the third Sunday in Lent. It is in the Sarum Missal, and there is a curious legend as to its origin. Saint Boniface lay on his deathbed; to him appeared the archangel Raphael with the said mass: "Rise and write out this office," said he, "and say it five times, and thou shalt be healed; and whosoever shall say it for himself or any sick person five times shall be healed, and if for a soul in purgatory it shall be delivered.” Saint Boniface then inquired who he was, and on learning conceded to all, Rite confessis et bene contritis, [i.e., having duly confessed and being truly contrite], who should say this mass five times, and to all who got it said certain indulgences.-(Sarum Missal, in English, pp. 516 and 513, London, 1868.)

When heraldry was more regarded than is now the case, arms were assigned to the Saviour that He might not appear at a disadvantage in those Conventual Chapters of the Continent where, as at Mayence, the members had to prove their sixteen quarters. An escutcheon thus put up in the Cathedral at Mayence is still extant, and is described and figured in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ccix. It is a shield of twenty quarters, in five vertical rows each of four quarters which are charged with the instruments of the Passion and other bearings. The sixth, seventh, tenth, and eleventh quarters form a separate arrangement; six and ten are or, seven and eleven azure, in

six and seven are the Sacred Hands wounded, in ten and eleven the Sacred Feet also wounded. Over these last four is an escutcheon en surtout, argent charged with the Sacred Heart. Thus the "five wounds" occupy the centre of the whole escutcheon.-(Woodward and Burnet's Heraldry, vol. i., p. 20.)

These notes are far from exhaustive, but they may serve to show how strongly the symbolism of the Five Wounds of Christ impressed the religious sentiment of our ancestors.*

* The late eloquent Jesuit preacher, the Rev. W. H. Anderdon, when at Brooklyn in 1868, wrote these verses on "The Five Wounds."

Deep in this heart the Wounds engrave

For my weak soul Thy love did bear;
My will, that cost Thee death to have,
Draw to Thy Cross, and fasten there.

So in each act and step, a wound

Of hand or foot, like Thine shall be ;
So in my heart of hearts, be found

A trace of Thine transfixed for me.

(Some Verses of Various Dates, London, 1888, p. 23.)

THE ANCIENT PRESBYTERIAN CHAPEL

THI

AT DEAN ROW, CHESHIRE.

BY J. HOLME NICHOLSON, M.A.

HIS Society, in the course of its many excursions, has visited a large number of ecclesiastical buildings in the possession of the Established Church, not only in the two counties of Lancashire and Cheshire, but in more

distant parts of England. But it has very rarely happened that the attention of the members has been called to those humbler structures belonging to the various Nonconforming bodies which, though destitute of those grand architectural features which distinguish the cathedrals and so many of the parish churches of our land, are not without interest to the student who desires to become acquainted with every phase of national thought and action which has gone to forming the England and the Englishman of to-day.

If I am not mistaken, the only Nonconformist places of worship we have hitherto visited have been the Friends' Meeting House at Swarthmoor, so closely associated with the memory of George Fox, and the Coldhouse Chapel in Shudehill, Manchester, an Manchester, an old Baptist foundation. To-day we are visiting one of the oldest chapels in the district founded by the English Presbyterians.

In this Society we, happily, take no sides in those questions of religion or politics which tend to divide men into sects and parties. We are simply students of the past, striving to realise the successive stages of our history, and to deal with the facts relating thereto, obtained from whatever sources are open to us. The application of the knowledge thus acquired in the forming of opinion concerns us only individually, not as a Society. In tracing the history of this chapel, I shall, therefore, refer to the political events bearing upon it, I trust, in the spirit of strictest neutrality. From a very early period in the history of Christianity two very distinct tendencies have been manifest amongst those who have claimed to be its followers. On the one hand, we find those who, in their desire for unity, strength, and power to spread its influence, have been willing to surrender to a greater or less extent the freedom of the laity into the hands of their spiritual leaders. On the other hand, those who denied and resisted the claims of the priesthood, and who asserted the independence of conscience, and the right of the laity to govern themselves in spiritual affairs. The Reformation, whilst it overthrew the dominion of the Church of Rome, by no means destroyed what we may call sacerdotalism, and we find the two tendencies existing side by side in the English Church, down to the breaking out of the Civil Wars towards the middle of the seventeenth century. With the suppression of the monarchy the hierarchy also fell, and the democratic or Puritan element in the Church gained the ascendency.

Absolute power has always a corrupting effect, and events soon showed that the party which had most loudly clamoured for liberty of conscience could rule as autocratically as its opponents, and that, in effect, “Presbyter was but Priest writ large." The anarchical condition, into

which England was fast lapsing after the death of Cromwell, for a moment united the opposing parties. Compromises were effected, and monarchy was restored under the distinct pledge that "no man should be disquieted for differences of opinion which did not disturb the peace of the kingdom." We all know how the compact was kept. In 1662 the Act of Uniformity was passed, which drove out of the Church two thousand of its ablest ministers for no other reason than that they refused, on conscientious grounds, to make the declaration required by the Act. Still more severe measures followed. The Conventicle Act prohibited any meeting for religious purposes, except in accordance with the Church of England, if it was attended by more than five persons beyond the family inhabiting the place where the meeting was held.

In 1665 the plague made its appearance in London; its progress was rapid and fearful, and large numbers sought their safety in flight. Let me quote the words of a living historian, a distinguished member of the University of Oxford, and a clergyman of the Church of England.

66

Many of the Established clergy deserted their churches. The Nonconformists, a far more earnest set of men, felt it a shame that the thousands still left in London should be deprived of all spiritual privileges; they undertook the duties of the vacant parishes, visiting the sick, and preaching in the empty pulpits. But this noble conduct only excited the anger of the jealous Episcopalians, and in the Parliament, which, on account of the plague, was held at Oxford, an Act, known as the Five Mile Act, was passed, which forbad any clergyman to teach in schools, or to come within five miles of any corporate town or parliamentary borough, who had not subscribed to the Act of Uniformity, or who would not swear to the doctrine of

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