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R. St. George and the dragon. B.P. and w.w.P. in small letters. Date in the exergue. Edge, DECVS ET

TVTAMEN, and the date.

During the short reign of William IV., no crowns were issued for currency. Crowns bearing the portrait of Queen Victoria were issued in 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, and 1851.

O. Bust of the queen to left. W. WYON R.A. on the neck in small letters. The date below.

VICTORIA DEI GRATIA.

R. Arms in a square shield within a chaplet, formed by two branches of laurel, and a rose, thistle, and shamrock united: first and fourth, England; second, Scotland; third, Ireland. BRITANNIARVM REGINA FID: DEF: Edge in incuse letters, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

The obverse dies were engraved by Wyon, and the reverse by Merlin. The gothic crown by Wyon, of 1847, was issued for currency to a small extent, but it was feared the workmanship was too fine to withstand the friction incident to circulation, and as many specimens as possible were withdrawn from public use by the mint authorities. 0. Bust of the queen to left, crowned. VICTORIA DEI

GRATIA BRITANNIAR. REG: F: D.

R. Four shields, quarterly, arranged crosswise; first and fourth, England; second, Scotland; third, Ireland; and crowned within a tressure of eight arches; the star of the Order of the Garter through the centre; the angles between the shields diapered, a rose twice repeated, a thistle and a shamrock; the spandrils and the cusps trefoiled. TUEATUR UNITA DEUS ANNO DOM. MDCCCXLVII. Edge, DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI UNDECIM.

In 1887 the Jubilee crown made its appearance.

O. Bust of the queen to left, crowned J.E.B. in small letters below for Sir J. E. Bohm. VICTORIA D.G. BRITT:

REG FD:

R. St. George and the dragon. Date in the exergue, and in small letters B.P. (Pistrucci). Edge engrailed, and further issues took place in 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, and 1892. The Jubilee coinage was never popular, and in 1893 the following crown was put into circulation:

0. Bust of the queen to left, crowned and veiled.

VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP. T.B. in small letters below for Thomas Brock.

R. St. George and the dragon. and in small letters B.P. (Pistrucci).

TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI LVI.

Date in exergue,

Edge, DECVS ET

THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE FIVE SHILLING PIECES AND THEIR TRANSLATIONS.

EDWARD VI.

Edwardus VI., Dei Gratia, Angliaè, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex. (Edward VI., by the Grace of God, King of England, France, and Ireland.) Posui Deum Adjutorem meum. (I have made God my helper.—Psalm vii. 7.)

ELIZABETH.

Elizabetha, Dei Gratia, Angliae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Regina. (Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France, and Ireland.)

JAMES I.

Jacobus, Die Gratia, Angliae, Franciae et Hiberniae Rex. (James, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland.)

Exurgat Deus dissipentur inimici. (Let God arise, let His enemies be scattered.-Psalm lxviii. 1.) Jacobus,

Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex. (James, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.) Quæ Deus conjunxit nemo separet. (What God has joined together let no man put asunder.-Matthew xix. 6.)

CHARLES I.

Carolus, Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex. (Charles, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.)

Christo auspice regno. (I reign under the auspices of Christ.) Relig. Prot. Leg. Liber. Par. (See text.)

COMMONWEALTH.

Olivarius, Dei Gratia, Reipublicae Engliae, Scotiae, Hiberniae, et cetera, Protector. (Oliver, by the Grace of God, Protector of the Republic of England, Scotland, Ireland, et cetera.) Pax quæritur bello. (Peace is sought by war.) Has nisi periturus mihi adimat nemo. (Let no man remove these [letters] under penalty of death.)

CHARLES II.

Carolus II., Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex. (Charles II., by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.) Decus et tutamen. (A safeguard and an ornament.)

WILLIAM AND MARY.

Gulielmus et Maria, Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex et Regina. (William and Mary, King and Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.)

WILLIAM III.

Gulielmus III., Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex. (William III., King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.)

ANNE.

Anna, Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Regina. (Anne, by the Grace of God, Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ireland.)

GEORGE I.

Georgius, Dei Gratia, Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei Defensor, Brunsvicensis et Lune burgensis Dux, Sacri Romani Imperii Archi Thesaurarius et Elector. (George, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Arch Treasurer and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.)

Titles as George I.

GEORGE II.

GEORGE III.

Georgius III., Dei Gratia, Britanniarum Rex, Fidei Defensor. (George III., King of the British Isles, Defender of the Faith). Honi soit qui mal y pense. (Let him be ashamed who thinks evil of it.)

Titles as George III.

GEORGE IV.

VICTORIA.

Titles as George III., the Gothic Crown has in addition: TUEATUR UNITA DEUS. (May God defend the United [Kingdoms].) The crown of 1893 has in addition INDIAE IMPERATRIX. (Empress of India.)

PROCEEDINGS.

Friday, January 8th, 1892.

HE monthly meeting was held in Chetham College,

THE

Mr. C. W. Sutton presiding. Mr. George C. Yates, the honorary secretary, read a letter from the Mayor of Chester stating that the explorations in the north wall of the city were going on, though in a less vigorous degree, but he hoped that if additional funds. were forthcoming operations might begin in the Infirmary field, where as long ago as 1858 Roman graves were discovered in situ. Mr. Yates announced that their Society had contributed ten guineas, and that individual members had contributed £11. 5s. 6d., making a total of £21. 15s. 6d.

Mr. Yates exhibited a Roman statuette in bronze, found at Ribchester; some beautiful leather work from Kimbolton, either Roman or mediæval; a Lifu stone hatchet mounted, and a curious collection of coin weights.

Mr. J. J. Alexander exhibited a pewter plate in an excellent state of preservation, measuring twelve inches by seven inches, found in St. Mary's Church tower, near the top of the corkscrew staircase. The inscription is as follows:

This spire was built by the voluntary subscriptions of ye inhabitants of Manchester in ye year 1762, the first stone laid by Edward Bryom, Esq., then Bourroughreave; the Rev. Mr. Downes, rector; T. Lightoler, archt.

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