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King's declaration at the breaking out of the war, that he would protect the "Protestant religion, the laws and liberties of his subjects, and the privileges of Parliament.”) The words on the Oxford crown are divided by two dots, and the Shrewsbury by one.

The Briot crown has the letter B placed beside the mint mark, and is of remarkably neat workmanship.* Some obsidional crowns were struck during the civil war, but they do not form the subject of this paper.

Crowns were next issued by the Commonwealth, and are dated 1649, 1651, 1652, 1653, 1654, and 1656.

O. A shield ungarnished bearing St. George's Cross, surrounded by a palm branch and a laurel branch. THE

COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND.

R. Two shields side by side; one bearing St. George's cross, and the other a harp. The figure V (for five shillings), GOD WITH VS, and the date.

These are the only crowns in the whole series which have the legend in English.

The two shields placed side by side on the reverse have given this crown the name of the "Breeches Crown,” an appropriate name for a coin issued by a Parliament called "The Rump."

With the "Breeches Crown" the series of hammered crowns terminates, and all crowns issued afterwards have been manufactured under the mill and screw principle with lettered edges.

The next crown bears a portrait of the Protector, and is the last coin issued until after the Restoration. It is dated 1656 and 1658.

O. Laurate bust of Cromwell to left with draped shoulders. OLIVAR. D. G. R. P. ANG. HIB., &c., PRO.

* Also struck at Tower Hill, London. The dies were engraved by

Nicholas Briot.

R. Arms in a shield crowned and garnished quarterly. First and fourth, St. George's cross; second, cross of St. Andrew; third, the Harp. Over all in an escutcheon of Pretence the Protector's arms (a lion rampant). Date above the crown, PAX QVÆRITVR BELLO. Edge HAS NISI PERITVRVS MIHI ADIMAT NEMO.

The crowns of Charles II. bear date from 1662 to 1684, both inclusive. Some of those issued in 1662 have a rose under the bust, and were made from silver purchased from the mines in the West of England.

Some of those of 1666 and 1681 were made from silver purchased from the African Company, and have an elephant under the bust.

The whole of these crowns have the year of the reign struck on the edge, which is computed from the death of King Charles I., thus ignoring the period occupied by the Interregnum. The 1662 crown has

O. Laureate bust of the king to right, with draped shoulders, CAROLVS II. DEI GRA.

R. Four shields grand quarterly, arranged crosswise and crowned. First and fourth, the arms of France and England quarterly; second, arms of Scotland; third, the arms of Ireland, the Star of the Order of the Garter in the centre, and two C's interlinked in each of the four angles; the date above, MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX; edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and sometimes the date. The other crowns have the arms of England and France, first and fourth in chief respectively.

During the short reign of James II., he struck crowns in 1686, 1687, 1688, but there is nothing remarkable about them.

O. Laureate bust of the king to left, with draped shoulders, IACOBVS II. DEI GRATIA.

R. Four shields quarterly arranged crosswise and

crowned. First, England; second, France; third, Scotland; fourth, Ireland, the Star of the Order of the Garter in the centre, date above. MAG. BR. FRA. ET HIB. REX.; edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

Upon the abdication of James II. crowns were struck by William and Mary, in 1691 and 1692.

O. Busts of the king and queen with draped shoulders; the king's head laureate. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA. R. Four shields, England, France, Scotland, and Ireland quarterly, arranged in the form of a cross, and each crowned. The arms of Nassau (a lion) in the centre, round it the date, one figure in each corner. In each of the four angles is a monogram; MAG BR. FR. ET HI. REX ET REGINA. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

Upon the death of Mary, William continued the issue bearing his own portrait, in 1695, 1696,* 1697, and 1700. O. Laureate bust of the king to right, with draped shoulders, GVLIELMVS III. DEI GRA.

R. Four shields, England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, arranged crosswise and each crowned. The arms of Nassau in the centre. Date above, MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

Upon the death of William, Queen Anne issued crowns in 1703, 1705, 1706, 1707, 1708, and 1713.

The crowns struck before the Union read FRA for France.

0. Bust of the queen to the left, ANNA DEI GRATIA.

R. Four shields, England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, arranged crosswise and each crowned. The star of the Order of the Garter in the centre, and the date above. MAG. BR. FRA. ET HIB. REG. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

* A crown for this date reads: GEI for DEI.

And those struck after read FR.

O. As the crown before the Union.

R. As the crown before the Union, except FR., and arms arranged grand quarterly. First, England and Scotland in pale; second, France; third, Ireland; fourth, Brunswick impaled with Lüneburg, and ancient Saxony grafted in base; in escutcheon an imperial crown.

Those with VIGO under the bust were made from silver captured from the Spanish, at Vigo. Those with plumes in the angles were made from silver purchased from the Welsh mines, and those with roses and plumes from silver obtained from various places. Some of the crowns dated 1708 have E under the bust, and were struck at Edinborough.

George I. struck crowns in 1716, 1718, 1720, 1723, and 1726. The crowns of 1723 are struck from silver purchased from the South Sea Company, and have s.s.c. in the angles.

0. Laureate bust of the king to right in armour.

GEORGIVS D. G. M. BR. FR. ET HIB. REX. F. D.

R. Four shields as on the crowns of Queen Anne after the Union; date above. BRVN. ET L. DVX. S. R. I.A. T.H. ET. EL. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and the date.

George II. struck crowns of two types, one having the young and the other the old head.

O. Laureate bust of the king to left in armour. GEORGIVS

II. DEI GRATIA.

R. Four shields as on the crowns of Anne after the Union, and George I. M. B. F. Et H. REX F. d. B. ET L. D. S. R. I. AT. ELE., and the date. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN,

and the date.

The crown with the young head was issued from dies engraved by Croker, the die-sinker for the Queen Anne farthings. The specimens of the young head made from

K

silver obtained from the English and Welsh mines are dated 1732, 1734, 1735, and 1736, and have roses and plumes in the angles, and from the English mines in 1739 and 1741. The specimens of the old head dated 1743 were made from silver obtained from the English mines, and have a rose in each angle. The specimens dated 1746, with LIMA below the bust, were made from silver captured at the seige of Lima. The crowns of 1750 and 1751 are without mint marks, and it is not known from what place the silver was obtained.

No crowns were struck by George III. until 1818. The issue continued during the two following years. The dies were executed by Pistrucci, and do much credit to the artist.

O. Laureate bust of the king to right. The word PISTRVCCI under the head in small letters.

D. G.

GEORGIVS III.

BRITANNIARVM. REX. F. D. Date below.

R. St. George and the Dragon, within a garter, bearing the motto: HONI SOIT QVI MAL Y PENSE. In the exergue PISTRVCCI in small letters. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN and the date.

Crowns were struck the following year by George IV., and in 1822. Some of the 1821 crowns read "tertio" on the edge, which is a mint blunder, as George IV. did not commence the third year of his reign until January 28th, 1822. The dies were executed by Pistrucci, and his initials B.P. are below the representation of St. George slaying the dragon, on the right hand side of the reverse. William Wellesley Pole was master of the mint, and his initials are in small letters below the broken lance on the ground.

O. Laureate bust of the king to the left. The initials (of Pistrucci) B.P. in small letters below the head.

GEORGIVS D.G. BRITANNIAR: REX F: D:

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