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the tokens of Queen Elizabeth's period were struck with circular-headed irons on square flans of copper, with no legend or inscription, as Malynes has described them, beyond the letter CB. on the reverse. The Harrington regal tokens were so light that the people preferred bad money, and so the issue proved of no value to mitigate the inconvenience felt on account of the scarcity of small change.

Sir Robert Cotton, in his paper entitled "The Manner how the Kings of England have supported their Estates," addressed to King James, in 1611, his ninth year, says: "The benefit of the King will easily fall out, if he restrain retailers of victuals and small wares from using their own tokens; for, in and about London, there are above three thousand who, one with another, cast yearly five pounds apiece of leaden tokens, whereof the tenth remaineth not to them at the year's end, and when they renew their store that amounteth to above £15,000; and all the rest of this realme cannot be inferior to the city in proportion. For the prejudice, since London, that is not the twentyfourth part in people of the kingdom, had in it, as found by a late enquiry by order of the late queen, above 800,000, so falleth out to be two pence each person in the entire state; it may be nothing either of loss, by the first uttering being so easy, nor burthen any with too great a mass at one time, since continual use will disperse so small a quantity into so many hands; but, on the other side, will be of necessary use and benefit to the meaner sort, except the retailers, who made as much advantage formerly of their own tokens, as the King shall now; for the buyers hereafter shall not be tyed to one seller and his bad commodities, as they are still, when the tokens hereafter made current by authority, shall leave him the choice of any other chapmen; and to the poor, in this

time of small charity, it will be of much relief, since many are like to give a farthing almes, who will not part with a greater sum."

The assignment to Gerard Malynes and others, for the conduct of the business of the royal farthing tokens, are fully detailed by Snelling. The royal farthing tokens. were issued by proclamation, dated May 19th, 1613, thenceforward prohibiting the currency of private tokens, either then made or to be made; also strictly forbidding their being counterfeited, or any machinery used in the making of them. In reference to them Malynes says— "The necessitye of these small moneys did appeare here with us in England, where everie chandler, tapster, vintner, and others, made tokens of lead and brasse for half-pences, and at Bristol by the late queen's authoritie were made of copper, with a ship on one side, and C.B. on the other side, signifying Civitas Bristoll; these went current, for small things, at Bristoll, and ten miles about. Hereupon it pleased our Soveraigne lord the King to approve of the making of a competent quantitie of farthing tokens to abolish the said leaden tokens made in derogation of the King's prerogative royall, which farthing tokens, being in the year 1613, with certain cautions and limitations, made of meere copper, have on the one side two sceptres crossing under one diadem, in remembrance of the union between England and Scotland; and on the other side the harpe for Ireland, and the inscription IACOBUS D.G. MAGNÆ BRITT. FRA. ET HIBER REX. And the said farthing tokens have not onely beene found very commodious and necessarie for pettie commutations, but also to be a great reliefe of the poore, and means to increase charitie, without which many of them had perished, everie man having means to give almes, even the mechanicall poore to the indigent poore."

In 1644 traders moulded or struck leaden tokens in much greater variety than before, some have the date 1644, and others have rude representations of strange monstrosities. To these probably Cleveland alludes, in his "Midsummer Moon," when he observes "the king's image is sometimes stamped on lead and natures mint coynes monsters.' The royal farthings were evidently suppressed by the House of Commons, and the leaden tokens of private traders took their place.

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"The humble petition of some hundreds of retailers for the restoring of 'farthing tokens,' printed in 1644, 4to, asserts that the aim of the petitioners for the decrying of farthings had simply their own interests involved. That this very point is the guelph of their conceipts, and the mystery of their griping iniquity, mixt with vain-glory, viz.: to suppress these farthing tokens, that so they may advance their own tokens, stamps, seals, signes, and superscriptions, if not images, as now appeares, though they be far inferior to Cæsar's." No authority appears to have intervened in the prohibition of leaden tokens. In April, 1659, Thomas Violet prayed a patent in trust for the issuing of a farthing for the use of the public. Violet's petition was to this effect:

To his Higness Richard, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the dominions and territories thereunto belonging: The humble Petition of Edward Johnson, junior, esquire and others

Sheweth, That there are many frauds and deceits daily practised by diverse petty retailing tradesmen, chapmen, and others, in making and uttering farthing tokens of their own stamping; almost every petty retailing tradesman putting forth, a several farthing token, not valuable, without any license; some of pewter, tinne, lead, brass, and some of copper, according to every man's fancy, who make their own farthing tokens. Great numbers of these retailing tradesmen break, others remove themselves from one place to another, and many of them die insolvent; and their farthing tokens, thus unduly uttered, being not valuable, one of them not being worth in value the sixth part of a farthing, and some of

their farthing tokens not worth the twentieth part of a farthing, the people of this nation (especially the poorer sort) are daily cheated and cozened by these indirect practises. To prevent these abuses for the future, your Petitioners humbly pray your Highness, that a common valuable farthing may be made of fine rose copper of a valuable weight (that is to say) of the weight of about half a quarter of an ounce avoirdupois, with the remedy of sixpence under or over, to pass within your Highness's dominions of England, Scotland, and Ireland, for all such persons as will make use of them for their necessity of charge.

Violet fared as unsuccessfully in this as in previous attempts.

The tremendous issue of seventeenth century tokens which took place on the death of King Charles I. to 1673, did not prevent tokens of lead being issued during that period, although their circulation received a severe check and few specimens have survived.

In a paper read by the late Charles Roach Smith on “Leaden Tokens,” and published in vol. i. of the Journal of the British Archæological Association, 1846, he says, "During the last few years a vast number of small leaden pieces have been discovered in the progress of excavations in the city of London. They are chiefly of the size of the ancient penny, the halfpenny, and the farthing; are neatly made, and exhibit various devices. The middle or halfpenny size, has usually on the obverse as follows: 'Stars, a single letter, shields, tankards, a hand or glove, cross keys, &c.,' enclosed in a wreath; and on the reverse, in a similar wreath, a short cross with an annulet in each angle, enclosing a pellet, such as we see on the coins of Henry I. and Stephen; in a few instances the cross has three pellets in each quarter. The farthing size presents on the one side a star, on the other a short cross with a single pellet in each quarter. On one specimen is the 'Agnus dei;' reverse, a palmer. Another has two cocks. There is an example with a half picture of a bishop, and the reverse a kind of wheel

pattern. There were also a number of blank pieces of the same size. The general aspect of these tokens would lead us to assign them to the fourteenth or fifteenth century (although some appear of earlier date), but there is at present some difficulty, from the indefinite arrangement, apparently arbitrary, to be observed in the application of the devices; in pronouncing upon the particular uses for which they were intended. The shields on one resemble the arms of Clare; another, those of Warenne; a third, the two-headed eagle, those of Richard, King of the Romans, brother of Henry III. These, and other bearings connected with illustrious families, were probably assumed by the artist merely because they were familiar ensigns. Some remind us of devices and ornaments in encaustic tiles, many of which were purely conventional. Mr. Akerman conjectures that these pieces may have been used by mercantile establishments, or by keepers of inns and taverns, who from some motive had adopted as signs the bearings of noble families or popular individuals; and thus one might be intended for the sign of 'the bishop;' another that of the ‘palmer,' and so on. This supposition derives support from the symbols upon others in my collection, and from the known imperfections of the monetary system in the middle ages, especially with respect to a small coinage for the trading of the humbler classes. We meet with repeated legislative enactments, and petitions for laws, to meet emergencies arising from a defective circulating medium, which plainly show so great a want at various periods of small coins, that tradespeople could not, even by adopting the base coinage of foreign nations, carry on their traffic without recourse to temporary substitutes for legal money. Early in the reign of Richard II., a petition of the Commons states that certain weights for bread, and

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