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Wood. Godwin. Barnes. Regist. Coll. Mert. Oxon.)

BRADY, (Nicholas,) an Anglican divine, who would now be forgotten had not he taken a share in the new version of metrical psalms sung in churches. His father was a military officer, employed in Ireland during the civil wars, under Charles I. He was himself born at Bandon, in the county of Cork, Oct. 28, 1659, and remained in Ireland until he was twelve years old, when he was sent over to Westminster school. Thence he was elected to Christ church, Oxford; but he graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, his father being then resident in that city. In due time he became chaplain to bishop Wettenhall, who made him a prebendary of Cork; and his growing reputation induced the university of Dublin to confer upon him the degree of D.D. by diploma. To the revolution Brady gave zealous support; and he had sufficient influence to save the town of Bandon thrice from burning, after James II. had given orders for that purpose. He was now employed by the people of Bandon to lay their grievances before the English parliament, and he soon settled in England, where his eloquence in the pulpit immediately gained him some appointments in London. He died rector of Clapham, in Surrey, with which he held some other preferments, and thus had an ecclesiastical income of 6001. a year, then a sum of considerable importance; but, notwithstanding, he so managed his pecuniary affairs as to be under the necessity of keeping a school. He died May 20, 1726, valued as a superior preacher and an agreeable man. Contemporaries also talked of his poetry, and a translation of the Eneid by him was published by subscription in the year of his death. But neither this, nor the Psalms which he undertook in conjunction with Tate, nor a tragedy that he wrote, has advanced his fame with posterity. There are also six volumes of sermons by him; three published by himself, in 1704, 1706, 1713, and three by his eldest son, in 1730. (Chalmers.)

BRADY, (Robert,) an English historical writer, born in Norfolk, and admitted of Caius college, Cambridge, Feb. 20, 1643. He proceeded M.B. in 1653, and became M.D. by royal mandate, Sept. 5, 1660. In the following December he was elected, under the same authority, master of his college; and about 1670, he was appointed keeper of the records in the Tower of London. He thus found

an employment apparently more congenial to his taste than the study of medicine, although he was professor of that faculty in his university, and wrote a letter upon medical subjects, to Dr.Sydenham, published at the head of that learned physician's Epistolæ Responsoriæ. In the Tower, Dr. Brady diligently examined the mass of interesting documents under his care, but he viewed them with an eye rather to politics than antiquities. He sat in parliament for the university of Cambridge in 1681, and again, under James II., in 1685. That infatuated king appointed him one of his physicians in ordinary; and he was among those who deposed, October 22, 1688, as to the birth of the prince of Wales, eventually known as the old pretender. Having been served most importantly by the Stuarts, he showed his gratitude by laboured historical publications in favour of the high monarchical principles upon which they acted. In 1684 appeared his Introduction to the old English History, comprehended in three several tracts. The first, an Answer to Mr. Petyt's Rights of the Commons Asserted, and to a book intituled, Jani Anglorum facies nova, the second edition very much enlarged; the second, an answer to a book intituled, Argumentum anti-Normannicum, much upon the same subject, never before published; the third, An exact History of the Succession of the Crown of England, the second edition, also very much enlarged. The work has an appendix of documents, and other aids, rendering it of very considerable value; but its titlepage plainly exhibits it as a party compilation, advocating the Stuart politics. Its principles, in fact, are capable of reduction to the following three-that the modern house of commons has no higher date than 49 Hen. III.; that Will. I. made an absolute conquest of England; and that the next heir in blood has an indefeasible right to the succession. In support of these propositions, Brady wrote, besides, with great labour, what he calls a compleat history of England, down to the end of the reign of Richard II. It is usually found in two volumes, of which the first appeared in 1685, and the second in 1700. Like the former work, to which it is generally appended, it is enriched by a large mass of documents; but its completeness has been wholly denied, much being neglected or omitted which did not suit the author's purpose, as a professed opponent of the principles that triumphed under William III. He died August 19, 1700,

having published, besides the works mentioned above, a Treatise on Burghs, in a thin folio. In opposition to his history, Tyrrell's was written, and he has himself been branded as the slave of a faction. Hume's history has, however, been considered as undertaken on principles suggested by his; and his labours will always claim respect from the mass of historical materials which they offer to studious inquirers. (Biog. Brit.)

BRAGADINI, (Marco,) surnamed Mamugna, born in Venice, about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was originally a monk, but renounced his order for the purpose of devoting himself to alchemy. Under the patronage of Giacomo Contarini, a Venetian of rank, he carried on his operations with such eclat, that, to avoid the interruptions to which his extraordinary popularity gave rise, he betook himself to Padua; thence he withdrew to Munich, where the duke of Bavaria, William II., had him arrested, tried, and beheaded, Aug. 1590. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAGADINO, (Marcantonio,) a Venetian of rank. He bravely defended the city of Famagosta, in Cyprus, for twelve months, when it was besieged by Mustapha Bashaw, and only surrendered when forced to capitulate through want of ammunition, August 15, 1571. But the terms of capitulation were perfidiously violated by the Turkish general, and Bragadino, Astorre Baglioni, and other Venetian officers, were barbarously put to death, August 18, 1571.-A writer of the same name, son of Gio. Paolo, flourished about the close of the sixteenth century. He published, De Arte Oratoriâ, Venet. 1590, 4to, with engravings; De Hominis Felicitate Lib. VI.; De Rerum Varietate Lib. II.; De Republicâ et Legibus Lib. IV. Venet. 1594, 4to. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAGANZA, (Don Constantino di,) prince of the blood-royal of Portugal. He discovered in early life so much judgment and bravery, that, in 1557, he was appointed viceroy of the Portuguese dependencies in the East Indies, in the reign of Sebastian. He made an alliance with the

king of Surat, took the city of Bobyar, and, in 1560, sailed to Ceylon, suppressed a revolt there, and reduced the prince of the island to the condition of a vassal to the crown of Portugal; whither he returned in 1561, after having exercised his viceregal functions with singular ability and success. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAGANZA, (Don Giovanni di,) duke of Lafoens, son-in-law of John V.

of Portugal, born 1719; he was designed, by his relatives, for the church, and studied for that purpose at Coimbra; but feeling a dislike to the profession of an ecclesiastic, he devoted himself to the cultivation of polite literature. The death of his father-in-law, and the consequent elevation of his cousin, Joseph 1. (who bore him a rooted hatred) to the throne, led him to ask permission to travel. He visited England, where he was made a member of the Royal Society; thence he proceeded to Germany, where he served as a volunteer during the Seven Years' War; and during the peace, took up his residence at Vienna, where he was well received at court. Being deprived of his territorial possessions in Portugal by the reigning sovereign, he was forced to absent himself from his native country for eighteen years; visiting, during that period, France, Italy, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, and Egypt, besides the northern states of Europe. The accession of Maria I. to the throne of Portugal was the signal for his return home. On his arrival at Lisbon he established the Royal Academy of Sciences in that city, and after filling some offices of state, he retired from public life in 1801, from which time until his death, in 1806, he devoted himself to the promotion of literature and science. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAGELONGNE, (Christopher Bernard de,) descended from a family long distinguished both in literature and arms, was born in Paris, in 1688. His genius, which strongly inclined him to metaphysical studies, recommended him, while yet in early life, to the notice of Malebranche, who took much delight in his conversation, and conceived a warm attachment for him. In 1711 he was elected by the Academy of Sciences, and in the same year presented his Mémoire sur la Quadrature des Courbes. In 1728 he was appointed assistantlibrarian. In the years 1730 and 1731 respectively, he put forth the first and second parts of his principal work, Examen des Lignes du Quatrième Ordre. This, unfortunately, he did not live to finish. His studies were not confined to geometry: he was not only a skilful linguist, but an ardent student of history, and was engaged in the composition of an account of the emperors of Rome, in which he had made considerable progress, when he was cut off suddenly in February 1744. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAHE, (Tycho,) an illustrious Danish

astronomer, born of a noble family at Knudstorp, a small lordship near Helsinborg, in Scania, or Schonen. His father's family being large, he was educated by an uncle, who made him eventually his heir, and intended, first, for the army, afterwards for the law. He had been, however, so surprised by the exactness with which he found an eclipse predicted, that nothing would content hin but a close attention to astronomy. Hence, when sent, in 1562, to Leipsic as a law student, he spent his time chiefly in observing the heavens, and in acquiring that mathematical knowledge which was necessary to render his observations effective. After spending three years at Leipsic, most profitably as regarded his future astronomical fame, but with no advantage to his prospects as a lawyer, he was unexpectedly called back to Denmark by his uncle's death. He had already gained great credit by his proficiency in astronomy, but his relations looked upon such an acquisition with contempt, considering it merely as an idle waste of time, that might have been profitably employed in preparation for a lucrative profession. Brahe, therefore, soon left his native country in disgust, and proceeded on his travels through Germany and Italy. They produced him much improvement, and made him acquainted with several men of science; but his choleric disposition involved him in a duel with a fellow-countryman at Rostoc, which deprived him of part of his nose. His ingenuity contrived a mixture of gold, silver, and wax, and a mode of fastening it, so as to conceal pretty completely the unsightly loss. On returning to Copenhagen, in 1571, Tycho found one of his uncles, who appreciated him justly, and who provided him with a suitable retreat for the prosecution of his learned inquiries. His other kinsmen despised astronomers as heartily as ever, and he rendered their antipathies more inveterate by marrying a peasant's daughter. At length, worn out by their dislike, he was preparing to fix himself at Basle, when his native sovereign saw the discredit of allowing Denmark to lose the honour of his residence, and offered him the patronage that he had so richly earned. Frederic gave him the island of Huen as a residence, promising to erect upon it such buildings as his pursuits required, and conferred upon him a pension, with some preferments, which together produced an income of 3,000 crowns. This liberality being ren dered more effective by Brahe's own con

siderable private resources, Huen became the seat of a noble astronomical establishment; and at his house there, which he called Uranienburg, or Castle of the Heavens, the great observer spent twenty interesting, useful years. His observatory, after a time, was placed in a detached building, which he called Stiernberg, or Mountain of the Stars. He did not live in this retreat, which his residence had rendered ever memorable, as a studious recluse: his house was open to the various distinguished visitors whom his rising fame attracted constantly to Huen. Among them was James VI. of Scotland, eventually James I. of England, who had come into Denmark, in 1590, to bring away his bride, and who, after a stay of eight days with Tycho, left him with various flattering marks of gratification. In 1592, the great astronomer was honoured by a visit from his own sovereign, eventually Christian IV., but at that time an ingenuous boy under fifteen. The young prince was delighted by all that he saw, but especially with a globe of gilt tin, revolving upon an axis, and exhibiting the motions of the heavenly bodies. This Tycho gave him, and he in return presented his illustrious host with a gold chain, and expressed himself unalterably his friend. Nevertheless, in 1596, he was prevailed upon to withdraw his favour completely from him, and even to deprive him of those pecuniary provisions which the former king had so judiciously conferred, and which had been so thoroughly deserved. For this reverse the great astronomer had probably to thank his own austere, satirical, irritable temper, which naturally peopled the court with his enemies. Being now unable to continue his establishment at Uranienburg, he removed to Copenhagen, and thence to Rostoc. He now received an invitation from the emperor Rodolph II., to whom he had dedicated a treatise on astronomy, and who had a taste for that science, and for others akin to it. Gladly accepting this overture, Tycho repaired, in 1599, to Prague. There his health in the following year declined, being injured by the intensity of his application, and fond regrets of Uranienburg. The immediate cause of his death was a strangury, occasioned by an imprudent retention at a nobleman's table, where he had drunk rather more than usual. He died October 24, 1601, and was buried magnificently in the great church of Prague, where was erected a noble monument to his memory. Although Tycho

Brahe was a man of very powerful under-
standing, and an accurate observer, he
never could bring himself to embrace the
simple and rational system of Copernicus,
but framed an hypothesis of his own,
called after him the Tychonic system,
which is essentially that of Ptolemy,
though framed to meet some objections.
It was, however, so embarrassed and
perplexed, that few admitted it. Tycho's
life was written by Gassendi, in whose
work, and other publications taken from
it, may be seen a list of his publications.

BRAHE, (Peter, Count de,) a Swedish nobleman, born in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He employed the opportunities which his office of guardian, during the minority of Christina, and of Charles XI., afforded him, for the patriotic purpose of effecting improvements in the courts of justice, and of establishing institutions for the promotion of learning and industry. The university of Abo owes its foundation to him; and he collected from different countries the most valuable books and manuscripts. His disinterestedness was evinced by declining the elevated rank and honours which his sovereign designed to bestow upon him; and he died, in 1680, at a very advanced age. (Biog. Univ.)

BRAILLIER, (Peter,) an apothecary of Lyons, who published at Rouen, in 1557, a curious book, dedicated to Claude de Gouffier, entitled, Déclaration des Abus et Ignorance des Médecins. This was a smart attack upon a work of Sebastian Collin, who had previously published, Déclaration des Abus et Tromperies des Apothicaires, Tours, 1553, 8vo.

BRAINERD, (David,) a zealous and successful preacher and missionary to the American Indians, born at Haddam, Connecticut, in 1718. His father was an assistant of the colony, or a member of the council, who died when his son was about nine years of age. In 1739 he was admitted a member of Yale college, but he was expelled in 1742, in consequence of some expressions reflecting upon one of the professors. In the spring of 1742 he went to Ripton, to pursue the study of divinity under the direction of Mr. Mills, and at the end of July was licensed to preach by the association of ministers which met at Banbury. Soon after he began his theological studies, he was desirous of preaching to the heathen. November, after he was licensed, he was In invited to go to New York, and was examined by the correspondents of the so



ciety for the conversion of the native tribes, and was appointed by them a missionary to the Indians. He arrived on the first of April, 1743, at Kannameck, an Indian village in the woods between Stockbridge, in the state of Massachusetts, and Albany. He now began his labours at the and continued in this place about a year. age of twenty-five, At first he lived in a wigwam, among the Indians; but he afterwards built himself a cabin, that he might be alone when not employed in preaching and instructof straw, and his food was principally ing the savages. He lay upon a bundle boiled corn, and hasty pudding. feeble body, and frequent illness, and With a great depression of mind, he was obliged to encounter many discouragements, and to submit to hardships, which would be almost insupportable by a much stronger constitution; but he persisted in his benevolent labours, animated by the hope of propagating the truths of the christian faith among the benighted objects of his important mission. When the Indians at Kannameck had agreed to remove to Stockbridge, and place themselves under the instruction of another teacher, Brainerd left them, and bent his attention towards the Delaware Indians.

Newark, in New Jersey, by a presbytery, He was appointed to the ministry at June 12, 1744. went to the new field of his labours, near He soon afterwards the forks of the Delaware, in Pennsylvania, and continued there a year, making two visits to the Indians on Susquehannah river. He again built himself a cabin for retirement; but here he had the happiness he maintained religious intercourse and to find some white people, with whom social worship. After the hardships of his abode in this place, with but little encouragement from the effect of his exertions, he visited the Indians at Crosweeksung, near Freehold, in New Jersey. success. In this village he met with remarkable short absence, he again visited the InIn the summer of 1746, after a return in September, found himself worn dians on the Susquehannah, and on his out by the hardships of his journey. His health was so much impaired, that he was obliged to preach less frequently. Being advised, in the spring of 1747, to travel in New England, he went as far as Boston, and returned in July to NorthEdwards, he passed the remainder of his ampton, where, in the family of Jonathan days. He gradually declined, till October 9, 1747, he died, after suffering

excruciating agony. Brainerd was a man of vigorous mental powers. While he was endowed with a quick discernment and ready invention, with a strong memory and natural eloquence, he also possessed, in an uncommon degree, the sagacity, penetration, and soundness of judgment which distinguish the man of talents from him who subsists entirely upon the learning of others. His know ledge was extensive; and he added to his other attainments an intimate acquaintance with human nature, gained not only by observing others, but by carefully noticing the operations of his own mind. As he was of a sociable disposition, and would adapt himself with great ease to the different capacities, tempers, and circumstances of those with whom he conversed, he was remarkably fitted to communicate instruction. He was very free, and entertaining, and useful in his ordinary discourse; and he was also an able disputant. As a preacher he was perspicuous and instructive, forcible, close, and pathetic. He abhorred an affected boisterousness in the pulpit, and yet he could not tolerate a cold delivery, when the subject of discourse was such as should warm the heart, and produce an earnestness of manner. His knowledge of theology was very accurate and extensive.

President Edwards, whose opinion of his character and abilities was founded upon an intimate acquaintance with him, says, that "he never knew his equal, of his age and standing, for clear, accurate notions of the nature and essence of true religion, and its distinctions from its various false appearances." He withstood every doctrine which seemed to verge towards Antinomianism, particularly the sentiments of those who thought that faith consists in believing that Christ died for them in particular, and who founded their love of God, not upon the excellence of his character, but upon the previous impression that they were the objects of his favour, and should assuredly be saved. He rebuffed the pride and presumption of laymen, who thrust themselves forth as public teachers, and decried human learning, and a learned ministry. He denounced the spirit which generally influenced the separatists through the country; and he was entirely opposed to that religion which is fond of noise and show, and delighted to publish its experiences and privileges. After the termination of a year's fruitless mission at Kannameck, where he had suffered the

greatest hardships, he was invited to become the minister of East Hampton, one of the best parishes on Long Island. But though he was not insensible to the pleasures of a quiet and fixed abode among religious friends, in the midst of the comforts and conveniences of life, yet, without the desire of fame, he preferred the dangers and sufferings of a new mission among savages. He published a narrative of his labours at Kannameck; and his journal, or an Account of the Rise and Progress of a remarkable Work of Grace amongst a number of Indians in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with some General Remarks, 1746. This work, which is very interesting, and which displays the piety and talents of the author, was published by the commissioners of the Society in Scotland. His life, written by President Edwards, is compiled chiefly from his own diary. Annexed to it are some of his letters and miscellaneous writings. A new edition of his Memoirs was published in 1822, by Sereno Edwards Dwight, concluding his journal. Mr. Edwards had omitted the already printed journals, which had been published in two parts; the first, from June 19, to Nov. 4, 1745, entitled Mirabilia Dei inter Indicos; the second, from Nov. 24, 1745, to June 19, 1746, with the title, Divine Grace Displayed, &c. These journals. Mr. Dwight has incorporated in a regular chronological series with the rest of the diary, as alone given by Edwards. (Brainerd's Life. His Journal. Edwards's Funeral Serm. Middleton's Biog. Evang. iv. 262-264. Assembly's Miss. Mag. ii. 449–452. Boston Recorder, 1824. p. 196.)

BRAINTHWAIT, (William,) born about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was fellow of Emmanuel college, Cambridge, then master of Gonville and Caius college, and was one of the forty-seven divines commissioned by James I. to prepare the present authorized translation of the Bible. The portion assigned to Dr. Brainthwait and six coadjutors was the Apocrypha. His assistants were, Drs. Duport, Radclyffe, Downes, Boyse, and Messrs. Ward. (Fuller's Ch. Hist.)

BRAITHWAIT, (John,) author of an account of the political events which, upon the death of the emperor Muley Ishmael, took place in the empire of Morocco in 1727, and in the following year. His work, which was published in London in 1729, attracted much notice on its first appearance, and was soon

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