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Kinewulf in the thirtieth year of his reign. Brihtric, a descendant of king Cerdic, succeeded, and died in the fifteenth year of his reign. He was succeeded by Ecgbert, son of the subregulus Alhmund, grandson of a grandson of king Ina; Ecgbert died in the thirty-seventh year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son Aethelulf. He among his other laudable deeds, ordered three hundred mancuses of denarii to be taken every year to Rome, one hundred whereof were in honour of St. Peter, for the purpose of purchasing oil to fill all the lamps of his church on Easter-even, and also at cock-crowing; one hundred in honour of St. Paul for a like purpose, and one hundred mancuses for the catholic and apostolic pope. Moreover he exonerated a tenth part of his whole kingdom from all royal service and tribute, and dedicated it to the Triune God for the redemption of his own soul and those of his predecessors. After his death and burial at Winchester, his son Aethelbald succeeded to the kingdom, and died in the third year of his reign. His brother Aethelbert succeeded him and reigned for five years. After him his brother Aethelred reigned for eight [five?] years. During his reign Aella and Osbriht, kings of the Northumbrians, and St. Eadmund, king of the East Angles, were slain by the pagan Danes, who took posses. sion of their kingdoms. On Aethelred's death his brother Alfred succeeded. Alfred was the most elegant of the Saxon poets, most watchful in the service of God, and most discreet in carrying out the judgments of his courts of law. He was sent to Rome by his father Aethelulf, and was anointed king by pope Leo the fourth. By his queen Ealsuith he had two sons, named Eadward and Aethelward, and three daughters, namely, Aethelfled, lady of the Mercians, Aethelgeova, a nun, and Aelftrith. In the third year of his reign, Burhred, king of the Mercians, was driven from his kingdom by the aforesaid Danes. King Alfred died in the twenty-ninth year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son Eadward. By his queen Eadgiva, Eadward had three sons, namely, Eadwin, Eadmund, and Eadred: and St. Eadburg and three other daughters, of whom Otto, emperor of the Romans, married one, Charles, king of the Western Franks, another, and Sihtric, king of the Northumbrians, the third. His first-born son Aethelstan, was by Egwina, a lady of very high birth. He reigned over all the provinces of England as far as the river Humber. The Welsh kings submitted to him, and afterwards the kings of the Scots, Northumbrians, and Stretwadali [Strathclyde Britons]. On his death his son Aethelstan succeeded to the kingdom; after whom his brother Eadmund reigned, and by his queen St. Alfgiva had two sons, namely, Eadwi and Eadgar. Eadmund being horribly murdered in his palace, his brother Eadred succeeded to the kingdom, and died in the tenth year of his reign. Eadwi, his brother Eadmund's son, succeeded, and died in the fourth year of his reign. By Eneda, a lady of noble birth, he had St. Eadward, by St. Wulfrith he had St. Eadgitha, and by his queen Alftrith he had two sons, Eadmund and Aethelred. In the fourth year of his reign the canons were by his orders expelled from the

old monastery at Winchester by St. Aethelwold, and from Worcester by St. Oswald, and monks were substituted. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the sixteenth of his reign, leaving his son Eadward heir to his kingdom. Eadward was murdered in the third year of his reign by order of his step-mother Alftrith, and his brother Aethelred succeeded him in the kingdom. By Alfgiva, daughter of Agilbert the ealdorman, Aethelred had three sons, Eadmund, Eadwi, and Aethelstan, and a daughter named Eadgith. By Emma, daughter of Richard, earl of the Normans, he had two sons, Alfred and Eadward. He died in the thirty-ninth year of his reign. He was succeeded by his son Eadmund, who had two sons named Eadmund and Eadward, by a certain woman of noble descent; but he perished in the same year through the treachery of Edric Streona. After his death Canut, son of Swayne, king of the Danes, (who had invaded England with a great fleet seven months previous to the death of king Aethelred,) succeeded to the kingdom and banished the aforesaid sons of king Eadmund. One of them, to wit, Eadmund, died in Hungary while yet a boy; but Eadward married Agatha, daughter of the German emperor, Henry the Third, by whom he had Margaret, queen of the Scots, the virgin Christiana, and Eadgar the etheling. King Canut died in the nineteenth year of his reign, having made Hardecanut, his son by queen Emma, king of Denmark. Harold, his son by Alfgiva of Southampton, succeeded him in England, and died in the fifth year after his father's death. His brother Hardecanut succeeded him, and died in the third year of his reign. To him succeeded Eadward, his brother by the mother's side, and son of king Aethelred. Eadward, king of the English, died in the twenty-third year of his reign. By virtue of a disposition made by Eadward he was succeeded by earl Harold, son of Godwin, earl of the West Saxons, by Githa, sister of Sweyn, king of the Danes, who was father of the holy martyr Canut; by his queen Aldgitha, who was a daughter of earl Alfgar, he had a son named Harold; he was slain in battle in the same year by William, earl of the Normans, who succeeded him in the kingdom. By his queen Matilda, William had three sons, namely, Rotbert, William, and Henry; he died in Normandy in the twenty-first year of his reign. He was succeeded by his son William, who died childless in the thirteenth year of his reign, being struck by an arrow in the New Forest in the province of the Jutes. He was succeeded in the kingdom by his younger brother Henry. By his queen Matilda, Henry had a son named William, and a daughter named Matilda, who was first empress of the Romans, and was afterwards made countess of Anjou.

Concerning the Kentish Kingdom.

The Kentish kings reigned separately in Kent; it contains the archbishopric of Canterbury, and the bishopric of Rochester.

Concerning the West Saxon Kingdom.

The kings of the West Saxons reigned over Wiltshire, Berkshire, and Dorsetshire; (these shires are under one bishop, whose see was formerly at Ramesbury, or at Sherborne, but is now at Salisbury;) in Sussex, which had a separate king for a short time, (the episcopal see of this province was in ancient times at Selsey, an island in the midst of the sea, as Beda tells us, where St. Wilfrid built a monastery; but the bishop now has his residence at Chichester,) and in the provinces of Southampton and Surrey; (these have one bishop, whose see is at Winchester;) and in Somersetshire (the bishopric whereof was formerly at Wells, but now at Bath,) and in Domnania, called Devonshire, and in Cornubia, now called Cornwall, formerly these had two bishoprics, one at Crediton and the other at St. German; but now there is only one, the see whereof is at Exeter.

Concerning the Mercian Kingdom.

The Mercian king had dominion over the following districts, viz: Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, (these have one bishop, whose see is at Worcester;) Chester province, Derbyshire and Staffordshire, (these have one bishop, who has jurisdiction over part of Warwickshire and Shropshire, and whose see was formerly at Lichfield, but now at Chester or Coventry ;) Herefordshire (the bishop whereof has jurisdiction over half of Shropshire, and part of Warwickshire, and Gloucestershire, and has his see at Hereford); Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, half of Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, (over these is a bishop, whose see formerly was at Dorchester, but is now at Lincoln;) Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire; the spiritual care of these two last belongs to the archbishop of York; they formerly had a separate bishop, whose see was at Chester.

Concerning the East Anglian Kingdom.

The kings of the East Angles ruled over Cambridgeshire, which has a bishop whose see is at Ely, and over Norfolk and Suffolk, which have a bishop whose see is at Norwich, but was formerly at Helmam or Thetford.

Concerning the East Saxon Kingdom.

The kings of the East Saxons had dominion over Essex and half of Hertfordshire; the bishop of London had and has jurisdiction there.

Concerning the Northumbrian Kingdom.

The kings of the Northumbrians had dominion over all the region on the other side of the river Humber, as far as Scotland: in it were the archbishop of York, and the bishops of Hexham,

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Ripon, Lindisfarn, and Whit-herne: the bishoprics of Hexham and Ripon no longer exist, and that of Lindisfarne has been transferred to Durham.

These were the divisions of the different kingdoms, although in the vicissitudes of fortune sometimes one king extended his dominions by his valour, while others lost portions of theirs by their incapacity.

Concerning the Archbishops of Canterbury and York.

The archbishop of Canterbury had formerly these bishops under him, viz. the bishops of London, Winchester, Rochester, Sherborne, Worcester, Hereford, Lichfield, Selsey, Chester, Helmam, Sidnacester, and Dunwich: in the time of king Eadward the elder there were added those of Cornwall, Crediton, and Wells, in West Saxony, and of Dorchester in Mercia. The archbishop of York had under his jurisdiction all the bishops beyond the Humber, viz. the bishops of Ripon, Hexham, Lindisfarne, Candida Casa, now Witerne [Whit-herne], and all the bishops of Scotland and the Orkney islands; in the same manner as the archbishop of Canterbury has jurisdiction over the bishops of Ireland and Wales. Hostile invasions long ago put an end to the bishoprics of Ripon and Hexham those of Chester, Sidnacester, and Dunwich have ceased, I know not how. In the time of king Eadward the simple, those of Cornwall and Crediton were formed into one, which was transferred to Exeter. Under king William the Bastard it was ordered in council that the bishops should leave their vills and fix their sees in the cities of their dioceses. So the bishop of Lichfield migrated to Chester, formerly called the City of the Legions; the bishop of Selsey to Chichester; the bishop of Helmam to Thetford first, and then to Norwich; the bishop of Sherborne to Salisbury; the bishop of Dorchester to Lincoln: the bishop of Lindisfarne long ago shifted to Durham, and the bishop of Wells only lately to Bath.


Concerning the Bishops' Seats in the Council.

When the archbishop of Canterbury presides at a council, let the archbishop of York be on his right hand, and next him the bishop of Winchester, and let the bishop of London be on his left. But if, in consequence of the death of the primate of Canterbury, the archbishop of York preside at the council, then let him have the bishop of London on his right hand, and the bishop of Winchester on his left. Let the others take their seats according to the times of their ordinations.


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