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A.D. 1118. POPE PASCHAL, of holy memory, died on the 14th of the kalends of February [19th Jan.], and a certain John, a native of Cajeta, succeeded him, his name being changed to Gelasius. He was bred up for a monk in the monastery of Mount Cassino from infancy, and when he attained man's estate became chancellor to the venerable apostolic popes Desiderius, Urban, and Paschal. The king of Germany, who was also emperor of Rome, hearing that the pope had departed this life, hurried to Rome, and appointed as pope the bishop of Braga, who had been excommunicated in the preceding year at Beneventum by Paschal, when Gelasius left the city; and he then called him Gregory, instead of his former name, Maurice. Mathilda, queen of England, died at Westminster on the kalends of May [1st May], and was honourably buried in the monastery itself. Many of the Normans who had sworn allegiance to king Henry went over to Louis, king of France, and his chiefs, who were the adversaries of the king, thus not fearing to set aside the claims of their natural lord. The aforesaid pope Gelasius came over sea to Burgundy, and his arrival was immediately made known to the whole of France. On the nones of July [7th July], Florence of Worcester, the monk, died. His deep knowledge and great industry have rendered this Chronicle of chronicles preeminent over all others.

The earth covers his body, may his soul find rest in heaven,
And reign for ever there with the saints in the presence of God.

After the dedication of the church at Momerfeld by Gosfrid, bishop of Hereford, all who had come to that service set out to return home; but the air which had been before remarkably serene, became clouded, and a great storm of thunder and lightning arose, and some of those on their journey back, being overtaken by it and unable to return, rested in a certain spot at which they happened to have arrived. They were five in number, three men and two women; one of the latter was killed by a stroke of lightning, and the other having been set on fire from the middle down to the soles of the feet, perished miserably, the men alone scarce escaping with their lives. Five of their horses also were struck and killed.

A.D. 1119. Pope Gelasius died, and was buried at Cluny ; Guy, bishop of Vienne, succeeded him, whose name was changed to Calixtus. Gosfrid, bishop of Hereford, died on the 3d of the nones of February [3d Feb.], and Herbert, of Norwich, on the

11th of the kalends of August [22d July]. A war having arisen between Henry, king of England, and Louis, king of France, and the earl of Anjou, and the earl of Flanders, king Henry, seizing the opportunity, took the initiative in making peace with the earl, and accepted his daughter in marriage for his son William, whom he had already made the heir of all his kingdom. The earl of Anjou went to Jerusalem. After this king Henry, by the advice of his nobles, made peace with the king of France, by which his son William received Normandy, to be held of the king of France. The king also made peace not only with his nobles, who had unjustly and unfaithfully deserted him, but also with the earl of Flanders. An earthquake was felt in many places in England on Sunday, the 4th of the kalends of October [28th Sept.], about the third hour of the day. Pope Calixtus appointed a general council at Rheims on the 13th of the kalends of November [20th Oct.], where there was a great assembly of archbishops, bishops, abbots, and princes of different provinces, and an immense multitude of clergy and people. The bishops of England, who were then staying with the king in Normandy, namely, William of Exeter, Ranulph of Durham, Bernard of St. David's, and Urban of Glamorgan, and the bishops and abbots of Normandy, were sent by the king himself to the council. Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, was not able to attend by reason of sickness. Thurstan, archbishop elect of York, sought permission of the king to go thither, and at length obtained it, pledging his faith that he would, on no account, accept the episcopal consecration from the pope. Bound by this promise, he hastened on his journey, and came to the pope; and soon, setting aside his promise, by the aid of bribes he brought the Romans over to his own side, and through them besought the pope that he would with his own hand consecrate him bishop. And he was consecrated to the archbishopric of York, and many of the bishops of France were present at his consecration. The bishops of England, however, had not yet come to the council; but when they became acquainted with what had been done, they told it to the king. And he being very indignant hereat, forbade Thurstan and his people to return either into England or Normandy, or indeed to any of his dominions.

A.D. 1120. Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, returned to England on Sunday the 2d of the nones of January [4th Jan.], and on Sunday the 2d of the nones of April [4th April] he consecrated a venerable clerk named David, who was chosen to the bishopric of Bangor by king Griffin and the clergy and people of Wales; and at this consecration were present Richard, bishop of London, Robert of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, and Urban of Glamorgan. Henry, king of England, after having concluded everything prosperously and according to his wishes, returned from Normandy into England. His son William followed him, and embarked attended by a great company of nobles, soldiers, boys, and women. When they had put out of port, relying on the extraordinary calmness of the weather, and were proceeding on the voyage, in a short time the ship in which they were sailing struck upon a rock, and



all who were on board (except one peasant who escaped by the wonderful mercy of God, and he, as it is related, not even worthy to be mentioned by name) were swallowed up by the waves. The most noble of these were William, the king's son, Richard, his brother, Richard, earl of Chester, Otthuel, his brother, William Bigod, Geoffrey Riddel, Walter de Everci, Geoffrey, archdeacon of Hereford, the countess of Perch, daughter of the king, the countess of Chester, the king's niece, and many others, whom we pass by for brevity's sake. This shocked and distressed the mind of the king (who had reached England after a prosperous voyage), and of all who heard it, and caused them to ponder upon the hidden judgments of a just God.

A.D. 1121. Henry, king of England, having now been a widower for a long time (and that he might no longer lead an improper life), by the advice of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, and the nobles of the kingdom, whom he assembled together at London, on the Epiphany of our Lord [6th Jan.], determined that he would choose for his wife Adelaide, daughter of Godfrey, duke of Lorrain, a maiden adorned with the comeliness of a modest countenance. Messengers are despatched; and they brought the future queen, with great state, from the parts beyond the sea, to the court of the king. Meanwhile, two clerks were elected to the government of churches which had been vacant for some time, namely, Richard, who was keeper of the royal seal under the chancellor, and Robert, whose duty it was to serve the king in the care of his bread and drink. The former of these was made bishop of Hereford, the latter of Chester. Herbert, also, monk of the abbey of Westminster, was appointed abbot of the same place. Richard was elected on Friday, the 7th of the ides of January [7th Jan.], and on Sunday, the 17th of the kalends of February [16th Jan.], was consecrated bishop at Lambeth, by Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, with the assistance of Richard, bishop of London, Robert of Lincoln, Arnulph of Rochester, Urban of Glamorgan, Bernard of St. David's. The maid aforesaid, being elected queen, was espoused to the king on Saturday the 4th of the kalends of February [29th Jan.], by William, bishop of Winchester, by command of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury; and on the morrow, namely, on the 3d of the kalends of February [30th Jan.], was consecrated queen by the same archbishop, and crowned. After this the archbishop came to Abingdon, with the king, and on Sunday, the 3d of the ides of March [13th March], he consecrated the aforesaid Robert to the bishopric of Chester; William, bishop of Winchester, William of Exeter, Urban and Bernard, Welsh bishops, being present and assisting in the consecration. After a few days, a certain member of the chapel royal, named Everard, was elected to the bishopric of Norwich, and consecrated at Canterbury, by Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, on the 2d of the ides of June [12th June], Arnulph, bishop of Rochester, Richard of Hereford, and Robert of Coventry, assembling for this purpose. Pope Calixtus, having collected forces from all parts, took the above-mentioned Maurice, surnamed Burdinus, whom the emperor had established, by the name of Gregory, in the

apostolic see; and contumeliously thrust him into a monastery, after having stripped him of all his honours. Henry, king of England, led an army against the Welsh, and, taking hostages from them, reduced the whole of Wales to his own dominion. A certain clerk, an Irishman by birth, and by name Gregory, being chosen bishop of Dublin by the king, the clergy, and the people of Ireland, came to England, that he might be ordained, according to ancient custom, by the archbishop of Canterbury, primate of England; whereupon by the command of the archbishop, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, promoted him to the rank of the deaconship and priesthood, at his castle called Devizes, on Saturday, the 11th of the kalends of October [21st Sept.]. He was ordained bishop on Sunday, the 6th of the nones of October [2d Oct.], at Lambeth, by Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury; and Richard, bishop of London, Roger of Salisbury, Robert of Lincoln, Everard of Norwich, and David of Bangor, were present at his consecration. his consecration. The principal church at Tewksbury was consecrated with great pomp, by Teoulf, bishop of Worcester, Richard of Hereford, Urban of Glamorgan, and the aforesaid Gregory of Dublin, on Monday, the 9th of the kalends of November [24th Oct.].

A.D. 1122. The city of Gloucester, with the principal monastery, for the second time were destroyed by fire, on Wednesday, the 7th of the ides of March [9th March], in the twenty-second year of the reign of king Henry; the former conflagration happened in the first year of his reign, on Thursday, the 11th of the kalends of June [22d May]. Ralph, the twenty-fifth archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life at Canterbury, on Thursday, the 14th of the kalends of November [19th Oct.]. John, bishop of Bath, died on the 4th of the kalends of January [29th Dec.]; during his lifetime he had sold all the town of Bath to king Henry, for five hundred pounds.

A.D. 1123. Robert, the eighteenth bishop of Lincoln, in the month of January, while at Woodstock, when on horseback, and holding a conversation with king Henry, suddenly lost his speech and sank to the ground; he was carried away to an house, where he died. Ranulph, also, the king's chancellor, departed this life in a miserable manner. William, canon of St. Ösgith's of Chiche, was elected to the archbishopric of Canterbury, at Gloucester, where the king held his court, on the Purification of St. Mary [2d Feb.]; and he was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury, by William, bishop of Winchester, with the assistance of many others, on the 14th of the kalends of March [16th Feb.]. With his assent, in Lent, the bishopric of the city of Lincoln was given to Alexander, archdeacon of Salisbury. Afterwards the same archbishop William (in company with Thurstan, archbishop of York, Bernard, bishop of St. David's, Sigefrid, abbot of Glastonbury, and Anselm, abbot of St. Edmund) went to Rome for his pall. Alexander, king of Scots, died on the 7th of the kalends of May [25th April]. Henry, king of England, after the feast of Pentecost [3d June], went over sea. William, archbishop of Canterbury, having received the pall from pope Calixtus, and Thurstan, archbishop of York, with his companions, returned from Rome, and joined the

king, who was staying in Normandy. And not long after this, archbishop William returned to England, and on the 11th of the kalends of August [22d July], being then at Canterbury, he consecrated Alexander, bishop of Lincoln; and on the 7th of the kalends of September [26th Aug.], and in the church of St. Paul apostle, at London, he consecrated Godefrey, the queen's chancellor, bishop of Bath. Teoulf, the twenty-sixth bishop of Worcester, died on Saturday, the 13th of the kalends of November [20th Oct.], at his vill of Hantun. Robert, abbot of Tewkesbury, departed this life on the 6th of the ides of December [8th Dec.]. David, brother of Alexander, king of the Scots, succeeded him in the kingdom.

A.D. 1124. Arnulf, the twenty-third bishop of Rochester, died in the month of March. Galeran, count of Mellent, was captured in Passion-week by the soldiers of king Henry, in Normandy, and was placed, with many others, in close confinement at Rouen. Gosfrid, abbot of the new monastery of Winchester, died. The reverend prior of the church of Worcester, named Nicholas, died on Wednesday, the 8th of the kalends of July [24th June]. May he, by the mercy of God, rejoice in the kingdom of heaven! William, archbishop of Canterbury, as the king had commanded, crossed the Pope Calixtus died, and was succeeded by Honorius, bishop

of Ostia.

A.D. 1125. The coiners who were taken in England with false money, suffered the cruel sentence of the king, by amputation of their right hands, and the loss of the lower parts of their bodies. Afterwards, in consequence of a change in the value of money, all things became dear; whence a severe famine arose, and reduced a great multitude of men nearly to death. Simon, the queen's chancellor, and Sigefrid, abbot of Glastonbury, men of remarkable piety and probity, were elected (when they were in Normandy) to be bishops; Simon to the bishopric of Worcester, and Sigefrid to that of Chichester. Hugh, archdeacon of two bishops of Worcester, namely, Samson and Teoulf, a man of great prudence, died on the 12th of the kalends of April [21st March]. The feast of Easter having ended [29th March], Simon and Sigefrid, the bishops elect, came to England, in company with archbishops William and Thurstan, and a Roman cardinal, by name John; and Sigefrid was ordained bishop of the church of Chichester, by archbishop William, on the 2d of the ides of April [12th April]. There were present at his ordination the Roman cardinal, Thurstan, archbishop of York, Everard of Norwich, Richard of Hereford, Bernard of St. David's, David of Bangor, Urban of Glamorgan, and John, bishop elect of Rochester. Simon, bishop elect of Worcester, was received at Worcester by the clergy and people with a festive procession, on the 8th of the ides of May [8th May], being the day of the Ascension of the Lord; and on the 10th of the kalends of June [23d May] he was ordained priest at Canterbury, by William, archbishop of Canterbury. The emperor Henry died, and was buried at Spires, where his grandfather also lies.

Lothair, the ninety-eighth emperor of the Romans, reigned thirteen years. Simon, bishop elect of Worcester, accompanied by

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