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THE quarrel which existed for many hundreds of years between the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, as to precedence and their relative and respective authority and positions, is a very curious, but not unique, chapter in the history of the Church. It arose through the letter written by Pope Gregory to St. Augustine, making an arrangement for the primary subjection of York to Canterbury, with subsequent precedence to the Archbishop "who was first ordained." This arrangement appears simple and natural, but it was found not to work well, for the Archbishops of Canterbury were not satisfied to take and allow precedence so arranged, but claimed not only perpetual precedence over York, but supremacy also. The following history of the quarrel I have collected from the sources indicated at the end of the article. They are most of them contemporary and impress the reader with the reality of the struggle.

601. In the letter written this year by Pope Gregory to Augustine, granting him the pall, the following occurs:"We desire you also to send a bishop to the city of York, with this proviso-that, if that city, with the neighbouring territories, shall receive the word of God, he also is to ordain

1 In Ireland there was trouble of a similar character between the Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin. Thus:

"1349, Nov. 20. The King revokes his licence to the Archbishop of Armagh to have his cross borne before him in any part of Ireland.

"1350, Feb. 18. The King writes to Andomar, Cardinal of S. Anastasia, against the pretensions of the Archbishop of Armagh to carry the cross. Also to the Cardinal of Palestrina, the Papal ViceChancellor. The Archbishop of Armagh is ordered to repair to his See and provide for its defense.

"1350, Dec. 8. The King orders the justiciary chancellor and treasurer of

Ireland to prevent assemblies of armed men for purpose of maintaining the privileges of the Archbishop of Armagh about carrying the cross.

"1352, Sept. 12. The King excuses J Archbishop of Armagh from personal attendance at the parliament at Dublin, as he cannot get thither in safety with his cross borne before him.

"1365, June. The King orders Thomas Archbishop of Dublin to allow the Archbishop of Armagh to carry the cross in his province.

"Similar to the Archbishop of Armagh."

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the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London Let there be hereafter this distinction sits of London and York-that he shall ANALIS vho was first ordained. But let them esense, by common advice and uniform con• uscite is to be done for the zeal of Christ : let actors with unanimity, decree justly, and rey judge convenient in a uniform manner.' brother of King Egbert, having been made Yok by his own prudence and the power of restored that see to its original state. For ... She first prelate of the Church of York, had been y even away, and dying at Rochester, had left there pa, eucarible distinction of the pall, which he had received 1 Voce Honorius. After him many prelates of this sory, satisfied with the name of a simple bishopric

d to nothing higher; but when Egbert was enthroned awan of lottier spirit, and one who thought that, as it is verreaching to require what is not overdue, so is it ignoble neglect our right, he recovered the pall by frequent appeals to the Pope." Eight bishops had intervened between Narus and Egbert.

William, a canon of the Augustine Monastery of NewDagh, in Yorkshire, in his Chronicle, which is brought down 4 1197, says (Book v., chap. xii.):-"Here, I think, I should mention the reason or occasion about which the two metropolitans of England have now contended during a long period of time. The Archbishop of York is upheld by the distinct authority of S. Gregory; who, in writing to Augustine, the Bishop of the Angles, says: We wish the Bishop of York to be subject to thee, my brother; but after thy death let him preside over the bishops that he may have ordained, so that he may, in no respect, be subject to the Bishop of London.' And, he added, between the Bishops of London and York let there be hereafter this distinction in honour let him be esteemed the first who was first ordained." The Bishop of Canterbury, however (whom S. Gregory calls

the Bishop of London), asserts that this authority was abrogated at a subsequent period; that is to say, when the Roman Pontiff (as the venerable Beda relates), ordained that most learned man, Theodore, as Bishop over the Church of Canterbury, whom he also appointed as primate over all the bishops of England. His successors for many ages are known to have been distinguished by the same prerogative; whence it is clear that the prerogative was granted not to the person but to the Church. On the part of the Archbishop of York, it is answered that S. Gregory established a manifest and solid right, which at no time has been abrogated; although for a certain time, by reason of the time itself, it was not in use, as if the right were dormant and might be revived at the proper time. Forasmuch as the Angles had lately been converted to the faith of Christ, according to the history of the truthful Beda, rude and unlearned bishops of that nation had begun to preside over them; and in order to instruct such men, the Roman Pontiff, of necessity, with pious foresight, appointed the learned Theodore, not, indeed, making void the decree of the most blessed Father Gregory, but only consulting the times; but the successors of Theodore either considered that they ought in like manner to yield to the times, or when the times were better they were guilty of presumption; since the Bishops of the Angles, who presided over the see of York, with a kind of rustic simplicity, took but little care of the prerogative of their own see, and from the days of Paulinus, the bishop, neglected the use of the pall for many years. To this the Archbishop of Canterbury replies, That, although the use of the pall was restored to the Church of York, many pontiffs of that Church were notoriously subject to the jurisdiction of the Church of Canterbury, or to the Archbishop, as their own primate.' The Archbishop of York rejoins, Although as the respect of temporal necessity could not generate any prejudice to the right of the Church of York, so neither could the simplicity or the negligence of the bishops of that Church do so, for S. Gregory willed that its right should not be annulled, but be firm and perpetual.' This vain contention concerning the primacy thus involved the Metropolitans of England in a long and expensive labour. Each of them, however, most vainly writes himself Primate of all England;' yet neither possesses the power signified by this title."

1072. A general English council was held concerning the jurisdiction and primacy of the Church of Canterbury, by command of Pope Alexander, and by permission of King William, and in his presence and the presence of his bishops and abbots; and at length, after some time, it was proved and shown by the distinct authority of various writings, that the Church of York ought to be subject to that of Canterbury, but that the homage of all the countries beyond the great river Humber to the farthest boundaries of Scotland, and whatever south of that river justly pertained to the diocese of the Church of York, the Metropolitan of Canterbury allowed for ever to belong to the Archbishop of York and his successors. If, however, the Archbishop of Canterbury chose to call a council, wherever he thought fit, the Archbishop of York was bound to be present with all his suffragans, and be obedient to his canonical injunctions; and Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury, proved from the ancient custom of his predecessors, that the Archbishop of York was bound to make profession of obedience, even with an oath, to the Archbishop of Canterbury, but through regard to the King he had not exacted the oath from Thomas Archbishop of York, but had received his written profession only, but that he had not thereby created a precedent. When the Archbishop of Canterbury should die, the Archbishop of York should come to Canterbury with the other bishops of the Church, and consecrate the person elected as his successor. But when the Archbishop of York should die, his successor accepting the gift of the Archbishopric from the King, should go to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and from him receive canonical ordination. This document was signed by King William, Matilda the Queen, Hubert the Pope's Legate, Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Archbishop of York, and all the bishops and abbots present. The Archbishop of York made his obedience as follows:

Wherefore, I, Thomas, now ordained Metropolitan Bishop of the Church of York, hearing and knowing your authorities, make unlimited profession of canonical obedience to you, Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, and your successors; and I promise to observe whatever shall be lawfully and canonically enjoined me, either by you or them. Of this matter I was doubtful while I was yet to be ordained; wherefore I promised obedience unconditionally to you, but

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conditionally to your successors. The custom of presiding at the council was at the same time declared to be as follows:-The Archbishop of Canterbury presiding should have on his right hand, the Archbishop of York, and next him the Bishop of Winchester, and on his left the Bishop of London; in the absence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York should preside, having the Bishop of London on his right and the Bishop of Winchester on his left, the rest taking their seats according to the time of their ordination.

1072. Lanfranc, writing to the Pope the same year, speaking of a conference held at Winchester, says: " From the ecclesiastical history of Bede it was proved, to the satisfaction of all parties, that from the time of the blessed Augustine, first Archbishop of Dover, a city which is now called Canterbury, to the extreme old age of Bede himself, who died about 140 years after, my predecessors enjoyed a primacy over the see of York, and the whole island which they call Britain, and also over Ireland."

1107. After Archbishop Thomas, came Gerard in 1101, translated from Hereford. For a long time he would not make submission to Canterbury. At a great council held at Westminster in September 1102, he is said to have manifested considerable feeling on the subject. A seat had been placed for him below that for the Archbishop of Canterbury. This he kicked over and ordered it to be placed on a level with the one for the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the same time calling upon God for vengeance upon the perpetrator of this injury to his see. But he appears after a time, in 1107, to have consented to make profession of obedience. Capgrave in his Liber de Illustribus Henricis says under this date:-At this time Giraldus, Archbishop of York, having placed his hands in the hand of Ancelm, made subjection. and obedience to him in these words: "I, Giraldus consecrated metropolitan of York, make profession, subjection, and canonical obedience to the Holy Church of Canterbury (Dorobernensis) and to Ancelm canonically elected primate of the same church, and to his successors canonically enthroned, saving loyalty to our lord Henry, King of the English, and saving the obedience to be held from me which Thomas, my predecessor professed to the Holy Roman Church on his part.

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