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In 18 Scuruetone (Scruton), for geld, fourteen carucates, and ten ploughs may be [there]. Cnut (eight carucates) and Torfin (three carucates and a half) had two manors there, and Gernan two carucates and a half. Now, Picot, a homager of the Earl's, has in the demesne two ploughs, and six villanes and four bordars with three ploughs. The whole, half a leuga in length and half [a leuga] in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth forty shillings; now, fifty shillings.
In Langetorp (Langthorne), for geld, three carucates, and one plough and a half may be [there]. Uctred had one manor there. Now, Odo has there three villanes with two ploughs. Four acres of meadow. The whole, half a leuga in length and half [a leuga] in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth sixteen shillings; now, five shillings.
In Acheford (Hackforth), for geld, six carucates, and three ploughs may be [there]. Archil (five carucates) and Uctred (one carucate) had this land. Now, Goisfrid has the land of Archil, and [has] therein two ploughs, and six villanes with three ploughs. T. R. E., it was worth fourteen shillings; now, sixteen shillings. But Odo has the land of Uctred, and it is waste. T. R. E., it was worth eight shillings. The whole, half a leuga in length and as much in breadth.
In Hornebi (Hornby), for geld, eight carucates, and six ploughs may be [there]. Archil had a manor there. Now, Gospatric has [it] of Earl Alan. It is waste. The whole, one leuga in length and one in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth forty shillings.
In Heltebi (Little Holtby), for geld, three carucates, and two ploughs may be [there]. Archil had a manor there. Now, Gospatric holds [it] of the Earl, and it is waste. The whole, half a leuga in length and half [a leuga] in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth twenty shillings. In Apelton (East and West Appleton), for geld, twelve carucates, and eight ploughs may be [there]. Torchil had one manor there. Now, Earl Alan has two ploughs [there]. The whole, one leuga in length and one in breadth. T. R. E., [it was worth] thirty-two shillings; now, five shillings.
In Borc (Brough), for geld, nine carucates, and six ploughs may be [there]. Tor had a manor there; now, Enisan [has] three villanes there with two ploughs. The whole, one leuga in length and one in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth thirty-two shillings; now, eight shillings.
In Corburne (Colburn), for geld, five carucates, and three ploughs may be there. Gospatric had one manor there. Now, the same [Gospatric] has [it] of the Earl. Five villanes and two bordars [are] there with two ploughs. The whole, half a leuga in length and three quarenteens in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth twenty shillings; now, thirteen shillings.
In Hiplewelle (Hipswell), for geld, three carucates, and two ploughs may be [there]. Tor had one manor there. Now, Enisan has there four villanes and two bordars with three ploughs. The whole, one leuga in length and half [a leuga] in breadth. T. R. E., it was worth sixteen shillings; now, ten shillings.
18 Orig., fo. 310 b, col. 2.-Facsimile Edit., page xxvi. b.
(To be continued.)
By ALEX. D. H. LEADMAN, F.S.A.
This place is consecrate; to death and life,
(WORDSWORTH, The Excursion.)
HAZLEWOOD CASTLE lies three miles south-west of Tadcaster in a well-wooded park. From Norman times it has been the seat of the Vavasours, and in Domesday Book it is thus mentioned :
"In Izelwode, Gamel Ulf had 3 carucates of land to be taxed where there may be 2 ploughs. Malger now has it of William (de Percy) himself, 1 plough there and three bordars with 2 ploughs."
Malger or Mauger Vavasour was one of the suite of William de Percy, the name being valvassor or vavasor, from the Celtic Gwâs, a youth or page, a term of feudal days more in use on the continent than in England, and employed somewhat loosely. Its usual meaning was one who held his lands, not directly of the crown, but of one of the higher nobility, and in dignity he ranked next to a baron.
Close to the castle, and nestling under its shadow, is the ancient chapel of St. Leonard. When first founded is not certain, but in 1184 Maud de Percy, widow of William de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, endowed the Church of Our Lady at Tadcaster, and the Chapel at Hazlewood, with a carucate of land in Catton, where she was born, and a yearly pension for perpetual masses for the souls of her husband and family, "by the advice of the Lord Vavaseur and other of our faithful lieges, and of the whole court." 1
The present fabric must therefore have replaced a previous structure. It was commenced during the reign of Edward I., who granted a charter for a chapel to be built to Sir William
1 Monast. Anglican, vol. v., p. 510.
Vavasour, dated 29th April, 1286. He married Nicholää, daughter to Sir Stephen Wallis, of Newton. He was a baron of Parliament, temp. Henry III. and Edward I., and in recognition of his great liberality to York Minster, the then Archbishop made his chapel extra-parochial,' and by 31st Henry VI., 5th June, 1452, this was confirmed. Sir William died in 1311, leaving his body to be buried "in novâ capellâ Sancti Leonardi de Hesilwode."
The Vavasours have ever remained a thoroughly loyal family, and firm adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, yet the great ecclesiastical changes which took place in the reign of Henry VIII. never caused them any trouble, and in Queen Elizabeth's days Sir Thomas Vavasour proved his patriotism by raising forces and ships to defend England from the Spanish Armada, and he commanded the "Foresight" in that gallant fleet, when "at Flores, in the Azores, Sir Richard Grenville lay." The Queen had a favourite maid of honour, Mistress Anne Vavasour, of whom Sir John Stanhope, writing in 1599 to Lord Talbot says:" our new mayd Mrs. Vavasour flourisheth like the lilly and the rose." And so pleased was Elizabeth with all their services that she never would allow their little church to be molested. The Pilgrimage of Grace, the Rising in the North, and other disloyal movements had no attractions for this family. Wisely they avoided the burning questions of the day, preferring to live quietly among their own people and do the best for them. If not much is known of their history, their generosity and handsome bequests to York Minster must not be forgotten. When "Robert le Vavasour3 granted to St. Peter's at York, for the health of his soul and of Juliana, his wife, a wayleave in Thevedale,+ which was part of his freehold, for getting stone for building and repairing the Minster," he only began what has been continued for generations, and when the disastrous fire in 1829 occurred, due to the incendiary, Jonathan Martin, the first help towards the repairs came from Sir Edward Vavasour, who offered stone.
Who, then, shall begrudge them the right to their ancient chapel, and to retain the services to which they have always adhered? And one can admire the pride of the late Sir
1 Being made extra-parochial does not make it a parish church.
2 Of Copmanthorpe.
3 Yorks. Fabric Rolls, p. 147 (Surtees Soc.)
Parish of Tadcaster.
Edward, when he said that from the date of the grant, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass had been offered without a break, and that the church had never witnessed the Anglican rite.5 It is their burial-place, and for generations they have been laid to rest in the chapel, or in its picturesque graveyard.
"They loved the floor their fathers trod
It was the ancient house of God
The chapel stands at the west side of the castle, to which it is attached. It consists of a nave, 76 ft. 6 in. long aud 23 ft. wide-15 ft. being taken off for the sacrarium. There is a south porch which is old, and over its entrance is a statue of St. Leonard. Also on the south is a modern vestry. The roof has been lowered several feet, and is surmounted at its west end by a double bell-cot, but there is only one bell. The walls are old and buttressed. On either side are three modern lancet windows of two lights each, with diamond-shaped space above. The east window is built up, but the hood moulding still remains.
The main entrance is through the south porch; there is a door opening into the basement of the castle, and the gallery is reached from the first storey. There has been a door on the north side, but it is blocked up. The original style is Early Decorated, and modern interferences have not improved it.
On the north side, the eastern window is filled with rich geometric stained glass, the top having I.H.S. The centre window is plain, but the top is filled with tracery. The west window is very good and has St. Edward in one light, and the Blessed Virgin holding a leopard in the other. Above:E.M.V. Below:-" Memoriæ Edward M. Vavasour, cujus animæ propitietur Deus." "Memoriæ Marie B.V. cujus animæ propitietur Deus."
5 Letter in the Church Times, Jan. 11th, 1889.
6 Rev. Canon Hulbert.
On the south side the east window has floral designs, and above-M.R. The centre window is plain, but has tracery in the top. The west window is plain, but has above:"on a torce, or and sable, a cock gules, crested and wattled or," which is one of the family crests. All the stained glassis modern. At one time the windows were filled with numerous shields, but they are all gone. I have been able, however, to give a list of them. The Vavasour arms are over the vestry door. The Altar and Communion Platepaten, chalice, chrismatory, monstrance and pyx-are of silver, and all modern. There is no old plate whatever. There is a beautiful ante-pendium of white French silk, adorned with the emblems of the Passion, stitched in gold, It was the gift of the late Archbishop Harcourt, of York.5
On the north side is a stone, carved in relief, and in four divisions: 1. Full figure of a bishop, vested and holding a crook (St. Leonard); 2. Half-figure of a man, below him a cavity; 3. Virgin and Child crowned; 4. Female also crowned (St. Anne ?).
The altar is curiously carved, and on either side are two handsome Corinthian pillars, whilst a fine painting of the Crucifixion forms an altar-piece. On the side-altar is a beautiful statuette of the Blessed Virgin and infant Jesus.
The font is octagonal and poor. An almsbox is close by the main door, and its front is faced with stone carved in relief.
On the floor are many inscribed stones, and on the walls. are marble tablets. There are several ancient monuments, but some described by Torre are no longer to be seen. the wall is a modern brass effigy in memory of Sir Edward Marmaduke Vavasour, who died very suddenly at Chanceux, in France, 16th March, 1847, in his 61st year.
The gallery is fitted up as the family pew, and contains a nice organ. In the churchyard is an old cross, at the four corners of which are statues, but the heads have got knocked off.
The Registers date from 1808; if there were any earlier it is not known where they are, and so much valuable matter is lost.
The dedication is to St. Leonard, Bishop and Confessor, and has never been changed.
I know of only one local tradition. When the Battle of