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Roman Rig may have had a similar origin, and may have formed part of the frontier of the Romano-British kingdom of Elmete, which roughly corresponded with the West Riding, and which so long held out against the Anglian conquerors of Yorkshire. Guess-work is legitimate when it is used to stimulate investigation, and not as a substitute for it. One interesting discovery was made by General PittRivers, which proved that the levels where water could be obtained was much higher in ancient times than now. A Roman bucket was found at the bottom of a well, which was not so deep by 33 feet as wells require to be at the present day. The drains carried through the villages confirm this evidence of the wetness of the climate, since they are much deeper than would be thought necessary now. This explains the apparent absence of water-supply in so many prehistoric camps.

Much more might be extracted from these interesting volumes, but space only allows us now to mention the museum which General Pitt-Rivers has built at Farnham, and by means of which he is seeking to interest the population of the whole district for miles around in archæology, and thus doing as much for the preservation of historical monuments as an Act of Parliament. One of the chief features of this museum is the labour devoted to accurate models, both of ancient monuments and of the excavations which General Pitt-Rivers has carried on in them. There is nothing so instructive as a model, next to the thing itself, and it is to be regretted that models are not made more general use of in English museums. The French know better, and have made a liberal use of them in their great archæological museum at St. Germains. Anyone who compares that collection with the prehistoric room in the British Museum will realise the backward state of archæological science in this country. But, as so often happens in England, it is by private initiative that the cause of science is being advanced, and we must hope for the State to follow, rather than expect it to lead.



(CONTINUED FROM VOL. 12, p. 308.)

Rhodes, 42

Quitclaim by Matildis, daughter of Roger de Rodes widow, of her right in land in Rodes late belonging to her father, as contained in a confirmation by her and Adam her late husband, in a final concord made before the justices at York for William son of Peter de Rodes. Witnesses-Sir Robt. de Wykerley, Robt. de Neutona, Robt. de Ulley, Roger de Wystan, Hen. de Morthyng, Walter de Branton, Ric. de Torpe.

Fragment of seal.

** til *

[A. 17.]

Grant by Adam son of Thos. de Morthing, with consent of Matilda his wife to Wm. son of Peter de Rodes, of his tenement in the town of Rodes now held by him or inherited in right of his wife, for 14 marks fine and 1d. yearly rent; and due service to the castle of Cunigbur'. If Matilda survive, she may revoke this grant on providing an equally good tenement from her husband's inheritance in Wytstan. Witnesses-Sir Robt. de Wykeresley, Sir Wm. parson of Mautheby, Sir Philip parson of Ireton, Ric. de Lachton, John de Seggebrocg, Hen. de Morthing, John de Githweth.

Two red seals with fleur de lys, and legends :—1. S. Matilde de Rodi ; 2. S. Ade de . [A. 58.]

1342. Demise by Wm. son of Hugh del Rodes to Wm. Shepehirde of 9 May. Morthynge of 3 acres 1 rood and 1 "sikettum prati" in the fields of le Rodes; whereof 1 acre are in a plot under the Barweheeng', 1 acre abutting on the meadow of the prior of Wyrkesop, 1 acre almost in the same place, abutting on the said meadow and on the Hyngesyk of the said Wm., 1 rood in the same furlong (stadio) abutting on the headland and the Heengsyk'; and the (sikettum prati) adjoins the acre which abuts on the prior's meadow; for 20 years at 3s. rent. The Rodes, Ascension day, 1342. [B. 79.]

42 Evidently some place in that part of Yorkshire indicated by the local names of the witnesses, but it has not been found. Did it give name to the family

of Rhodes?

Sikettum is a diminutive of syke, clearly.



Demise by lady Mary de Nevill, lady of Midelham to Alan, 11 Nov. Master, and the brethren and sisters of St. Nicholas' Hospital at Richmond, of a plot of land in French gate (vico Francorum) Richmond, with gardens and rents and the hill towards the hospital; reserving the site of her fold on Fuller's green during Richmond fair, and the forge held by Elias de la Grene; for 20 years for 20s. st. yearly rent. Witnesses :-Sir Roger Oysel the lady's steward, Sir Harsculph de Cleseby, steward of Richmond, Sir Nic. de Gercheston, Wm. le Scrop, bailiff of Richmond, Walter de Berden, Wm. le Blunt in Richmond, Thos. son of Geoffrey in the same, Wm. de Hous in the same, Robt. de la Grene in the same. Martinmas, 1292.

The seal of the Hospital, bearing a figure of S. Nicholas in episcopal vestments in the act of benediction. The inscription mutilated. Sigill *** iche mundia. [A. 86.]


1438 Demise by Robt. Playte and Thos. Foxhols to Geoffrey Fitz 14 Jan. Hugh Knt. of all the lands &c. in the towns and territories of Richmond and Gillyng which the grantors together with Hen. late lord Fitzhugh, Hen. Ullethorns and Thos. Swayne chaplain all deceased, had by feoffment of Robt. Butlere of Sadbery, except one burgage in Richmond, in Frankesgate, on the south of Lombardewende, held by John Burgh by feoffment of Playte and Foxhols; for life, with remainder to Wm. lord Fitzhugh in fee simple. Witnesses :-John Clervaux, Thos. Rokeby, knts., Chr. Conyers, Chr. Boynton, Roger Aske, Wm. Burgh. 14 Jan. 8 Hen. vi. [A. 275.]


Demise by Thos. Sutheryngton, Chaplain, Wm. Appilgarth 11 Nov. Symon Appilgarth and John Appilgarth to Thos. Appilgarth of lands &c. in the town and territory of Richemund Lownewath, and in the town of Overthorp, with appurtenances in Richemundshire, Yorks, which they had by feoffment of John Cleseby, rector of the church of Mersk; for life, at a rent of 51. Witnesses :-Thos. Yoeson, Ric. Caldbeke, Adam Dowglase, John Johnson of Kexthwayt, John Coke of West Dalton. Richemund, Martinmas. 9 Hen. vi.

[A. 276.]



Grant by Ric. de Ros, knt. to Thomas, son of Ric. White of 28 April. Ryngburghneuton and Alice his wife, of a toft in Ryngburgh, in length from the south field to the north field of the said town, and in breadth, between Sir Richard's manor on the east, and the toft held of him by Thos. son of Ric. Hobbesone; and one oxgang in

43 An account of S. Nicholas' hospital will be found in Clarkson's Hist. of Richmond, p. 250. Lady Mary de Nevill was the heiress of Middleham, d. of Ralph fitz Rannulf, and widow of Robert, son and heir of Robert lord


Nevill of Raby. He died v. p. 1271, and she survived forty-nine years and never married again.

In the parish of Aldbrough in Holderness. See Poulson's Hist. of H., ii., 32.

the fields of Estneuton between the land held of Sir Richard by Thos. de Killyng and the land of Thos. son of Cecil; in survivorship, at a yearly rent of 20s. of silver, and suit of Court at Ryngburgh, when held; with permission to take earth from the toft and carry it on to the said oxgang, without waste.

Witnesses: -Sir John de Meaux (Melsa), Sir Amand de Ruda, knts., Wm. Attesthalle of Aldeburgh, Thos. his son, Michael Atte Brigg', of Aldeburgh, Ric. de Echerdwyke. Ryngburgh, Wednesday before SS. Philip and James. 1339. [A. 148.]


Ringbrough Newton.45

Grant by Ric. de Ros of Ringburg, kut. to Hen. de Thorp 7 May. for life of land with meadows and pasture called Avengerland, in the fields of Ringburgneuton, between the land of the grantor and that of Thos. son of Cecily; doing suit of Court at Ringburg and paying a yearly rent of 15s. of silver. Witnesses :-Wm. ad Aulam, of Alderburg', Herman Ami, of Garton, Thos. son of Cecily, of Ringburgneuton. Ringburg, the day of St. John the Archbp. of Beverley. 6 Edw. iii. [A. 139.]



Indenture whereby the Prior and Convent of Drax demise to 1 Aug. Simon de Ryplyngham and Robt. his brother, 3 tofts and 4 oxgangs of land in the town of Rypplynham for 20 years from St. Peter ad Vincula 1368, for 13s. 4d. rent. [B. 96.]



Confirmation by Will. Cowper of Eggerton the elder, of a 26 Sept. grant by John Hagh, kinsman and heir apparent of Will. Hagh his grandfather to Ric. Whyteley of 2 closes called le Roundyng and Fayrclowgh Greyn within the town of Ryscheworth. Witnesses: John Thorgarland, Oliver Whyteley, Thos. Wilson. 26 Sept. 11 Henry vii. [A. 325.]

1495. 26 Sept.

1342. 14 Feb.

Power of attorneys by John Hagh to John Gleydehyll to
deliver seisin of the said closes to Ric. Whyteley. 26 Sept.
11 Henry vii.
[A. 326.]

Riston, Long.48

Demise by Peter de Nuttill and Katharine his wife to John de Bildeston, chaplain of a moiety of a toft held by Robert father of the said John during his life of lady Amicia Hild

45 Or East Newton in the parish of Aldbrough. See Poulson's Hist. of H., ii., 31.

46 Riplingham in the parish of Rowley, near Beverley.

47 In the parish of Halifax.

48 In Holderness, see Poulson's Hist. i., 341. Sir Peter de Nuthill's wife was the d. and co-h, of Thomas Hildyard of this place.

yard in Rigston; for life, for a yearly rent of 5s. Witnesses :-John Ligard, Peter the Miller, John son of Thomas, Peter his brother Simon Rust. Ryston, Saturday, St. Valentine's day, 1343. The said John may fell trees for repairs and building by view. [A. 155.]


Grant by Adam son of Adam de Leyrthorp to Sir Simon de Baldrestan of 6 organgs and other tenements, mill &c. in Rogerthorp, in the parish of Baddesword and Thorp Audelyn. Witnesses :-Sir Roger de Novo Mercato, Sir Warin de Skargill, Sir Ralf de Normanvil, knts. John de Burgo, Edm. le Botiller, John de Burton, Godfrey de Steynton, John Daungerous, John Nowel. [B. 31.]

Grant by Robert son of Adam Karkeys to Sir Simon de Baldreston, of one toft and croft in Rogerthorp in the parish of Baddesword inherited by him. Witnesses :-Edm. le Botiller, Wm. de Skargill, John de Burton, Godfrey de Steynton, John Daungerous, Thos. Broun.

A small white seal with a cross.

[A. 32.]


Quitclaim by Wm. du Chastell of Querington and Margaret 24 Feb. his wife to Simon de Baldreston of their right in a messuage and 5 oxgangs of land in Rogerthorp by Baddesworth, Yorks. Witnesses :-Sir Wm. de Spaneby, rector of the church of Wyluby, Thos. Beaufou, Wm. de Rouceby, Robt. Mair of Pontefract, John de Burton of Kynnesley.

Swarreby, Friday, S. Matthias day, 3 Edw. iii.

Broken seal.

[A. 133.]

1333 Quitclaim by Robert son of Adam Karkays to Simon de Bald3 Jan. reston, of his right in a toft and croft in Rogerthorp in the parish of Baddesword, inherited by him.

Witnesses: W. de Skargill, John de Burton, Thos. Broun, John de Thacham, Wm. Godman of Baddesword. Baddesword, Sunday after Circumcision. 6 Edw. iii. [B. 71.]


Quitclaim by Robt. Carcoys son of Adam Carcoys of Roger13 April. thorp by Baddesworth to Sir Simon de Baldreston clerk, of his right in his late father's lands in Rogerthorp which came to him by inheritance. Witnesses :-Alan de Folifeyt, John de Wentworth, John Daungerus, Robt. Daungerus, Wm. Godeman. Cridelyng, 13 April, 1341. 15 Edw. iii.

1442. 1 Oct.

A red seal, with what appears to be a plant with a bulbous root, surrounded by an ornamental border. [A. 152.]

Grant by Ric. de Balderston esq. to John Ellyswyk and Wm. Crumbulholme, chaplains of his manor of Rogerthorpe, Yorks, and his other lands in Brethyrton, except those held at will

49 In the parish of Badsworth. Hunter (S. Yorks. II. 444), gives a very meagre account of this place.

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