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which a science of archæology must depend. But, in the meantime, if some of our Yorkshire landed proprietors would follow the example of General Pitt-Rivers, and cause the earthworks on their estates to be excavated by competent hands, the cause of knowledge might be greatly advanced. In Germany, such things are deemed worthy of the attention of Government, and the Pfahlgraben or Limites Romani, built by the Romans as a frontier against the Germans, has just been excavated by a government commission.

Archæological science is still in its infancy in England, and it must be confessed that the infancy has been a prolonged one. How is it that a boy who collects butterflies, or a girl who goes out with her botanical case, is supposed to be pursuing a scientific taste, while a man who cares for such things as earthworks and old stones is still generally regarded with a half-smile as a foolish though harmless trifler? Is not anything which concerns the evolution of man the noblest of all subjects of knowledge? Surely the reason of this indifference is that the realm of archæology has so long been the realm of guess-work, the happy huntingground of those who took little heed to observe, and not much to read, the observations of others, but whose delight it was to sail paper-boats of theory over the ocean of the unknown. The instance above alluded to of Dr. Guest and the Belgic ditches shows that even the rise of the new historic school was not accompanied with the rise of an archæological school founded on exact observation. But slowly archæology in England is learning that it must crawl before it can fly. When it does this, it can get facts as solid as those of any other science. A piece of Samian ware, found in a dyke in such a position that it cannot have been carried in by silting, is evidence as positive for the date of that earthwork as an ammonite in a piece of rock. Pottery is well called by General Pitt-Rivers "the human fossil," on account of its special value as evidence of the period when it was buried. There is no point in which the newer school of archæology differs more from the old than in the attention. it pays to trifles, or what were formerly thought trifles. The archæologists of thirty or forty years ago dug chiefly to get objects for their collections; the archæologists of to-day (the genuine ones, that is) dig to get knowledge. A shard of pottery, or an iron nail, is as precious to them as a gold

torque, because it furnishes irrefragable information as to the date of the monument in which it is found. It is accurate data of this kind, extending over a wide range, which are needed to build up a real science of archæology in England. The labours of Dr. Thurnam, Canon Greenwell, and Professor Rolleston, which have established the existence of two very different races, distributed over the whole of this island before the coming of the Romans, form the most important step which has yet been taken in England in the direction of such a science. But many problems concerning these primitive races yet remain to be answered, and can only be answered by excavations made on the same scale, and with the same care, as those of General Pitt-Rivers.

While strongly asserting that the spade only can certainly decide in individual cases the date of an earthwork, it was inevitable that General Pitt-Rivers should have been led, after the investigation of so many of these remains, to certain general conclusions which are of great value, coming from one who adds special military knowledge to wide experience of ancient fortifications. General Pitt-Rivers regards the circular or irregularly-shaped earthworks which are so common on hill-tops as strongholds, constructed by primitive tribes as places of refuge, to which they fled when some invading host was scouring their country. He dismisses the idea of "chains of fortified posts," which has been such a favourite one with many of our local antiquaries, for with the imperfect military resources of those times, such forts would have been quite inadequate for the defence of a district, as an invading army could have slipped between them. "They imply a low state of civilization, before the inhabitants of any large district had attained to such organization as was necessary for combined defence." He thinks, therefore, that it was only when a more advanced stage of civilization had been attained that long ramparts with ditch and bank, probably headed with a palisade, were built to defend large tracts of territory. It is therefore probable that all the long entrenchments are more recent than the hill-forts. We might therefore expect to find that such a hill-fort, for example, as that of Wincobank, near Sheffield, is the work of an older people than the so-called Roman Rig which runs so near it. Bearing in mind the post-Roman origin of Bokerly Dyke, it seems not impossible that the

Roman Rig may have had a similar origin, and may have formed part of the frontier of the Romano-British kingdom of Elmete, which roughly corresponded with the West Riding, and which so long held out against the Anglian conquerors of Yorkshire. Guess-work is legitimate when it is used to stimulate investigation, and not as a substitute for it. One interesting discovery was made by General PittRivers, which proved that the levels where water could be obtained was much higher in ancient times than now. A Roman bucket was found at the bottom of a well, which was not so deep by 33 feet as wells require to be at the present day. The drains carried through the villages confirm this evidence of the wetness of the climate, since they are much deeper than would be thought necessary now. This explains the apparent absence of water-supply in so many prehistoric camps.

Much more might be extracted from these interesting volumes, but space only allows us now to mention the museum which General Pitt-Rivers has built at Farnham, and by means of which he is seeking to interest the population of the whole district for miles around in archæology, and thus doing as much for the preservation of historical monuments as an Act of Parliament. One of the chief features of this museum is the labour devoted to accurate models, both of ancient monuments and of the excavations which General Pitt-Rivers has carried on in them. There is nothing so instructive as a model, next to the thing itself, and it is to be regretted that models are not made more general use of in English museums. The French know better, and have made a liberal use of them in their great archæological museum at St. Germains. Anyone who compares that collection with the prehistoric room in the British Museum will realise the backward state of archæological science in this country. But, as so often happens in England, it is by private initiative that the cause of science is being advanced, and we must hope for the State to follow, rather than expect it to lead.

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Quitclaim by Matildis, daughter of Roger de Rodes widow, of her right in land in Rodes late belonging to her father, as contained in a confirmation by her and Adam her late husband, in a final concord made before the justices at York for William son of Peter de Rodes. Witnesses-Sir Robt. de Wykerley, Robt. de Neutona, Robt. de Ulley, Roger de Wystan, Hen. de Morthyng, Walter de Branton, Ric. de Torpe.

Fragment of seal.

** til *

[A. 17.]

Grant by Adam son of Thos. de Morthing, with consent of Matilda his wife to Wm. son of Peter de Rodes, of his tenement in the town of Rodes now held by him or inherited in right of his wife, for 14 marks fine and 1d. yearly rent; and due service to the castle of Cunigbur'. If Matilda survive, she may revoke this grant on providing an equally good tenement from her husband's inheritance in Wytstan. Witnesses-Sir Robt. de Wykeresley, Sir Wm. parson of Mautheby, Sir Philip parson of Ireton, Ric. de Lachton, John de Seggebrocg, Hen. de Morthing, John de Githweth.

Two red seals with fleur de lys, and legends :—1. S. Matilde de Rodi; 2. S. Ade de [A. 58.]

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1342. Demise by Wm. son of Hugh del Rodes to Wm. Shepehirde of 9 May. Morthynge of 3 acres 1 rood and 1 "sikettum prati" in the fields of le Rodes; whereof 1 acre are in a plot under the Barweheeng', 1 acre abutting on the meadow of the prior of Wyrkesop, 1 acre almost in the same place, abutting on the said meadow and on the Hyngesyk of the said Wm., 1 rood in the same furlong (stadio) abutting on the headland and the Heengsyk'; and the (sikettum prati) adjoins the acre which abuts on the prior's meadow; for 20 years at 3s. rent. The Rodes, Ascension day, 1342. [B. 79.]

42 Evidently some place in that part of Yorkshire indicated by the local names of the witnesses, but it has not been found. Did it give name to the family

of Rhodes?

Sikettum is a diminutive of syke, clearly.

1292.

11 Nov.

Richmond,43

Demise by lady Mary de Nevill, lady of Midelham to Alan, Master, and the brethren and sisters of St. Nicholas' Hospital at Richmond, of a plot of land in French gate (vico Francorum) Richmond, with gardens and rents and the hill towards the hospital; reserving the site of her fold on Fuller's green during Richmond fair, and the forge held by Elias de la Grene; for 20 years for 20s. st. yearly rent. Witnesses :-Sir Roger Oysel the lady's steward, Sir Harsculph de Cleseby, steward of Richmond, Sir Nic. de Gercheston, Wm. le Scrop, bailiff of Richmond, Walter de Berden, Wm. le Blunt in Richmond, Thos. son of Geoffrey in the same, Wm. de Hous in the same, Robt. de la Grene in the same. Martinmas, 1292.

The seal of the Hospital, bearing a figure of S. Nicholas in episcopal vestments in the act of benediction. The inscription mutilated. Sigill ***iche mundia.

30

43

[A. 86.] 1438 Demise by Robt. Playte and Thos. Foxhols to Geoffrey Fitz 14 Jan. Hugh Knt. of all the lands &c. in the towns and territories of Richmond and Gillyng which the grantors together with Hen. late lord Fitzhugh, Hen. Ullethorns and Thos. Swayne chaplain all deceased, had by feoffment of Robt. Butlere of Sadbery, except one burgage in Richmond, in Frankesgate, on the south of Lombardewende, held by John Burgh by feoffment of Playte and Foxhols; for life, with remainder to Wm. lord Fitzhugh in fee simple. Witnesses-John Clervaux, Thos. Rokeby, knts., Chr. Conyers, Chr. Boynton, Roger Aske, Wm. Burgh. 14 Jan. 8 Hen. vi. [A. 275.]

1430.

Demise by Thos. Sutheryngton, Chaplain, Wm. Appilgarth 11 Nov. Symon Appilgarth and John Appilgarth to Thos. Appilgarth of lands &c. in the town and territory of Richemund Lownewath, and in the town of Overthorp, with appurtenances in Richemundshire, Yorks, which they had by feoffment of John Cleseby, rector of the church of Mersk; for life, at a rent of 51. Witnesses :-Thos. Yoeson, Ric. Caldbeke, Adam Dowglase, John Johnson of Kexthwayt, John Coke of West Dalton. Richemund, Martinmas. 9 Hen. vi.

1339.

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[A. 276.]

Grant by Ric. de Ros, knt. to Thomas, son of Ric. White of 28 April. Ryngburghneuton and Alice his wife, of a toft in Ryngburgh, in length from the south field to the north field of the said town, and in breadth, between Sir Richard's manor on the east, and the toft held of him by Thos. son of Ric. Hobbesone; and one oxgang in

43 An account of S. Nicholas' hospital will be found in Clarkson's Hist. of Richmond, p. 250. Lady Mary de Nevill was the heiress of Middleham, d. of Ralph fitz Rannulf, and widow of Robert, son and heir of Robert lord

Nevill of Raby. He died v. p. 1271, and she survived forty-nine years and never married again.

In the parish of Aldbrough in Holderness. See Poulson's Hist. of H., ii., 32.

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