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Some panels or roundels were given by the state (staat), some by the town (stadt), some by the parish or community (gemeinde), and by far the larger number by individuals, many of whom held the honourable office of landvogt; some were captains or ensigns in the local militia (schützen), while others were bishops, abbots, or abbesses, parish priests, and even humbler individuals; and in many cases they seem to have been put in during the lifetime of the donor, in only a very few instances the person commemorated being described as deceased.
The panels and roundels have been placed in the positions they now occupy without any attempt at arrangement in order of date or in any other way. They have simply been pieced together so as to fit into the windows to the best advantage, and where they have not fitted very well the intervening spaces have been made up with fragments of the same glass.
As in each light so many subjects are treated of, it is evident that each subject must occupy a very small space. The largest figures measure only two feet in height, while the smallest reach to a height of only two or three inches, the average size being about eight inches. The windows vary much in treatment, design, and execution. In many cases the design and colouring is very good, while the execution almost resembles miniature painting; in other cases the design and execution is rough, but in all cases the colouring is satisfactory, and as there is a good deal of light-coloured glass the church is by no means unduly darkened.
Want of knowledge on my part of the local history of the district from which these windows come, stands in the way of the interpretation of some of the subjects, nevertheless I venture to express the opinion that a study of these windows would well repay persons who are interested in various branches of antiquarian research. They illustrate many legends of the Saints, and not a few secular legends as well, e.g., the well known legend of William Tell occurs several times. The student of late mediæval costume, armour and arms, and funeral imagery, would find here much that was worthy of his pencil and note-book. He who may be interested in ancient methods of warfare and of assaults upon fortified towns would find here several battle-scenes depicted. The collector of "wise saws and modern instances" could
add not a few pithy sayings to his collection. The student of German dialects would be interested in some of the curious words and expressions to be found in the inscriptions with which the windows are plentifully besprinkled. The genealogists might supply a missing link. The methods of government in vogue in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, in that part of Switzerland, viz., the neighbourhood of Lucerne, from which the windows come, might receive illustration. The herald would find sufficient to occupy his attention for many months, perhaps years.
Merely to catalogue the subjects in the seventeen windows would occupy a volume, and, as in the following account of some of the windows it has been necessary to be brief, it has been quite impossible to enlarge as I should like to do upon the various subjects treated of, and the method in which they have been treated. All that has been possible is merely to name the subjects and to append the inscription where it is legible. But in some cases, owing to the breakage which has occurred in removing the glass from Switzerland to England, and which has necessitated the use of much lead in repairing the damage, the inscription has become very hard to decipher, and it must therefore be understood that the letters or words which are given between brackets are merely conjectural, though in many cases the conjecture amounts to a practical certainty.
In the following account the work of tabulating the subjects and inscriptions, and the brief description of them given, has been done by me. The more important work of the verification of the inscriptions and the translation of them. has been done by Dr. Schüddekopf, and I need scarcely add that the remarks on the dialectical peculiarities and linguistic matters in general are entirely his. Every effort has been made by both to get the inscriptions absolutely correct, but it is impossible to guarantee that there are no mistakes.
EDWARD H. SANKEY.
It had been my intention to give a somewhat complete account of the dialect in which the inscriptions are written. But as I can give but little time to this paper, and as I am,
moreover, by no means an expert in Swiss dialects, I am compelled, much against my own inclination, to reduce this account to a few short observations.
The German language possesses three great dialects, viz., Upper German, Middle German, Low German (Oberdeutsch, Mitteldeutsch, Niederdeutsch). The Upper German dialect has three divisions, viz., Alemannic, Swabian, and Bavarian, or, as Schmeller calls them, the dialect of the Upper Rhine, the dialect spoken in the west of the Lech, and that spoken in the east of the same river. The Alemannic dialect comprises Alsace, the south of Baden and Switzerland. The Swiss portion possesses an eastern and a western group, both Our inscriptions be
of which have numerous sub-dialects.
long to the western group of the Swiss dialects. Considering that the number of the latter is very considerable, it is not surprising to find that traces of different Swiss dialects are apparent in our inscriptions.
The following are a few of the most prominent features of the language in the inscriptions. Anyone who is interested in Teutonic philology will be able to add a great many more dialectal peculiarities to this list.
Literary German au, when corresponding to an older German, appears as u: Haus-hus, auf-uf; whilst literary German au when corresponding to an older German au, appears as au: auge-auge, hauptmann--hauptmann. Literary German ei, which represents an older German í, is i: weibwib, speise-spiss, weise-wys, zeit-zit. The literary German diminutive suffix -lein has the form li: fähnlein-fendli. The definite article in the feminine gender frequently loses its vowel and becomes amalgamated with its substantive: dsell = die seele. An unaccented e, preceding the syllable which bears the accent is frequently dropped: gricht gericht.
The reader will observe that almost every feminine name in these inscriptions ends in -in. This usage is, of course, not confined to the Swiss dialects, but was common to all German dialects, and may be traced even now in the language of the lower classes. By these, a Frau Müller is frequently spoken of as "die Müllern," the final n in this form being simply the older -in, which is so frequent in our inscriptions.
A few words, most of them denoting the offices and dignities of the various persons whose names are recorded
in these windows, and some of them occurring over and over again, are of considerable interest to the student, not only of German language, but also of archæology and history. A short account of these words is therefore appended.
Schuldthes: M.H.G. schultheize-O.H.G. scultheizoOld English scyldhata Modern German Schultheiss or Schulze. Etymologically the meaning of the word is, one who imposes certain obligations, i.e., a judge. The chief magis. trates of villages are to this day called "Schulzen" in Germany, and in former times the chief magistrates of towns-now called Bürgermeister-had the same title.
Vogt (in Obervogt, Undervogt, Spittelvogt, etc.): Low Latin vogatus (for advocatus). "Vogtei" is the right of a person to represent and protect the interests of another, who is thereby reduced to a condition of dependence on the former.
Vögte" are first of all found in cloisters, churches, hospitals, etc. Later on the Emperors installed " Vögte" as administrators of their own "immediate" possessions, in opposition to the "Grafen," who were princes of the empire. The various German princes also appointed
Vögte" as chief magistrates of towns and villages in their dominions. Officers of lower rank were and are also frequently called "Vögte" (Schlossvogt, Hausvogt, Feldvogt).
Meyer (in Obermeyer, Kilchmeyer): early Low Lat. major. It means steward of an estate. "Kilchmeyer (= Kirchmeyer) is the steward of the estate or estates attached to a church.
Fendrich (= Fähnrich, derived from Fahne) is ensign, flag-bearer, who ranks as an officer of his company.
Amtmann, Ammann is every one who has an "Amt" (O.H.G. ambaht, ambahti, Gothic andbahti), more especially one who administers the law in a certain district.
Schützenmeister, the head of the "Schützen,' the master of the "Schützen "-guild, i.e., the town rifle-band. Nearly every German town could boast of a "Schützengesellschaft," which the citizens joined with the object of becoming proficient in the use of various arms (such as crossbow, rifle, etc.). Each "Schützengesellschaft" had its Hauptmann, Schützenmeister, Kleinodienmeister and Pritschen
meister. They held the "Schützenfest" once a year which, mutatis mutandis, was very similar to the tournaments of the knights. Many German towns celebrate their annual "Schützenfest" to this day.
Weibel (in Gross weibel), cp. Mod. Germ. Feldwebel. It is the M.H.G. weibil, O.H.G. weibil, and is derived from the M.H.G. verb weiben, "to move to and fro." It means as much as Amtsdiener, Unterbeamter, officer of inferior rank.
Allmende, derived from O.H.G. alagimeinida (cp. Grimm's Wörterbuch, I. 237). This is the name given to all lands and fields that did not belong to any individual, but to the whole community. In the medieval period the word was common to all German dialects; Goethe uses it in the sense of "the open street" (wie man exempel jeden Tag in der almende sehen mag; Neuest. aus. Plundersw. 58). Its use is now restricted to Swabia and Switzerland.
A. W. SCHÜDDEKOPF.
NORTH SIDE OF NAVE. EASTERN MOST WINDOW.
A figure in a monk's dress. S. PLACIDUS ABBAS, M. Our Lord's Baptism. (Dies ist mein geliebter Sohn in welchem ich ein wolge= fallen hab, Matt. 3 c.). A coat of arms. William Tell's son standing under a tree with an apple on his head, his father with a cross-bow about to shoot. eini Alerzan der Obermei, Anno 1631. A boat on a river (the Rhine?) laden with wine casks, houses on the bank. The Virgin appearing to S. Antony of Padua, a sleeping monk below. Has Erhait vō Ronacher, granwyler und vogtsperg, Sus(an)na vō . . . chor vo Gra... A coat of arms with various figures of ecclesiastics and others on each side. Hau(pt)mã Lupars Has, 16*2. A woman nourishing a prisoner with her breasts, beneath which is a coat of arms. F. Gratianus Ludolf Decanus und Administrator des fürstlich Frein Gotshus Pfäffers, anno... The Coronation of the Virgin. Ludwig Schuonacher der zit Schuldthes und Schüczen-Fendrich der Stätt Lucern, anno 1638.8 A man standing on a terrace with a family group below him. Hans Wichser, anno domini 1537. One woman in the group is labelled SUSANNA, a boy is labelled dangel wo. Around this group are small figures of a bishop, a monk, a tree with a
4 This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased.
5 Perhaps illustrating Fischarts' wellknown poem "Das Glückhaft Schiff von Zürich" (1576)
6 Hans Erhart von Ronacher, Gran wyler and Vogtsperg, Susanna von Ron
7 F. G. L., Dean and Administrator of the manorial free Church of Pfeffers (in the Canton of St. Gallen).
8 L. S., late mayor and ensign of the city rifle band of Lucerne.