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Almanbir. OLIVERUS de Stanesfeud Constabularius et Willelmus del Fyney Receptor reddunt compotum suum loco quo prius coram eisdem et de eodem tempore ut supra.

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de arreragiis ultimi compoti.

de firma Burgensium et Nativorum termino.


de firma j bovate terre spectantis ad Tinctorem.
de firma molendini fullerii cum officio Tinctoris.
de firma Ricardi del Feney et Thome Carpenter
pro ij acris et dimidia terre.

de firma Thome del Sickes pro ij acris vasti.
de firma Rogeri Pickebare pro iij acris vasti.
de firma Thome filii Thome pro iij rodis terre.
de Incremento firme del Personehaye.

de teoloneo fori et Nundinarum.

de firma Simonis de Thorp pro ij acris et dimidia terre concelatis per x annos.

de arreragiis eiusdem firme de x annis predictis. de amerciamento pro concelamento.

de finibus et perquisitis Curie.

de ij Jumentis j pullano inventis in seisina Roberti filii Roberti de feu . . .

de herbagio parci học anno.

De pannagio nihil.

de minera ferri.

de firma molendini decima deducta.

Summa Tocius Recepte xxjli. xiiijs. iiijd.

De quibus computat cvjs. viijd. solutos domino W. le Vavasur pro annua

Et iijs.

Et viijli. x8.

firma ei debita per Cartam Comitis de molendino aquatico de Hoderesfeud.

solutos magistro hospitalis Sancti Nicholai pro decima herbagii parci.

liberatos Olivero de Stanesfeud presens recognicio.

Summa Tocius mise et liberacionum xiijli. xixs. viijd.

Et sic debet Receptor Comiti vijli. xiiijs. viijd. Postea allocantur ei xxs. datos firmario molendini de elemosina Comitis ad refeccionem molendini combusti per infortunium.

Crideling. OLIVERUS de Stanesfeud, Constabularius et Robertus de Stobbes prepositus reddunt compotum suum loco quo prius coram eisdem et de eodem tempore ut supra.

De lxvjs. vijd. ob. qa. de arreragiis ultimi compoti.

De ixs. xjd. ob.

de firma de Beghale terminis Martini et Pente

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de firma Alicie Moy pro tenemento in Kelington.
de firma Johannis filii Ade de Mora pro tenemento
in Heynesale.

de Recognicionibus vij hominum.
de herbagio del Lound.

de herbagio del Ker.

De pannagio et cablicio nihil.

de xml cc fagotis venditis.

de x ovibus matricibus ante tonsuram, xxix ovibus j hoggo post tonsuram.

de viij pellibus lanutis v pellettis ix pellibus


de iij petris lokettorum venditis.

de Olivero Constabulario per j talliam.

Summa Tocius Recepte xjli. xjs. iiijd. ob. q".

De quibus computat xixd. In feugera colligenda et carianda, fimis

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Et xijd.

Et iiijs.

Et iiijs. viijd.

Et ijs. iijd.

portandis de bercaria.

In xml cccxxx fagotis faciendis.

In vncto ad bidentes.

In lacte ad agnos.

In bidentibus lavandis et tondendis.

In stipendio bercarii per annum.

In cibo et stipendio secundi bercarii per xiij septimanas.

In cibo et stipendio j custodientis agnos per ix septimanas.

Et xxxjs. ijd. ob. qa. In j quarterio et dimidio frumenti, iij quarteriis v

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bussellis et dimidio siliginis emptis.

In ij quarteriis vj bussellis et dimidio frumenti


In xlvj ovibus matricibus post tonsuram, xx aguis emptis.

In xxiij acris iij rodis prati falcandis.

In herba spargenda feno lavanda (sic) preter opera. In j placea in le Stoch... falcanda, feno levando et tassando.

In cariagio dicti feni usque bercariam de Crideling. In haiis circa Greue et Mainderod emendandis et j pinfalda facienda.

Allocatos preposito pro servicio suo.

In roba parcarii per annum.

Summa Tocius mise et liberacionum xjli. xjs. viijd, ob. qa.

Et sic debet Comes preposito iiijd.

Item de Comite eidem vs. unde non habuit plenariam allocacionem supra in feno levando et cariando.


By the Rev. EDWARD HENRY SANKEY, M.A., and ALBERT W. SCHÜDDEKOPF, Ph.D., M.A. (of the Yorkshire College, Victoria University).

THERE are altogether twenty-seven windows in Wragby Church. All of them, with the exception of eight in the clerestory, are filled with stained glass. Six lights of the east window are filled with glass dated 1534, but much of the original glass has gone, and the window has been made up with modern glass of an inferior description. It represents the Crucifixion, with S. Mary the Virgin and S. John in the upper lights; S. Oswald and two bishops in full vestments in the lower lights, but the figure of S. Oswald only is (almost entirely) composed of the original glass. The four remaining lights of this window are filled in with the coats of arms of the various benefactors of Nostell Priory, the former owners of the advowson of Wragby. These were inserted early in the present century, and are together with the glass in the tracery of the window in the style of that day.

On the south side of the chancel over the vestry door is a three-light window, the glass in which is dated 1535, but here again very little of the original glass remains. In the centre light is a kneeling figure of Alured Comyn, the builder of the church, or at least of the chancel, and the last of the Priors of Nostell, if we except Nicholas Farrer, who was a mere Prior faineant. He is clad in cassock, surplice, and furred almuce, and over his head is the following legend :Acriter errata lugens et pectora plangens Te precor afflictum serves mitissime, Jesu.

Some small portion of this figure is ancient, but the whole of the rest of the window is modern. The other two lights represent bishops in their vestments. Some portion of the original inscription above Comyn is to be found in one of the windows in Normanton Church, together with some few

panels of German glass.1 The peculiar colouring of these two windows is owing to the fact that some fifty years ago the windows were entirely taken out and subjected to a process of re-colouring, patching, and re-burning.

It is of course impossible to say now whether these windows were originally the work of English artists, but the general treatment suggests the work of foreign, possibly Flemish, glass painters.2 The remaining windows, seventeen in number, with the exception of a few figures here and there, are filled with German-Swiss glass, ranging in date from 1518 to the middle of the eighteenth century, and very peculiar and interesting glass it is. How it came to be on the market is unknown to me, but it was purchased on the continent by the late Mr. Winn, of Nostell Priory, some time in the early part of this century, was brought to Nostell and placed by him, and by his son the late Lord St. Oswald, in the windows of Wragby Church. Some small quantity still remains in the hands of the present Lord St. Oswald.

It appears originally to have belonged partly to churches, partly to town halls, and partly to private houses, and as may be supposed from its origin, the subjects treated of, as will be shown in the description which follows, vary greatly, some being religious and some secular. The method which was pursued in originally placing these windows is very different from that in vogue in this country at the present day. Instead of giving a whole window or even a single light, the donor contented himself with giving a panel varying in size, but generally measuring about nine inches by twelve (although some few are a good deal larger), or a roundel about eight inches in diameter, though here again the size varies a good deal. On these is usually painted the donor's coat of arms, in addition to the subject treated of, with an inscription, generally in German, but sometimes in Latin, and sometimes in a mixture of the two, setting forth the style and title of the donor and his wife, if he had one, together with the date; and to this are not unfrequently added a few jingling rhymes. In many instances the figures are without doubt intended to represent the donors of the panels.

1 This glass was bequeathed to Normanton by the late Mr. Ward, of the firm of Ward and Hughes, glass painters.

2 There was at that time a school of VOL. XIII.

glass painting at Liège, of which exam ples are known to exist in England, e.g., at Bramley, Hants.


Some panels or roundels were given by the state (staat), some by the town (stadt), some by the parish or community (gemeinde), and by far the larger number by individuals, many of whom held the honourable office of landvogt; some were captains or ensigns in the local militia (schützen), while others were bishops, abbots, or abbesses, parish priests, and even humbler individuals; and in many cases they seem to have been put in during the lifetime of the donor, in only a very few instances the person commemorated being described as deceased.

The panels and roundels have been placed in the positions they now occupy without any attempt at arrangement in order of date or in any other way. They have simply been pieced together so as to fit into the windows to the best advantage, and where they have not fitted very well the intervening spaces have been made up with fragments of the same glass.

As in each light so many subjects are treated of, it is evident that each subject must occupy a very small space. The largest figures measure only two feet in height, while the smallest reach to a height of only two or three inches, the average size being about eight inches. The windows vary much in treatment, design, and execution. In many cases the design and colouring is very good, while the execution almost resembles miniature painting; in other cases the design and execution is rough, but in all cases the colouring is satisfactory, and as there is a good deal of light-coloured glass the church is by no means unduly darkened.

Want of knowledge on my part of the local history of the district from which these windows come, stands in the way of the interpretation of some of the subjects, nevertheless I venture to express the opinion that a study of these windows would well repay persons who are interested in various branches of antiquarian research. They illustrate many legends of the Saints, and not a few secular legends as well, e.g., the well known legend of William Tell occurs several times. The student of late mediæval costume, armour and arms, and funeral imagery, would find here much that was worthy of his pencil and note-book. He who may be interested in ancient methods of warfare and of assaults upon fortified towns would find here several battle-scenes depicted. The collector of "wise saws and modern instances" could

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