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The King.

Berewicks. In Altone (Halton) six carucates. (Embsay) three carucates inland and three carucates soke.

In Embesie

Berewicks. In Dractone (Draughton) three carucates, Scipeden (Skibeden) three carucates, Sciptone (Skipton) four carucates, Snachehale (Snaygill) six carucates, Toreddereby (Thorlby) ten


Soke. Bedmesleia (Beamsley) two carucates, Holme (Holme, par. Skipton) three carucates, Geregraue (Gargrave) three carucates, Staintone (Stainton) three carucates, Odingehem (Addingham)

two carucates.

Soke. Otreburne (Otterburn) three carucates, Scotorp (Scosthrop) three carucates, Malgun (Malham) three carucates, Coneghestone (Cold Coniston) three carucates, Helgefeld (Hellifield) three carucates.

Soke. Anleie (Anley) two carucates, Hangelif (Hanlith) three carucates.

Together, for geld, seventy-seven carucates. They are waste.

Agemundrenesse (AMOUNDERNESS).

In Prestune (Preston, co. Lanc.), Earl Tosti [had] six carucates for geld. These lands belong thereto :-Estun (Ashton-upon-Ribble), two carucates; Lea (Lea, par. Preston), one carucate; Saleuuic (Salwick, par. Kirkham), one carucate; Cliftun (Clifton, par. Kirkham), two carucates); Neutune (Newton-with-Scales), two carucates; Frecheltun (Freckleton), four carucates; Rigbi (Ribby), six carucates; Chicheham (Kirkham-in-the-Fylde), four carucates; Treueles (Treales, par. Kirkham), two carucates; Westbi (Westby), two carucates; Pluntun (Plumpton), two carucates; Widetun (Weeton), three carucates; Pres (Preese), two carucates; Wartun (Warton), four carucates; Lidun (Lytham), two carucates; Meretun (Great Marton), six carucates; Latun (Layton), six carucates; Staininghe (Staining), six carucates; Carlentun (Great? Carlton), four carucates; Biscopham (Bispham), eight carucates; Rushale (Rossall), two carucates; Brune (Bryning, par. Kirkham), two carucates; Torentun (Thornton), six carucates; Poltun (Poultonin-the-Fylde), two carucates; Singletun (Singleton), six carucates ; Greneholf (Greenhalgh), three carucates; Eglestun (Great Eccleston), four carucates; another Eglestun (Little Eccleston), two carucates; Edelesuuic (Elswick), three carucates; Inscip (Inskip), two carucates; Sorbi (Sowerby), one carucate; Aschebi (Nateby, par. Garstang?), one carucate; Michelescherche (St. Michael'son-Wyre), one carucate; Catrehala (Catterall), two carucates ; Clactune (Claughton), two carucates; Neuhuse (Newsham), one carucate; Pluntun (Wood Plumpton), five carucates; Broctun (Broughton), one carucate; Witingheham (Whittingham), two carucates; Bartun (Barton), four carucates; Gusansarghe (Goosnargh), one carucate; Halctun (Haighton), one carucate; Trelefelt (Threlfals), one carucate; Watelei (Wheatley), one carucate; Chipinden (Chipping), three carucates; Actun (Aighton), 29 The places mentioned below are all in Lancashire, except when stated otherwise in the text or footnotes,

The King. one carucate; Fiscuic (Fishwick, near Preston), one carucate; Grimesarge (Grimsargh), two carucates; Ribelcastre (Ribchester), two carucates; Bileuurde (Bilsborrow Hall?), two carucates; Suenesat (Swainset), one carucate; Fortune (Forton), one carucate; Crimeles (Crimbles), one carucate; Cherestanc (Garstang), six carucates; Rodeclif (Upper Rawcliffe), two carucates; another Rodeclif (Middle Rawcliffe), three carucates; a third Rodeclif (Out Rawcliffe), three carucates; Hameltune (Hambleton), two carucates; Stalmine (Stalmine), four carucates; Pressouede (Preesall), six carucates; Midehope (Mithope, par. Cockerham), one carucate.

All these vills, and three churches,30 belong to Prestune (Preston). Of these, sixteen are inhabited by a few [people]; but how many may be dwelling [there] is not known. The rest are waste. Roger de Poictou had [them].

Manor. In Haltun (Halton), Earl Tosti had six carucates of land for geld.

In Aldeclif (Aldcliffe), two carucates; Tiernun (Thurnham), two carucates; Hillun (Hillam), one carucate; Loncastre (Lancaster), six carucates; Chercaloncastre (Kirkby Lancaster), two carucates; Hotun (Hutton), two carucates; Neutun (Newton), two carucates; Ouretun (Overton), four carucates; Middeltun (Middleton), four carucates; Hietune (Heaton), four carucates; Hessam (Heysham), three carucates; Oxeneclif (Oxcliff), two carucates; Poltune (Poulton-by-the-Sands), two carucates; Toredholme (Torrisholme), two carucates; Schertune (Skerton), six carucates; Bare (Bare), two carucates; Sline (Slyne), six carucates; Bodeltone (Bolton-leSands), four carucates; Chellet (Kellet), six carucates; Stopeltierne (Stapletonthierne), two carucates; Neuhuse (Newsome), two carucates; Chrene forde (Carnforth), two carucates.

All these vills belong to Haltune (Halton).

Manor. In Witetune (Whittington), Earl Tosti had six carucates of land for geld.

In Neutune (Newton), two carucates; Ergune (Arkholme), six carucates; Ghersinctune (Gressingham), two carucates; Hotun (Hutton Roof, co. Westm.), three carucates; Cantes felt (Cantsfield), three carucates; Irebi (Ireby), three carucates; Borch (Burrow, par. Tunstall), three carucates; Lech (Leck), three carucates; Borctune (Burton-in-Lonsdale, co. York), four carucates; Bernulfesuuic (Barnoldswick, co. York), one carucate; Inglestune (Ingleton, co. York), six carucates; Castretune (Casterton, co. Westm.), three carucates; Berebrune (Barbon, co. Westm.), three carucates; Sedberge (Sedbergh, co. York), three carucates; Tiernebi (Thirnby), two carucates.

All these vills belong to Witetune (Whittington).

Twelve manors. In Ousteuuic (Austwick, co. York) and Heldetune (Harden, par. Clapham), Clapeham (Clapham, co. York), Middeltun (Middleton, par. Kirkby Lonsdale, co. Westm.), Manzserge (Mansergh, co. Westm.), Cherchebi (Kirkby-Lonsdale), Lupetun (Lupton, co. Westm.), Prestun (Preston, co. Westm.), Holme, (Holme, par. Burton-in-Kendal), Bortun (Burton-in-Kendal,

30 Quare-at Preston, Kirkham and St. Michael's-on-Wyre.

The King.

co. Westm.), Hotune (Priest Hutton), Wartun (Warton), Clactun (Claughton), Catun (Caton). Torfin had these for twelve manors. In these there are forty-three carucates for geld.

Four Manors. In Benetain (Bentham, co. York), Wininctune (Wennington), Tathaim (Tatham), Fareltun (Farlton) [and] Tunestalle (Tunstall), Chetel had four manors, and there are in them eighteen carucates for geld, and three churches.

Manor. In Hougun (Low Furness), Earl Tosti had four carucates of land for geld.


In Chiluestreuic (Killerwick ?), three carucates; Sourebi (Sowerby), three carucates; Hietun (Heaton), four carucates ; Daltune (Dalton-in Furness), two carucates; Warte (Swarth), two earucates; Neutun (Newton), six carucates; Walletun (Walton), six carucates; Suntun (Santon), one carucate; Fordebodele " (Lost), two carucates; Rosse (Roose), six carucates; Hert (Lost), two carucates; Lies (Leece), six carucates; another Lies (Leece. Lost), two carucates; Glassertun (Gleaston), two carucates; Steintun (Stainton, par. Urswick), two carucates ; Cliuertun (Crinleton. Lost), four carucates; Ouregraue (Orgravein-Furness), three carucates; Meretun (Martin), four carucates; Pennigetun (Pennington), two carucates; Gerleuuorde (Kirkby Irelith), two carucates; Borch (Borwick, in Furness), six carucates; Berretseige (Bardsea), four carucates; Witingha' (Whicham, co. Cumber.), two carucates; Bodele (Bothill, or Bootle, co. Cumb.), four carucates; Santacherche (Kirksanton, co. Cumb.), one carucate; Hougenai (High Furness), six carucates. All these vills belong to Hougun (Low Furness).


Nine manors. In Stercaland (Strickland, co. Westm.), Mimet (Mint, near Kirkby Kendal), Cherchebi (Kirkby Kendal, co. Westm.), Helsingetune (Helsington, co. Westm.), Steintun (Stainton, co. Westm."), Bodelforde ( ), Hotun (Old

Hutton, co. Westm.), Bortun (Burton-in-Kendal, co. Westm.), Daltun (Dalton-in-Kendal, co. Lanc.), Patun (Patton-in-Kendal, co. Westm.d). Gilemichel had these. In these there are twenty carucates of land for geld.

Manor. In Cherchebi (Kirkby Ireleth), Duuan [had] six carucates for geld.

Manor. In Aldingha' (Aldingham), Ernulf [had] six carucates for geld.

Manor. In Ulurestun (Ulverston), Turulf [had] six carucates for geld.

In Bodeltun (Bolton-with-Urswick), six carucates. In Dene (Dean in Furness), one carucate.

31 Fordebodele" (vide "Bodele," infra), "Hert" and one of the two Leeces have been washed away by the sea; so has,

also, Crinleton, which occurs lower down. 32 Orig., fo. 302a, col. 1.-Facsimile Edit., page ix.


BEFORE attempting to describe the mural paintings in Pickering Church, it is only right that I should thank the Council of the Yorkshire Archæological Society for entrusting to me a description of that in which I have taken so deep an interest.

The paintings have gone through singular dangers, and have only narrowly escaped total annihilation both in the past and present.

In the year 1879, when the Church at Pickering was re-opened by the late Archbishop Thomson, after a restoration which cost about £9,000, not a sign of the mural paintings was to be seen. A thick coat of yellow wash at that time covered the plastered walls of the nave, but many were living who spoke of the days when the mural paintings were accidentally discovered, and who told how wide an interest they excited, and how many came from far and wide to see what had been brought to light.

Rightly or wrongly, it seemed to me that something so unusual as the paintings should not if possible be lost.

Those who remember the hard and unwearied efforts of the workmen, who, with the aid of special chisels, scraped off from the plaster the coat of copperas which then presented a flint-like surface, will realise how only a very little more mischief was wanted to make the work of restoration impossible. Added to these difficulties was the frequent mutilation of the paintings, which resulted here and there in the disappearance of a limb or other part, to meet the apparently inexorable necessity of a holdfast which was required to support a memorial tablet which had much better have been placed at first in one of the aisles, as it is


It was only after much consultation, and long and anxious thought, that I decided to repaint the whole surface of the pictures in oils, so that what remained might be preserved



and might once again regain something of a more permanent character.

It is only right that I should add, that mutilated as they had been, the paintings could not have remained in any church used as a place of worship without more or less restoration. The rule laid down was to retain and regain all that was possible. I wish also to say that the following striking words of the late Mr. W. Hey Dykes, architect of Durham, written in a footnote to his paper read before the York Architectural Society, were engraved upon my mind: "Since this paper was read, I regret to learn that the paintings have been destroyed by the authority of the Vicar." I was glad, therefore, to have a humble share in their restoration by the authority of a Faculty; but I must put it on record that in former days, when the church doors were closed except at Sunday Services or on special occasions, it was only natural that the novelty of the paintings did distract attention from the sermon.

I do not know that I can now do better than follow in its general outline the valuable paper of Mr. Dykes, read in 1852, and I do so the more gladly when I remember that it was first put in my hands by his kinsman, the late Venerable Archdeacon Hey, who was always the best of friends to Pickering and myself.

This paper became my constant guide in the work of restoration, and was full of suggestive thought.

A few words seem to be necessary as to the form of Pickering Church, so that we may understand the position of the paintings. In architectural style, the church varies from Saxon remains to 15th-century work.

The plan of the church comprises western tower, nave, south porch, aisles, transepts and chancel, with north and south chapels, now used respectively as an organ-chamber and vestry. The general style of the nave is very effective: Norman of about A.D. 1130, with a later 15th-century clerestory. The Norman choir-arch has disappeared, and only a single stone of the Respond remains, whilst "the chancel may or may not have been Apsidal, as it is at Lushingham (Mant)." Both transepts were originally early English, but the Decorated style took its place except in the east wall of the south transept. The stone-by-stone restoration of the tower necessarily went with the rebuilding of

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