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The King.

Manor. In Castelai (Castley), Eluuin [had] one carucate for geld, and Berne and Elflet one carucate for geld. Land to two ploughs. Ebrard, a homager of William Perci's, cultivates [it], but William does not vouch for him. T. R. E., it was worth ten shillings; now, sixteen


Manor. for geld. Manor. for geld.

In Chirchebi (Kirkby Hill), Gospatric [had] six carucates
Land to three ploughs. Twenty shillings.
In Brantone (Branton Green), Tor
Land to two ploughs. Twenty shillings.

[had] four carucates

In Crave (CRAVEN).

Manor. In Chersintone (Grassington), Gamelbar [had] three carucates for geld.

Manor. In Treschefelt (Threshfield), Gamelbar [had] four carucates for geld.

Manor. In Cutnelai (Cononley), Torchil [had] two carucates for geld.

Three manors. In Bradelei (Both Bradleys), Archil, Torchil and Gamel [had] seven carucates for geld.

Manor. In Fernehil (Farnhill), Gamel [had] two carucates for geld. Manor. In Childeuuic (Kildwick), Archil [had] two carucates for geld, and one church.

Manor. In Esebrune (Eastburn, par. Kildwick), Gamelbar [had] two carucates and two bovates of land for geld.


In Utelai (Utley), William [had] one carucate for geld. Two manors. In Chichelai (Keighley), Ulchel and Thole and Rauensuar and William [had] six carucates for geld.

Manor. In Wilsedene (Wilsden), Gamelbar [had] three carucates and [a half?] for geld.

Manor. In Acurde (Oakworth), Gamelbar and William [had] one carucate for geld.

Berewick. In Neuhuse (Newsholme, par. Keighley), William [had] one carucate for geld.

Manor. In Lacoc (Laycock), Rauensuard [had] two carucates for


Manor. In Sutun (Sutton, par. Kildwick), Rauenchil [had] two carucates for geld.

Manor. In Mellinge (Melling, co. Lanc.) and Hornebi (Hornby, co. Lanc.) and Wennigetun (Wennington, co. Lanc.), Ulf [had] nine carucates for geld.

Berewick. In the same place, Orme had one carucate and a half for geld.


Manor. In Tornetun (Thornton-in-Lonsdale) and in Borch ), Orm [had] six carucates for geld. Manor.28 In Bodeltone (Bolton, in Craven), Earl Eduuin had six carucates of land for geld.

and two manors here in the time of King Edward, which were afterwards held by Gilbert Tison.

Elsewhere Torbern and Turbern.

See Land of the King's Thanes.

28 Orig., fo. 3016, col. 2.-Facsimile Edit., page viiib.

The King.

Berewicks. In Altone (Halton) six carucates. (Embsay) three carucates inland and three carucates soke.

In Embesie

Berewicks. In Dractone (Draughton) three carucates, Scipeden (Skibeden) three carucates, Sciptone (Skipton) four carucates, Snachehale (Snaygill) six carucates, Toreddereby (Thorlby) ten


Soke. Bedmesleia (Beamsley) two carucates, Holme (Holme, par. Skipton) three carucates, Geregraue (Gargrave) three carucates, Staintone (Stainton) three carucates, Odingehem (Addingham)

two carucates.

Soke. Otreburne (Otterburn) three carucates, Scotorp (Scosthrop) three carucates, Malgun (Malham) three carucates, Coneghestone (Cold Coniston) three carucates, Helgefeld (Hellifield) three carucates.

Soke. Anleie (Anley) two carucates, Hangelif (Hanlith) three


Together, for geld, seventy-seven carucates. They are waste.

Agemundrenesse (AMOUNDERNESS).

In Prestune (Preston, co. Lanc."), Earl Tosti [had] six carucates for geld. These lands belong thereto :-Estun (Ashton-upon-Ribble), two carucates; Lea (Lea, par. Preston), one carucate; Saleuuic (Salwick, par. Kirkham), one carucate; Cliftun (Clifton, par. Kirkham), two carucates); Neutune (Newton-with-Scales), two carucates; Frecheltun (Freckleton), four carucates; Rigbi (Ribby), six carucates; Chicheham (Kirkham-in-the-Fylde), four carucates; Treueles (Treales, par. Kirkham), two carucates; Westbi (Westby), two carucates; Piuntun (Plumpton), two carucates; Widetun (Weeton), three carucates; Pres (Preese), two carucates; Wartun (Warton), four carucates; Lidun (Lytham), two carucates; Meretun (Great Marton), six carucates; Latun (Layton), six carucates; Staininghe (Staining), six carucates; Carlentun (Great? Carlton), four carucates; Biscopham (Bispham), eight carucates; Rushale (Rossall), two carucates; Brune (Bryning, par. Kirkham), two carucates; Torentun (Thornton), six carucates; Poltun (Poultonin-the-Fylde), two carucates; Singletun (Singleton), six carucates; Greneholf (Greenhalgh), three carucates; Eglestun (Great Eccleston), four carucates; another Eglestun (Little Eccleston), two carucates; Edelesuuic (Elswick), three carucates; Inscip (Inskip), two carucates; Sorbi (Sowerby), one carucate; Aschebi (Nateby, par. Garstang?), one carucate; Michelescherche (St. Michael'son-Wyre), one carucate; Catrehala (Catterall), two carucates; Clactune (Claughton), two carucates; Neuhuse (Newsham), one carucate; Pluntun (Wood Plumpton), five carucates; Broctun (Broughton), one carucate; Witingheham (Whittingham), two carucates; Bartun (Barton), four carucates; Gusansarghe (Goosnargh), one carucate; Halctun (Haighton), one carucate; Trelefelt (Threlfals), one carucate; Watelei (Wheatley), one carucate; Chipinden (Chipping), three carucates; Actun (Aighton),

29 The places mentioned below are all in Lancashire, except when stated otherwise in the text or footnotes,

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The King. one carucate; Fiscuic (Fishwick, near Preston), one carucate ; Grimesarge (Grimsargh), two carucates; Ribelcastre (Ribchester), two carucates; Bileuurde (Bilsborrow Hall?), two carucates; Suenesat (Swainset), one carucate; Fortune (Forton), one carucate; Crimeles Crimeles (Crimbles), one carucate; Cherestanc (Garstang), six carucates; Rodeclif (Upper Rawcliffe), two carucates ; another Rodeclif (Middle Rawcliffe), three carucates; a third Rodeclif (Out Rawcliffe), three carucates; Hameltune (Hambleton), two carucates; Stalmine (Stalmine), four carucates; Pressouede (Preesall), six carucates; Midehope (Mithope, par. Cockerham), one carucate.


All these vills, and three churches, belong to Prestune (Preston). Of these, sixteen are inhabited by a few [people]; but how many may be dwelling [there] is not known. The rest are waste. Roger de Poictou had [them]. Manor. for geld.

In Haltun (Halton), Earl Tosti had six carucates of land

In Aldeclif (Aldcliffe), two carucates; Tiernun (Thurnham), two carucates; Hillun (Hillam), one carucate; Loncastre (Lancaster), six carucates; Chercaloncastre (Kirkby Lancaster), two carucates ; Hotun (Hutton), two carucates; Neutun (Newton), two carucates; Ouretun (Overton), four carucates; Middeltun (Middleton), four carucates; Hietune (Heaton), four carucates; Hessam (Heysham), three carucates; Oxeneclif (Oxcliff), two carucates; Poltune (Poulton-by-the-Sands), two carucates; Toredholme (Torrisholme), two carucates; Schertune (Skerton), six carucates; Bare (Bare), two carucates; Sline (Slyne), six carucates; Bodeltone (Bolton-leSands), four carucates; Chellet (Kellet), six carucates; Stopeltierne (Stapletonthierne), two carucates; Neuhuse (Newsome), two carucates; Chrene forde (Carnforth), two carucates.

All these vills belong to Haltune (Halton).

Manor. In Witetune (Whittington), Earl Tosti had six carucates of land for geld.

In Neutune (Newton), two carucates; Ergune (Arkholme), six carucates; Ghersinctune (Gressingham), two carucates; Hotun (Hutton Roof, co. Westm.), three carucates; Cantesfelt (Cantsfield), three carucates; Irebi (Ireby), three carucates; Borch (Burrow, par. Tunstall), three carucates; Lech (Leck), three carucates; Borctune (Burton-in-Lonsdale, co. York), four carucates; Bernulfesuuic (Barnoldswick, co. York), one carucate; Inglestune (Ingleton, co. York), six carucates; Castretune (Casterton, co. Westm.), three carucates; Berebrune (Barbon, co. Westm.), three carucates; Sedberge (Sedbergh, co. York), three carucates; Tiernebi (Thirnby), two carucates.

All these vills belong to Witetune (Whittington).

Twelve manors. In Ousteuuic (Austwick, co. York and Heldetune (Harden, par. Clapham), Clapeham (Clapham, co. York), Middeltun (Middleton, par. Kirkby Lonsdale, co. Westm.), Manzserge (Mansergh, co. Westm.), Cherchebi (Kirkby-Lonsdale), Lupetun (Lupton, co. Westm.), Prestun (Preston, co. Westm.), Holme, (Holme, par. Burton-in-Kendal), Bortun (Burton-in-Kendal,

30 Quare-at Preston, Kirkham and St. Michael's-on-Wyre.

The King.

co. Westm.), Hotune (Priest Hutton), Wartun (Warton), Clactun (Claughton), Catun (Caton). Torfin had these for twelve manors. In these there are forty-three carucates for geld.

Four Manors. In Benetain (Bentham, co. York), Wininctune (Wennington), Tathaim (Tatham), Fareltun (Farlton) [and] Tunestalle (Tunstall), Chetel had four manors, and there are in them eighteen carucates for geld, and three churches.

Manor. In Hougun (Low Furness), Earl Tosti had four carucates of land for geld.

In Chiluestreuic (Killerwick?), three carucates; Sourebi (Sowerby), three carucates; Hietun (Heaton), four carucates ; Daltune (Dalton-in Furness), two carucates; Warte (Swarth), two earucates; Neutun (Newton), six carucates; Walletun (Walton), six carucates; Suntun (Santon), one carucate; Fordebodele (Lost), two carucates; Rosse (Roose), six carucates; Hert (Lost), two carucates; Lies (Leece), six carucates; another Lies (Leece. Lost), two carucates; Glassertun (Gleaston), two carucates; Steintun (Stainton, par. Urswick), two carucates ; Cliuertun (Crinleton. Lost), four carucates; Ouregraue (Orgravein-Furness), three carucates; Meretun (Martin), four carucates ; Pennigetun (Pennington), two carucates; Gerleuuorde (Kirkby Irelith), two carucates; Borch (Borwick, in Furness), six carucates; Berretseige (Bardsea), four carucates; Witingha' (Whicham, co. Cumber.), two carucates; Bodele (Bothill, or Bootle, co. Cumb.d), four carucates; Santacherche (Kirksanton, co. Cumb.), one carucate; Hougenai (High Furness), six carucates. All these vills belong to Hougun (Low Furness).



Nine manors. In Stercaland (Strickland, co. Westm.), Mimet (Mint, near Kirkby Kendal), Cherchebi (Kirkby Kendal, co. Westm.), Helsingetune (Helsington, co. Westm.), Steintun (Stainton, co. Westm.), Bodelforde ( ), Hotun (Old Hutton, co. Westm.), Bortun (Burton-in-Kendal, co. Westm.), Daltun (Dalton-in-Kendal, co. Lanc.), Patun (Patton-in-Kendal, co. Westm.). Gilemichel had these. In these there are twenty carucates of land for geld.

Manor. In Cherchebi (Kirkby Ireleth), Duuan [had] six carucates for geld.

Manor. In Aldingha' (Aldingham), Ernulf [had] six carucates for


Manor. In Ulurestun (Ulverston), Turulf [had] six carucates for


In Bodeltun (Bolton-with-Urswick), six carucates. In Dene (Dean in Furness), one carucate.

31 Fordebodele" (vide "Bodele," infra), "Hert" and one of the two Leeces have been washed away by the sea; so has,

also, Crinleton, which occurs lower down. 32 Orig., fo. 302a, col. 1.-Facsimile Edit., page ix.


BEFORE attempting to describe the mural paintings in Pickering Church, it is only right that I should thank the Council of the Yorkshire Archæological Society for entrusting to me a description of that in which I have taken so deep an interest.

The paintings have gone through singular dangers, and have only narrowly escaped total annihilation both in the past and present.

In the year 1879, when the Church at Pickering was re-opened by the late Archbishop Thomson, after a restoration which cost about £9,000, not a sign of the mural paintings was to be seen. A thick coat of yellow wash at that time covered the plastered walls of the nave, but many were living who spoke of the days when the mural paintings were accidentally discovered, and who told how wide an interest they excited, and how many came from far and wide to see what had been brought to light.

Rightly or wrongly, it seemed to me that something so unusual as the paintings should not if possible be lost.

Those who remember the hard and unwearied efforts of the workmen, who, with the aid of special chisels, scraped off from the plaster the coat of copperas which then presented a flint-like surface, will realise how only a very little more mischief was wanted to make the work of restoration impossible. Added to these difficulties was the frequent mutilation of the paintings, which resulted here and there in the disappearance of a limb or other part, to meet the apparently inexorable necessity of a holdfast which was required to support a memorial tablet which had much better have been placed at first in one of the aisles, as it is


It was only after much consultation, and long and anxious thought, that I decided to repaint the whole surface of the pictures in oils, so that what remained might be preserved



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