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externally two equal arches, enriched with chevron work on the south side. The east end is beautifully mantled with ivy, and has octagonal buttresses. The eastern part of the transept is of much the same character with the choir, but the western portion is much earlier, and the west wall has some parts decidedly Norman. It has an eastern aisle, which opens to it by three fine pointed arches with deep architrave mouldings, with the outer dripstone of toothed ornament. The piers are very good, exactly resembling those of the choir. The triforium has two arches with deep mouldings and clustered shafts, and profusion of toothed ornament; between the heads is a circle pierced by a quatrefoil. The clerestory windows have a single lancet light, resembling the others. There is a great quantity of toothed ornament about the building. The groined ceiling of the aisle of the north transept remains. The ends of each transept are flanked by square turrets and plain stone pyramids; and have large windows of three lancet lights. The south transept has in the eastern part a clerestory of richer description, having three lancet arches, with fine mouldings and shafts with profusion of toothed ornament. The west wall of the north transept has flat buttresses and the lower windows Norman, with dripstones continued in a string along the front.* The triforium windows present externally a single lancet each with dripstone enriched with nail-head ornament. The clerestory has three arches, the central one only pierced for a window and of lancet form, the two side ones smaller and trefoiled; all three have the dripstone or outer moulding enriched with toothed ornament. The south transept has the windows, both in the lower stage and of triforium, Norman, and buttresses quite flat. The clerestory windows are pointed, and have one lancet light, moulded and enriched as the others.


The refectory and all the buildings belonging to the abbey were situate on the south side. There is in the west wall of south transept, under the windows, a doorway with elliptical arch, probably leading to the cloisters. There are considerable remains of the abbey buildings, but all excepting the refectory are so much ruined that it is difficult to make out

3 The stone of which the abbey is built is remarkably fine and durable.

4 N. B. In the north transept the but

tress contracts in width in the triforium story, in the south it is of equal size the whole way up.

a regular plan. They are, however, highly picturesque, and interspersed with ivy of the most luxuriant growth. They are for the most part Early English, but there is one Norman door enriched with curious sculpture. The refectory is a large oblong building of Early English character. It has a range of lancet arches all round it, alternately pierced for windows, and having shafts with rich foliated capitals. There are traces of groining to the lower portion, which was probably a kind of crypt. In the lower stage on the north side runs a fine tier of semicircular arches of Norman character springing from capitals of shafts having rude foliage. There is also a curious door, having an obtuse arch with deep mouldings and shafts; but having within the obtuse arch another with trefoil head and a large space above the head of it.5


Helmsley is a small town most pleasantly situated amidst very beautiful scenery, well varied with wood, hill and dale; the magnificent park of Lord Feversham adjoins the town. The streets are wide and clean, some with watercourses running in them, and there is one large area for the marketplace. The houses are mostly neat, and built of stone, but few are of a bettermost description, and there is great air of quietness through the place. The church is a large and handsome building, consisting of a nave with north aisle, north and south transepts, and chancel. At the west end of the nave is a lofty tower, of which the two lower stories are Early English, and divided by strings, having buttresses with flat faces, and in the second story are double lancet windows. The upper portion has a large belfry window of rectilinear character, three lights and a transom. parapet at the top is rather singular, being without a battlement, but surmounted by eight small pinnacles, the intermediate spaces being pierced each with a quatrefoil. The tower opens to the nave by a pointed arch springing from Early English shafts. The interior of the church is spacious and handsome, though much disfigured by a general thick

5 The situation of this abbey is the the ruins. most delightful possible, and the scenery harmonizes well with the character of


6 There are some houses in Helmsley of wood and plaster as in Cheshire.

coat of whitewash. The nave has on the north side four sharp-pointed arches springing from piers of four clustered shafts, having square capitals enriched with fine foliage. The arches themselves are very plain and without mouldings. The transepts open by plain pointed arches. The windows north of the nave are curvilinear, on the south rectilinear. The south transept has a large rectilinear window of five lights. In the north aisle is a water drain of Early English work, with a triangular canopy over it. The arch to the chancel is Norman, with highly enriched shafts, covered with chevron and rope ornaments. There are some Norman windows in the chancel and one of curvilinear design. The south door is Norman; the east window rectilinear, of five lights. There is some wood screen work in the chancel, and ancient burnt tiles within the altar rails. The north side of the nave and transept has no battlement, but the chancel and all the south front are embattled. (On the west side of the south transept is one Norman window.) Under the battlement on the south side is a cornice of heads and other

E. E. ornaments. The south porch had once a pointed gable, which is altered now to a plain battlement, but it is well restored in a plain rectilinear style. Within it is a fine Norman door, having four bands of moulding, and shafts, some of which are richly sculptured; their capitals are some plain, others richly worked. The font at the west end of the nave is an octagonal basin on a round pillar surrounded with E. E. shafts. There is a brass on the nave, representing a man and woman, also a barrel organ and eight bells. The ruins of Helmsley Castle stand within the grounds of Duncombe Park near the entrance from the town. It has the two outer walls remaining, though much shattered in part; they are strengthened by round towers at intervals. The gateway is good and tolerably perfect, having an entrance of E. E. character, formed by an acute pointed arch springing from brackets. The vaulted ceiling within the arched entrance is strong and bold, having large stone ribs. The area within the wall is extensive. Of the keep tower, which is large and of square form, one side is perfect, but the other entirely destroyed. It is flanked at the angles by square turrets, and has several long lancet windows. The walls are very thick. There is another portion remaining which appears to be of the age of Elizabeth, having large

square windows of that period. The ruins are finely mantled with ivy and are very picturesque.

The beauties of Duncombe Park are of the most splendid description. The house, built by Sir John Vanbrugh, has a magnificent hall and some good pictures.


From thence we passed through a very pleasing and finely wooded country by Gilling, with its ancient castle, belonging to and inhabited by the Fairfax family, and finely situated on an eminence, to Easingwold, a small town consisting principally of one broad street. The church is at one extremity of the town, and is a structure of not much beauty; consisting of a nave and side aisles, chancel, and plain rectilinear embattled tower at the west end. The windows of the nave aisles are rectilinear and of square form, with labels. The nave has also a clerestory of square windows. The north door is Early English, with shafts of good character. The nave has upon each side five plain pointed arches springing from octagonal pillars with no capitals. The east window of the chancel is a good curvilinear one of three lights. South of the altar is the pedestal of a niche. The font is octagonal upon a circular shaft. In the western gallery is an organ. The exterior has a leaded roof with no embattled parapet.


The remains are not very considerable, and sadly mutilated, but display extreme beauty of style, and testify the church to have been of vast size and great magnificence. The present remains consist of the north wall of the nave, the north-west pier of the central tower, and fragments of the west front. The style of architecture is early curvilinear, very nearly resembling the choir of Selby Church. The compartments in which the windows are set are exactly like those at Selby, comprising three arches, the central much the largest, and pierced for the window, the side ones small and narrow, of lancet form, all springing from clustered shafts with rich foliated capitals. The windows have curvilinear tracery, as in the side aisles of York Minster. There

are fine clusters of shafts which supported the ribs of the groining. Under each window is a panelled compartment consisting of three niches, divided each into two lights by a central shaft, and a circle between the heads. There is a door on the north side, the arch of which is placed between two smaller ones, as are the windows. The nave was eight arches in length. The west front appears to have been magnificent. The windows have very deep architrave mouldings, and the door, which seems to have been very large and fine, is nearly wholly destroyed. There are on this front several tiers of ornament, chiefly consisting of ranges of trefoil niches with rich crocketed triangular canopies. The choir is wholly destroyed.


Bubwith is situated on a flat close to the Derwent, between Selby and Market Weighton, and is liable frequently to inundations. The church has a west tower, a nave with aisles and clerestory, and a chancel with north chapel. The exterior, except parts of the chancel, is of rectilinear character, but within are several earlier portions. The tower is rectilinear, of good stone, with a a three-light west window, a belfry window of two lights, an embattled parapet and four pinnacles. The chancel and clerestory are embattled, and the latter has pinnacles. The windows of the aisles are square headed, and mostly rectilinear, except two on the north side which are curvilinear. The clerestory windows also have square heads, but no labels. There is a porch of wood and plaster. The interior is very neatly pewed, and the chancel wainscoted handsomely, though not harmonizing with the architecture. The altar has a fine marble slab. The nave has four pointed arches on each side; the two western piers are octagonal, the rest circular. The arch to the chancel is elliptical, with deep architrave mouldings, the dripstone having a kind of scolloped ornament; it springs from clustered shafts of Norman character having the abacus in the capitals. The chancel has a pointed arch to its north aisle, which is used as a vestry, and contains a trefoil niche; its windows are square and rectilinear, and one has a piece of stained glass representing a person playing on an organ. The chancel

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