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PHOTOGRAPH IN PERSPECTIVE OF THE ORIGINAL EAST END OF THE MONUMENT.
This is in some respects the most important of the subjects depicted on this remarkable structure. It is carved with greater freedom and spirit than are the figures of the knights, and the same difference is evident in comparing the figures of the evangelists and the fathers with those of a military character. It is clear that all were done by one hand, and that that hand was more at home with what may be termed genre subjects, than with making slavish copies of military accoutrements. This is clear proof of the late date of the monument. The subject before us affords a rare and interesting example of the costume of the Austin Canons. The Prior and Canons are dressed alike, the only difference between them being that in the case of the Prior the hood of the cloak is drawn over the head, in that of Canons it hangs down the back. The analogy of the effigy of Prior Rowland Leschman at Hexham would make it appear that this was a privilege of the Priors. The vicissitudes through which this particular portion of the monument has passed have robbed it of that sharpness in the carving which is a characteristic of the two sides preserved in the porch. There is a doubt as to what is meant to be represented in the spandril at the left hand angle of the slab.
CHARLES C. HODGES.
THE CARMELITES OF DONCASTER.
By F. R. FAIRBANK, M.D., F.S.A.
LELAND, in his description of Doncaster, says :-"There was a right goodly house of White Friars in the middle of the town, now defaced, where lay buried in a goodly tomb of white marble a Countess of Westmoreland, whose name, as one told me, was Margaret Cobham. The image of the tomb is translated in St. George's Church, and by it, as the coronet is made, she should be a duchess." In writing of the Gray Friars of Doncaster, it was stated that they, the Gray Friars, selected the poorest and worst parts of towns for the sites of their houses; and consistently with that rule we found their house at Doncaster situated in Marsh Gate, on low-lying land subject to inundations. The Carmelites had no such rule or inclination; and so we find their house there occupying a considerabie portion of the best part of the town. The site included the whole of that part of the town now bounded by the High Street on one side, by St. Sepulchre Gate, and then turning at right angles the boundary was along what was then the town moat, now Printing Office Street, which it followed round to High Street again, where is now the Reindeer Hotel. Recently at this last-named point, when some excavations were being made, indications of the moat were found, and also of its having contained water. There is now, or was recently, the slightest possible trace above ground of the buildings of the Priory, situated near the Post Office, between that building and those facing into High Street. When excavations were made a few years ago for the Post Office, some further remains were found, a portion of a window of one of the cells, with indications that it had been closed by a shutter, and that it was glazed. A portion also of a rib of a groined roof and a crocketed pinnacle were found. There were also several skulls and other human bones in situ, indicating that the cemetery lay between that site and St Sepulchre Gate. Still more recently, in making excavations;
at the opposite end, near Cleveland Street, an underground passage was found, which there is every reason to believe belonged to the Priory. It runs in an oblique direction from the direction of Cleveland Street towards the middle of High Street. The existence of it was previously unknown. On examination it was found that when some stables had been built, and a drain had to be made, the workmen had come across this large cavity, and without knowing what it was or where it went to, they turned the drain into it and left it!
Mr. Crabtree, the borough surveyor, has kindly furnished me with the following particulars :-"I have examined the
passage under Mr. Rogers's garden. It is 6 feet 9 inches high, and 4 feet wide. The interior is perfectly straight and smooth, having been plastered. At intervals there are openings to the surface, for light and ventilation-now covered. The floor is paved with boulders, similar to those in the market place. Although not a secret passage it evidently afforded means of communication unobserved from one part of the old Priory buildings to another. The section of it is shewn above. The extent of it cannot be ascertained owing to its being filled with soil at each end. There are no indications that it was used for drainage purposes; on the contrary it is improbable, from appearances and structure, that it was ever so used, or intended to be so used."
In De la Pryme's time some portions of the buildings remained.
Hunter says, that after the dissolution, the principal part of the building was the dwelling of -- Broadhead, Esquire, whose stables stood on the site of the chapel, and the bannisters of his house were part of the furniture of the Friary. In his time a terrace walk made by the Friars was visible.
1346. The earliest notice of this house that I have come across is in the will of Roger de Baukewell, rector of Dronfield, dated 1346, from which it appears that it was then in a flourishing condition. Roger de Baukewell had retired from his rectory and was living in seclusion in the Carmelite Priory at Doncaster. The following is an extract from his will :-I leave my body to be buried in the church of the Friars of Mount Carmel at Doncaster .... also I leave to the Prior and Convent of the order of B. M. of Mount Carmel of Doncaster 8 marks, and to each brother 2s. Also I leave to the altar near where my body will be buried my chalice and my vestment for a priest; also I leave to John, son of Ascherford 20s. under condition that he shall be received into the order of B. M. of Mount Carmel in Doncaster, and if not the legacy shall cease. Also I leave to the vestry of the Friars of B. M. of Mount Carmel of Doncaster for ornaments for the great altar on festival days, all my bed covers with carpets. To each executor 20s. to faithfully dispose of my goods. Residue to be distributed for my soul and for the souls of my parents. To the Prior and Convent of S. Mary of Mount Carmel of Doncaster of my goods not devised. Executors, Fr. Wm. de Freston, Prior, and others.
1350. It appears from the "inquisitio ad quod damnum,” that John Nicbrothere of Eyam gave to the Friars of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel in Doncaster, certain lands with their appurtenances there. Speed says that the house was founded by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. From "The Northumberland Household book " it would appear that the Percys stood in the relation of "founders" to the House,-see further on under "Our Lady of Doncaster." If this is so it would probably explain the Duke of Northumberland taking Bolingbroke there as follows below. In the wills at York, there are many bequests "to each house of Friars in Doncaster "; these, or some of them,
are given in the article on the Friars Minors, and need not here be repeated.
1394. Robert Usher of Estretford gave by will to the Carmelites of Doncaster 20s.
1360. Du William Nelson (de Appilby), vicar of Doncaster. To the Friars Minors of Doncaster 13s. 4d. To the Friars Carmelites of Doncaster 13s. 4d. 1392. When Henry of Bolingbroke returned from his exile, he landed at Ravenspern, on the east coast of Yorkshire, now swallowed up by the sea, and marched inland, being joined by the Earl of Northumberland, Henry Percy his sonHotspur, and others who espoused his cause. They believed that he came only to claim his own on the death of his father John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and he swore to them on the Holy Eucharist at the House of Carmelites in Doncaster that this and this only was his aim. Shakespeare in his Henry IV. refers to this. The following passage from that play will be read with interest in reference to this circumstance, and to this house :
Henry IV., Part I., Act V., Scene i.
The King's Camp near SHREWSBURY.
(Immediately before the battle there was a parley).
[Enter the EARL OF WORCESTER (brother of the EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND) and SIR RICHARD VERNON.]
It pleased your Majesty to turn your looks
In Richard's time: and posted day and night
You swore to us,
But in short space