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has been already stated, with figures of the four great Doctors of the Latin Church. Commencing at the east end, the first figure to engage our attention is that of St. Augustine of Hippo, the supposed founder of the Order of Austin Canons, to which Order this Monastery belonged." Like the other three Doctors, he stands on a pedestal of three faces, ornamented with as many crockets. He wears the alb, dalmatic, cope and mitre. The cope is fastened in front with a morse, or brooch, having a cross on it. The right arm, partially broken, is raised in the attitude of benediction, and over the left the fanon or maniple is seen hanging down. The crozier held in the left hand is turned inwards. The shield above bears the Priory Arms, having on its left a star of five rays and full moon, and on the right a sun in glory. On the earliest seal of the Priory is seen a figure in monastic robes, perhaps intended for St. Augustine, seated at a desk reading, and above him a star with six rays. A very poorly engraved representation of this seal is given in the first volume of the Guisbrough Chartulary. The text, "Ye are the light of the world," is specially applied to Saint Augustine in the service for his feast-day in the York Breviary, 43 which may account for these emblems here.
In the next small niche proceeding westwards stands the figure of Gregory the Great, who occupied the Papal Chair from 590 to 604. He is vested in alb, dalmatic and chasuble, and as Pope he wears a tiara or triple crown, and as the Western Patriarch he carries a double cross in his left hand. In other respects he does not differ from the other Doctors. On the shield above is depicted a mitre adorned with precious stones and orphreys, from which depend behind two infula, that is, narrow strips of silk or some other rich material with fringed extremities. A crozier turned inwards is drawn in pale through the mitre. On the right is a paten, and on the left a chalice.
St. Jerome, attired in a Cardinal's hat and with a simple cross in his right hand, stands in the next small niche. lion, which is usually associated with him, leans up against
42 The rule which the Canons obeyed is of very much later date than the time of St. Augustine, who was living between the years 354 and 430.
43 Surtees Society, lxxv., 512. The sun, moon and star were not uncommon emblems of the Passion, even
in the absence of the cross, which generally accompanied them. On the Kelloe Cross, which bears scenes representing the invention of the cross by St. Helena, the cross appears between a star and crescent.
him, and he seems to be fondling it with his left hand. The animal's tail is drawn between its legs and passed over the back. In the shield above a cock, similar to that described on the East end, stands on a reel. On the right of the shield is an escallop, and on the left scroll-work. The cscallop and bird and reel are, as already pointed out, rebuses on the name, James Cockerell. It is, however, worth remarking that in the well-known picture of St. Jerome in the desert, attributed to Giovanni Bellini and now in the National Gallery, the companions of the Saint are a lion and a bird, in that case a partridge.
The last small niche contains St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, 374 to 397. Like St. Augustine, he is vested in alb, dalmatic and cope, which is fastened with a square morse. His right hand is concealed beneath the cope.
In his left he holds a crozier turned inwards, of which the pointed end is visible. At his feet on the left side is a beehive. This is in allusion to the legend that, whilst he was lying in his cradle, a swarm of bees settled upon him and entirely covered his face, going in and out of his mouth. Leaving him unharmed, they flew up to heaven, where they disappeared from human sight no doubt a presage of the eloquence for which he afterwards became so famous. The shield above bears an eagle carrying a gimmel ring.45 The interspaces on either side of the shield are filled with scroll-work.
Passing to the Scotch or southern side, now affixed to the north side of the porch, it may be premised that the general design is coincident with that of the side just described, except that the shields are all borne on the left arm, while the left hand grasps the sword-hilt, and the right rests on the girdle, and that at the base a chain of cable moulding runs along the whole length.
The first knightly figure on this side, commencing at what was originally the east end, has his face turned half round to the right. He wears a bascinet of more pointed form than any of the others, around which is a chaplet or wreath. The vizor is raised.
44 York Breviary (Surtees Soc.), ii., 214.
45 On a painted screen at Hexham, formerly one of the side screens of the choir, and made about 1470, is a shield with an eagle or falcon holding in it's
There is a gorget on the
claws rings which are of octagonal form. The falcon and fetterlock are well carved on the south face of the tower of Fishlake Church near Doncaster; from this it appears that the same badge is not intended at Guisbrough.
neck, large pauldrons on the shoulders, and taces on the loins to which tuilles are appended. The cuisses and jambs are ribbed and studded. Over the shoulders hangs a pendant chain ornamented with four-leaved flowers. To this there appears to hang some order or jewel, but so damaged that its exact form is uncertain. Round the hips is a baldric or hip-belt ornamented similarly to the chain. He carries the sword and miséricorde. The shield bears a fleur-de-lys of antique form, above which has been some other charge, but as the upper part of the shield has been broken away it cannot now be discerned. The flower gives a clue to the person here represented. The same device, with the addition of a dot on each side of the stem, occurs on the seal attached to a deed,46 by which Robert de Brus gave the Chapel at Castle Eden to the Monks of Durham. It is stated in the deed that it had been confirmed by William de S. Barbara, who was Bishop of Durham 1143-1152, which gives certain limits of date within which it must have been executed. The circumscription reads SIGILLVM RODBERTI IVVENIS DE BRVS. This Robert Bruce is called "young Robert," to distinguish him from his father the founder.47
The Bruce properties in Durham and Annandale came to him, and remained with his descendants. Dugdale18 gives a curious account of how he acquired these estates. He states that young Robert, to whom his father had presented his property in Annandale, was made prisoner by his parent, whilst fighting against England on the side of the King of Scotland, from whom he held his lands. The father soon after presented his prisoner to the English King, who in a courtly manner (curialiter), and as became so great a king, gave him to his nurse-that is, his mother-to take care of. Whilst with his parents he complained that he was unable to grow corn in Annandale for bread, and so worked upon their feelings that they gave him Hart and Hartness, in the County of Durham, as being more fertile. Anyone who knows what the county around Dumfries and Annan is like, will think
46 The deed is printed in the Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis (Surt. Soc. lviii.), p. 131 n. The real is circular, 23 inches in diameter. The secretum,inch, bears a cross with the arms of equal length, ornamented at the extremities with devices not unlike fleur
47 He is styled "Robertus de Brus juvenis" in an early charter, to which he is a witness in association with his father and mother, and elder brother Adam (Guisbrough Chart., i. 69).
48 Monasticon Anglicanum, vi. 267.
young Robert must have been a very poor farmer if he could not raise enough corn out of that fertile land to supply himself with bread.
He married Euphemia, niece of William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle.49 It will be remembered that William's sister, Agnes, married Adam de Brus I. Robert and Eufemia concurred in granting the church on the Island of St. Hilda, at Hartlepool, to Guisbrough.50
His son and successor of the same name, whom for the sake of clearness we will call Robert de Brus II., is not represented on this monument. His seal, 22 inches in diameter, bore like that of his father a fleur-de-lys, but with the addition of two birds, one sitting on each of the two lower leaves, about to pick at the seeds, SIGILLVM ROBERT [ID] E BRVS. 51 He married in 1183 Isabel, a natural daughter of William the Lion, by a daughter of William Avenel. He was dead before 1191, when his widow became the wife of William de Ros.52
The second figure is very curiously attired. His headpiece is a salade. His neck is protected by a gorget of three overlapping plates. On the body is a cuirass, over which at its lower parts are the demi-placcates, introduced to give flexibility to the body armour, above which is a large estoile or star with wavy rays. The shoulders are curiously protected, and the lower body is covered with the lamboys
49 This fact appears from the following charter :-W. Comes Alb', omnibus has litteras videntibus salutem. Sciatis me concessisse Eufemie nepti mee, uxori Roberti de Brus, et heredibus suis, quod post decessum meum, quod habeat Dimelton cum pert., quod ei dedi in mariagium quando eam dedi Roberto de Brus in uxorem, quando ipsa Eufemia illam concessit michi, tenendam tota vita mea pro adjutorio meo et manutenemento meo. Et precipio heredibus meis quicunque fuerint, quatinus, me decedente, permittant et faciant predictam Eufemiam habere bene et in pace predictum mariagium. Et pro illo tenendo tantum vita mea dedi ei anuulum aureum et denarios. T. Nicholao Sacerdote de S. Michaele, Roberto Vicario de Apelbi, Gaufrido Capellauo de Castello, l'etro Capellano Roberti de Brus, R. Clerico Gilberti Carbunel, Ivone Dapifero, Ricardo Baard, Roberto Arbalastario, Terrico (vel Turstino) Camerario,
Burr (sic), Milone, Gaufrido Carbunel Roberto Clerico, Willelmo Clerico, Thoma de Hareins, Johanne Arundel (Dodsworth MSS., vii. 43, and Skelton Transcripts amongst the Hailstone MSS. at York). From the witnesses Dimelton would appear to be in Westmoreland or Cumberland, but I cannot find any place like it. Dimlington, in the parish of Easington in Holderness, is the only place I can find with a similar name.
50 Archbishop Gray's Register (Surtees Society, lvi.), p. 80 n. She and Robert de Brus were witnesses to a grant by William de Turp about land at Castle Eden (Guisbrough Chart., ii. 327 n.)
51 Attached to a grant to Durham of a house in Hartlepool. His sons, Robert, William and Bernard are among the witnesses. Also a certain Hugh de Brus. His son, William de Brus, confirmed his gift (Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis, 138 n.).
52 Chronicon de Mailros, 92, 99.
in long folds. The cuisses and jumbs are fluted. The feet are in sabatouns. On his shield is a lion passant to the sinister. This device occurs on the seal attached to William de Brus's confirmation of his father's gift to Durham mentioned above, with the inscription SIGILL. WILLELMI DE BRVS. 53 He seems to have had an elder brother Robert, who died without issue, as he granted a fishery on the river Esk to Melrose "for the health of my lord, William, King of Scotland (1165-1214), and of Earl David his brother, for the souls of their ancestors and successors, and of his father and mother, and Robert his brother."54 His wife's name was Christiana. Her parentage is unknown. They jointly confirmed a gift made to Guisbrough by his father, Robert de Brus, of the churches of Annan, Lochmaben, Kirkpatrick Fleming, Cummertrees, Reinpatric, now Redkirk on the Solway, and Gretna.55 William de Brus died, I believe, in
The third figure wears a salade on his head. The cuirass has again the demi-placcates. There are large pauldrons on the shoulders, across which is an ornamented baldric for holding the shield. On the loins are taces, attached to which are two large studded tuilles, of conventional character in their outline, and between them is seen the apron of mail. The legs are clad as in the former figures. The feet are in sabatouns. Round the loins is seen a twisted girdle to carry the sword and miséricorde. The shield bears a saltire and in chief a lion passant to the dexter. The third Robert de Brus, who succeeded his father about 1215,56 married Isabel, daughter of David, Earl of Huntingdon, son of Prince Henry of Scotland, and brother of William the Lion.57 On the death of her brother, John le Scot, Earl of Chester and Huntingdon, she and her two sisters became his heirs. It was in consequence of this marriage that their son
53 For other instances of this seal see Guisbrough Chart., ii. 324 n., 325n., 341n.
Chartulary of Holm Cultram, Harl. MSS., No. 3911, fo. 102. This gift is confirmed by King William on fo. 103. Robert de Brus and William his brother were contemporaries of King William (Liber de Melros, 155).
5 Guisbrough Chart., ii., 340. Cristina, uxor Willelmi de Brus, Robertus de Brus filius ejus (Liber Vitæ, Surt. Soc., xiii., 83).
56 In 1215 the Sheriff of Northumber
land received orders to give seisin of the manor of Ellenton to Robert de Brus, which William de Mesnill Duranti held of his father William de Brus, whose heir he (Robert) was (Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum, i., 217).
57 The eldest sister, Margaret, married Alan of Galloway, (their only child Devorgil being the mother of John Balliol), and the youngest, Ada, Henry de Hastings. See Calendarium Genealogicum, i. 60.