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gifte of the said Francys and the same shall remise and quite clayme frome him the said Francys and his heires to the said Avarey and John and theires of the said Avarey for evermore. And furthermore the said Francys shall by the said fyne graunte for him and his heires to warrant to the said Avarey and John and theires of the said Avareye the said mannours and tenementes with thappurtenaunces againste all men for evermore And yt is fully concludyd covenauntid and agreed by and betwene the said parties to these presentes for them and their heires That the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton and their heires and the heires of the Survyvour of them shall frome and after the knowledginge and perfytinge of the said fyne stande and be seased of the sayd mannours Landes and premisses and be adjudged perfytt tenauntes of the frehold thereof to thextent and purpose onely that a perfytt Recoverye maye be lawfully had and executed againste them of the said mannours and premisses and of everye parte and parcell thereof and thereupon the said Avarey Copley John Dighton and Francys Bossevyle doo Covenaunt and conclude for them selffes their heires executours and admynistratours and everye of them to and with the sayd Robert Bradford and Christofer Copley their heires and assignes by these presentes That they the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton (upon requeste to them made) at anye tyme after the levyinge of the sayd fyne shall permytt and suffre the sayd Robert Bradford and Christopher Copley or the Survyvour of them to commense and prosequute one wrytt of entrye sur disseisin in le post againste them the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton of the said mannours and premisses and of everye parte and parcell thereof after the manner and course of common Recoveryes By whiche sayd wrytt the said Robert Bradford and Christofer Copley shall demaund againste them the said mannours and premisses with thappurtenaunces and every parte thereof by the name and names before mencyoned or by anye other name or names whatsoever whereunto the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton shall appeare in their proper persons or by their Attourney or Attourneys sufficyently auctorished and shall vouche to warrauntye the said Francys Bossevyle and that he the sayd Francys Bossevyle shall like wyse appeare upon the same voucher in his proper person or by his attourney or attourneys sufficyently auctorished and shall vouche to warrauntie the common vouchee and that the sayd common vouchee shall appeare in propre person and enter into warrauntie and shall imparle and afterwardes make default whereby a perfytt judgement maye be had for the said Robert Bradford and Christopher Copley againste the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton of the said mannours and premisses and likewise for the said Avarey Copley and John Dighton to recover in value againste the said Francys Bossevile and for the said Francys Bossevyle to recover also in value againste the common vouchee accordinge to the course of common recoveryes in suche case used whiche said Recoverye soo to be had and perfyted of the said mannours and premisses ys ment and intendyd and everye of the said parties doo accordingly covenaunt and conclude for them selffes and their severall heires to and with the other parties and his and their severall heires by these presentes That the said Recoverye judgement and Recoverye in value and all and everye other thinge and matter thereupon dependinge or followinge shalbe demed and taken (and that the said Recoverers and their heires and the sayd conizees and their heires and the heires of the Survivour of them shall frome
and after the perfytinge of the said Recoverye Stande and be adjudged to be seased of the said mannours landes and premisses and of everye parte and parcell thereof) To thuse of the said Francys Bossevyle and Dorothie his wief for the terme of their naturall lyves and the longer lyver of them without impeachment of anye manner of wast and after their decease then to thuse of the heires of the bodie of the said Francys Bossevyle lawfullye begotten and to be begotten and for default of suche issue to thuse of Raufe Bossevyle of London gentleman and of theires males of his bodye lawfullye issuinge and for want of suche issue to thuse of Dame Isabell Savyle widdowe late wief of Sir Roberte Savyle Knight nowe deceased and doughter of Avarey Copley esquier for the terme of her naturall life without impeachment of waste and after her decease to thuse of Grace Savyle doughter of the said Dame Isabell Savyle begotten by the said Sir Robert Savyle deceased for the terme of her naturall life without impeachment of any waste and after her decease to thuse of Robert Bossevyle of London gentleman brother unto the sayd Raufe Bossevyle and of theires males of his bodye lawfully begotten, and for default of suche issue to thuse of Henrye Bossevyle of Bradburne in the Countie of Kent esquier and of theires males of his bodye lawfully issu inge and for want of suche issue to thuse of Richard Bossevyle of London gentleman and of theires males of his bodie lawfully begotten and for lacke of suche issue to thuse of Edwarde Bossevyle of London gentleman and of theires males of his bodie lawfully begotten and for defaulte of suche issue to thuse of John Bossevyle of London gentleman and of theires males of his bodie lawfully issuinge and for want of suche issue to thuse of Thomas Bossevyle sonne and heire apparant of Gervys Bossevyle of New hall in the said Countie of Yorke esquier and of theires males of his bodie lawfully issuinge and for default of suche issue to thuse of the right heires of the said Francys Bossevyle for ever provided alwayes and yt ys also concludyd and agreed by and betwene the sayd parties to this Indenture for them and their heires that yt shalbe lawful to the sayd Francys Bossevyle at anye tyme duringe his lief to make lease or leases by Indenture for the terme of twentie and one yeres or under or for three lyves frome the makinge of suche lease or leases reservinge the olde and accustomed yerely rentes or more in value or goodnes of the said mannours and premisses or of anye parte thereof at his will and pleasure and that the said Recoverers and their heires and the said conizees and their heires frome and after the perfytinge of the said Recoverye shall also stand and be seased of the same mannours and landes soo to be demised and letten by the said Francys Bossevyle in forme aforesayd (and the said Recoverye and fyne shalbe likewise demed and taken) to thuse of the same lessees and of everye of them their executours and assignes for and duringe suche terme and termes soo to be to them demised by the said Francys Bossevyle as aforesayd anye thinge herein conteyned to the contrarye thereof in anye wise notwithstandinge In witnes whereof to the firste parte of this Indenture remayninge with the sayd Avarey Copley and John Dighton the said Francys Bossevyle hath putt his hand and Seall and to the second parte thereof remaynynge with the said Robert Bradford aud Christofer Copley The said Francys Bossevyle Avarey Copley and John Dighton have putt their bandes and Sealles and to the third parte thereof remayninge with the said Francys Bossevyle The snyd Avarey Copley John
Dighton Robert Bradford and Christofer Copley have sett their handes and Sealles the daye and yere firste above written.
Signed by mee Francis Bossevile.
Endorsed, Sealed and delyverid by the within named Francis Bossevyle in the presence of
Signum T Willi Bynckes.
In a later hand. 28 Eliz: Jan: 8th.
Francis Bossevile Esqr. his deed of settlemente.
The Council is indebted to Mr. A. W. Macdonald Bosville, of Thorpe Hall, Bridlington, for permission to print these deeds.
THE BRUS CENOTAPH' AT GUISBROUGH.
BEFORE we come to describe in detail this interesting and unique memorial it will be desirable to consider briefly the relative position of the monastic as distinct from the parish. churches during the middle ages; and the causes which led to the former being so frequently chosen as the favourite. places of sepulture amongst the more wealthy laity generally, and especially by the great lords who owned the soil.
The monastic character of the ecclesiastical foundations of the pioneers of Christianity at the time of the conversion of the English was the direct result of the missionary nature of their labours amongst the people. This character of monasticism continued to be a conspicuous feature of a large number of the earliest churches up to the time of the general overthrow of the Anglian settlements by the Northmen in the ninth and tenth centuries. Before the close of the eleventh century the churches had been generally repaired and rebuilt, and although the ravages of the Northmen had resulted in the total extinction of many which had formerly existed, the aggregate number had been largely augmented, not by the increase of monastic establishments, but, as the people became gradually converted to Christianity, by providing each parish with its parish church, however humble,
1 Suetonius, in his account of the funeral of Drusus, states in Philemon Holland's translation (p. 153), published in 1606: Howbeit the armie reared in honour of him an honorarie tombe (or stately herse) about the which every yeare afterwards upon a certain set day, the souldiers should runne at tilt, keepe jousting and turnament. To which in the margin is given th's explanation of an "honorarie tombe, which the Greeks call Cenotaphium, i. an empty tomb."
Some other instances of mediæval cenotaphs may be quoted. In the cloister at Durham was a tomb of stone, a yard high, with a painted stone effigy of St. Cuthbert, to mark the place where his body had lain when taken out of the "White Church," until in 1104 the
present church was ready to receive it. This tomb was protected by a wooden railing and roof covered with lead. In Chester-le-Street. church is an effigy of a bishop, which is also most probably a portion of a cenotaph tomb of St. Cuthbert, erected there to commemorate the sojourn of his body at that place from 883 to 995. Again at St. John Lee, near Hexham, some portions of a fine effigy of a bishop have been found. There can be little doubt that these represent a cenotaph tomb and effigy of St. John of Beverley, who by tradition resided at that place, and who was very likely to be commemorated during the middle ages by a similar tomb to those of St. Cuthbert,