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in the eastern part of the south wall of the nave. buttresses on the south side are flat, but crowned with crocketed pinnacles of curvilinear character, and an elegant battlement of rectilinear work has been added. The south porch is of plain rectilinear work, and within it is a fine Norman door with two bands of moulding, and shafts with fine worked capitals. The north aisle is an addition of rectilinear period. The original Norman windows range over it as a clerestory; they have a battlement and pinnacles as on the south side. The north aisle has plain square-headed windows, and a battlement; it opens to the nave by four pointed arches with piers of clustered shafts with plain capitals; on one of them is a grotesque head. There is a good Norman arch between the nave and chancel, springing from shafts having foliated capitals and the square abacus. There is a north chapel to the choir, and in the north wall of the chancel a Norman window and a cornice of nail-head moulding. The east window is of rectilinear tracery, and on the south side of the chancel is one curvilinear and one rectilinear window. The south side has buttresses like the nave, with canopies. There is a pretty monument to Mrs. Boutflower. There is also a slab with the print of a very fine brass, now torn off, representing the figure of a lady under a gothic canopy. There is also a more recent brass, with a long inscription to Domina Lucia Gate, A.D. 1578.
August 23. Went to Whitby. The day foggy, and incessant rain, which rendered the dreary drive over the bleak moors doubly horrid. Scarce a tree or habitation is seen before you reach Whitby. The situation of the town pleasant and very picturesque, being divided into two parts by the river Esk, which there falls into the ocean. The banks of the river are very pretty, and enlivened by many villas, but the interior of the town is gloomy and dirty, the streets very narrow and crooked. The pride and glory of the place is the magnificent ruins of the abbey, which stand on the top of the cliff east of the town, in a very exposed situation. The church forms the greater part of the present remains, and a very noble specimen it is of early English
work, with admixture of later curvilinear styles. The church is of large dimensions, and is cruciform. The nave is eight arches in length, and is certainly of a later period than the choir. Of the nave, only the north wall remains, the south aisle being wholly destroyed, and of all the pillars which once supported the arches on either side of the nave only one exists, on the north side; this one is of diamond form, and of clustered shafts. The west front is nearly down, but still preserves a rich doorway with deep mouldings apparently of curvilinear period. The north aisle has two curvilinear windows and three of lancet form, the latter in the eastern portion, which is evidently earlier than the western division of the nave, the shafts supporting the groined roof being of earlier character. The north wall of the church throughout is nearly perfect. The transept has an aisle to the east. The north transept is complete, but the southern one is nearly all destroyed. The piers in this part are of lozenge form, clustered, with plain moulded capitals and octagon bases. The north transept has two tiers of triple lancets, of which the lower ones have shafts with foliated capitals of curvilinear period, and the ballflower in the mouldings. On the west side, triforium is of plain pointed arches with circular shafts. The eastern triforium is much richer, having two arches divided by a central shaft, contained under a larger arch with toothed architrave; these are again subdivided in like manner into two trefoil arches, and between the heads of all the arches small and great are pierced circles. The clerestory is beautiful, and of an uncommon description, having in each compartment two pointed arches springing from shafts as before, and subdivided each into two arches, one larger and one narrow, the small one being in each on the outside; between the heads is an arch containing quatrefoil. Beneath the windows is a range of trefoil niches with shafts of foliated capitals. The gable of the north transept has an E. E. circular window, and is flanked by large octagonal turrets terminating in pyramids. The four great arches supporting the tower are very bold and fine, piers of the same character as the remaining one in the nave. The tower is of curvilinear character, having two tiers of windows above the roof; its north wall is entire.
The exterior of the transept is very rich, the windows
having shafts with very fine foliated capitals, and the turrets adorned with niches.
The interior of the choir is very fine and impressive, it being quite entire, save only the roof. It is seven arches in length, and the triforium and clerestory are of magnificent character and in a perfect state. The main arches are somewhat acute and very lofty. The piers resemble those of the transept. The triforium has an obtuse arch enriched with toothed ornament, divided into two sharp-pointed arches with deep architrave mouldings springing from clustered shafts; these again subdivided, each into two other arches, and between the heads of all a circle containing quatrefoil. The clerestory has in each compartment a range of five arches springing from shafts; the centre arch being higher than the others, with very deep architrave mouldings, and springing from clustered shafts. On either side of the head of the central arch is a pierced trefoil; the dripstones and mouldings are richly ornamented with the tooth ornament. The east end has two ranges of triple lancet windows, with architrave mouldings enriched with tooth ornament, and shafts with bell capitals. This end is flanked by octagonal turrets crowned with pyramids and having shafts at the angles. There is a vestige of a cupboard for the communion plate. The pediment of the gable above the groining is enriched with a range of seven lancets with shafts, the centre being the highest, the others gradually decreasing. The choir windows have, externally, toothed dripstones, continued over the buttresses, which have mostly polygonal fronts.
The parish church of Whitby stands scarcely a hundred yards west of the ruins of the abbey, and is approached from the town by a flight of steps up the cliff. This edifice presents a singular appearance externally, not to say unsightly and deformed, from its irregularity of form and barbarous modern alterations. It is very low, and seems to have consisted originally of a nave and chancel of considerable length, resembling other churches in this country of Norman origin. It has, however, received the addition of a north and south transept, and the original north wall seems to have been removed and the nave much widened on that
side. Many of the windows are modern, and extremely bad, but the south side retains some original features, viz. a few plain Norman windows and a very good doorway of the same period, having shafts with very good capitals. The tower at the west end is low, and of Early English work, having flat buttresses and a triple E. E. arch in the belfry story springing from shafts, and having the centre light pierced for a window. The tower opens to the interior of the nave by an E. E. pointed arch springing from clustered shafts having capitals of Norman character with the abacus. The interior of the nave contains little remarkable, being almost wholly modernized and surrounded by large galleries on all sides. The transepts are also of modern character. The chancel still preserves its ancient character, and opens to the nave by a Norman arch with shafts having scroll work and other ornament in the capitals. It is raised a good deal above the nave, up several steps. On the south side of the chancel is a nebuly cornice and some Norman windows, also a small E. E. doorway. On the north side are three lancet windows.
Leaving Whitby, we passed along the shore to Lythe, three miles distant, where are extensive alum works. The cliffs in this neighbourhood are extremely bold and high, and the sea view unbounded and very grand. Mulgrave Castle is distant about one mile from Lythe, but the grounds are scarcely seen from the road. From Lythe we went over rather a dreary country till we came to Runswick Bay, the view of which is very picturesque and romantic. On the shore of this bay is another alum work. From thence towards Gisborough the road lies over barren and bleak moors for many miles, but the scene changes and becomes very pleasing and picturesque on entering the beautiful valley in which Gisborough is situated. There the scene is varied by rock, wood, and river, and the high hills bounding the valley on the south side form fine features. The conical hill called Rosebury Topping is particularly conspicuous above the town, when seen from the Redcar side.
The town is very neat, having one good long street. The parish church has a modern nave, divided into aisles by
octagon pillars supporting modern arches. The chancel is rectilinear, and has three windows with three lights on each side, and one at the east end which contains some stained glass. The interior is neatly fitted up, and contains an organ. The tower at the west end is of plain rectilinear architecture with an embattled parapet. The ruins of the priory are situated within an enclosed piece of ground, embosomed with high trees, not far south-east of the parish church. The only remaining portion is the east gable of the choir, which is as fine a specimen of the kind as can be met with. It is of very great height, and built of the finest stone, and its character is curvilinear. The window is of vast dimensions, and must have been magnificent when the tracery was complete. The soffit of the great window is richly ornamented with foliated ornament, and over the great window in the gable is a circular window. The side windows at the east end of the aisles are also curvilinear in tracery, and with soffits enriched as the large window The point of the gable is crowned by an octagon pinnacle surmounted by a crocketed pinnacle. The buttresses are large and bold, and somewhat singularly grouped, the set-offs being enriched with fine triangular crocketed canopies, and some portions ornamented with curvilinear panelling and niches. This front, though not overloaded with panelling or other ornament, is a very fine composition.
From Gisborough to Redcar, the first portion of the road is very beautiful, through a fine wooded country, which however is changed, before reaching Kirkleatham, for an uninteresting flat extending to the sea. Kirkleatham House stands very near the public road, and is a curious mixture of pointed and modern architecture. Near it is the church, with a mausoleum, both of Italian design; there is also a hospital or almshouse, a large brick building in form of half H and a very rich foundation.
Redcar is in many respects pleasant as a bathing-place, the sands being very good for walking, and reaching for two or three miles on each side of the village. The bathing is very good, and the view of Hartlepool and the Durham coast is agreeable. The shore is quite flat, and hence a great objection to the place is the great quantity of sand that is stranded all over the place, the sand being heaped up in the street of the village to some height, and on the shore are