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the gallery, and was used as a lodging-room; it had a very large round-headed window, which still remains almost

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perfect, looking out southwards, but the view from it would be completely obstructed by the lofty curtain-wall, which joined on to the south-east corner of this tower close to the

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east side of this window. The large four-sided tower, which contained this lodging-chamber and cellar, was the most southern of the eastern range of domestic buildings erected against the curtain, and, on account of its exposed position, was very strongly built; its outer walls were of solid masonry 8 feet thick. As is the case with the other stonework still standing, this tower appears to be of two dates; the lower 3 feet (from the present ground level) shows a much harder and whiter mortar than the upper portion, that above being brown and more easily cut into with steel, while the lower mortar is even harder than the stonework and no impression can be made in it. The south-east angle of this tower ended in a large half-round turret, outside the curtain-wall; but only the very foundation stones of this remain; the outer walls of this tower, the gallery, and the southern half of the great hall having entirely disappeared, but their remains lie in the ditch. The curtain-wall at its junction with the south end of this tower was 10 feet thick, and along this side of the tower, a few inches below the soil, runs a chamfered plinth of very good masonry; this tower terminated at its south-west corner in another round turret, which is one of the most perfect bits found during the excavations.

At the west end of this tower was the larder, a building averaging 35 feet in its longest direction, and 16 feet from the curtain to inner wall; it was of only one storey in height, and the south window of the adjoining tower must have looked over its roof. Annexed to the western end of the larder was the kitchen, a great square room, 30 feet by 33 feet, built against the south curtainwall, which here was 10 feet thick; the fireplace was against the inner wall, and on the west of it was a large oven; the flagged floor in part remained in situ, and in a corner was a small heap of animal bones, the bottom of a copper cooking-vessel, and a large quantity of broken pots. Running through the kitchen from north to south was a square stone-flagged drain, 12 inches in depth, and 18 inches in width. The kitchen had an open roof of timber, covered with stone slates, and in the centre of it a large louvre for ventilation, and to permit the escape of the fumes from the cooking; the windows must have been in the west wall.

The last of the buildings abutting on the great curtainwall was the west tower, the two outer sides of which were

very thick. It contained a somewhat square-shaped room, 24 feet by 15 feet, and had a projecting window facing into the courtyard; the inner walls of this tower were so much thinner than the outer ones, and of so much poorer construction, that there can be no question either that they took the place of earlier walls, or, what is more probable, that they were built into the angle of the curtain wall, to form a tower for residential purposes at a much later date than the outer walls were erected. The curtain-wall here, standing as a revetment wall, is of much poorer construction than the rest of the existing masonry; it contains several burnt stones. and a good deal of charred wood mixed with the mortar, which, I believe, indicates a rebuild by Earl Warren after the destruction of the castle by Thomas of Lancaster in 1317. From the outer corner of this tower the curtain-wall crossed the moat and ascended the mound to join the keep.


But the glory of Sandal must have been its keep on the summit of the mound; towering over and commanding the whole of the enceinte and the buildings attached, it was the final retreat, the last refuge, and therefore constructed and fortified as strongly as the builder could devise. Its entrance was guarded by a great barbican-tower, surrounded by a moat, the approach to which from the gatehouse ran along an arcaded wall on the outer bank of the inner moat; the arcading of this wall was decorated with beautiful late dogtooth ornament; from the barbican tower a drawbridge could be let down onto a platform at the end of this arcade, and thus communication made with the great court. barbican tower was of two stories, and beneath it was a deep dungeon. A dry-moat separated the barbican-tower from the forebuilding or entrance to the keep, and this was spanned by another drawbridge. The forebuilding was on the east side of the keep, and was composed of a portal, flanked by two drum-towers, a staircase, and a platform at the stairhead. In front was a lofty, plain round-headed doorway, which was closed by iron gates; on either side of this was a small round tower, solid in its lower storey, but containing a chamber above, guarding the drawbridge which stretched across the moat between the forebuilding and the barbican-tower; entering the doorway a flight of steps, 8 feet wide, led to the platform at their head. The walls of the forebuilding were between 5 and 6 feet thick, and the

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