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the east end of the present building. The whole building is chiefly of Early English character, with partial mixtures of a later style. The choir is destroyed, but there are remnants of the walls existing. The south aisle of the nave has a curious appearance externally, it being composed of a series of chapels each with separate gable roofs; some of them have windows with curvilinear tracery, and the buttresses of that period, with triangular heads. The clerestory has a plain parapet. There is a south porch. The west end was formerly adorned by two towers, which are both destroyed, and the front much mutilated. There is a western porch with a plain pediment, and a good plain doorway of curvilinear character. The west window is most vile. The interior is spacious and might have a fine effect, if it had not been so dreadfully injured by mutilations of various parts, as well as the insertion of most frightful galleries in every part, even in the clerestory, and pews much out of repair and arranged with no uniformity. The nave is very lofty, and divided from either aisle by six very high pointed arches of Early English character. Those on the south side spring from massive pillars, of which the three eastern are circular, the others octagonal. On the north side of the nave the arches spring from very massive circular pillars with moulded capitals. The clerestory windows are Early English, and open inwardly by a pointed arch resting upon shafts with bell capitals. Upon the capital of each pillar there rests a shaft, which is carried up to the roof, and has bell capital, and is banded where it is intersected by the strings which run, one under the clerestory, the other immediately above the main arches. From these shafts it appears that the ribs of the groining were intended to spring. The two north aisles are divided by a range of pointed arches, springing from octagonal columns, with capitals adorned with foliage and heads. The north wall was rebuilt in the 17th century, it having been destroyed by the fall of the central tower about 1650. As might be expected, this is rebuilt in a barbarous style. The northernmost aisle is of very great breadth. There is in one of the south chapels a very fine niche of curvilinear period, and in one a most curious ribbed stone roof. There is a good organ of large size in the west gallery.
This church, though large, is insufficient for the large and
increasing population, as well as inconvenient from its situation. A new church has been since built in the upper part of the town, in the Gothic style (I believe Early English), but I have not seen it.
The village of Scalby is situated at about two miles northwest of Scarborough, and is pleasantly surrounded with trees. The church is neat, though not remarkable for particular elegance of architecture. It consists of a nave with a south aisle, a chancel, and a tower at the west end. There is much Early English work, and a little Norman; of which last is one small window on the north side. The other windows of the nave are late and debased rectilinear. The tower is of the same character, and has a battlement. The nave is divided from its aisle by three pointed arches with round pillars, with the square abacus and rude E. E. foliage in the capitals. The arch between the nave and chancel is pointed, and springs from clustered shafts, having the square abacus in the capitals. In the chancel are some lancet windows, one of which is very obtuse. In the south wall of the chancel is a square recess (formerly a cupboard) divided in the centre by an octagonal shaft, having a capital with abacus. The font is of cylindrical form and perfectly plain.
About four miles from Scalby is Hackness, a rural village seated in a delightful woody valley, immediately under steep hills. This spot is by far the most delightful in the neighbourhood, and forms a contrast to the bare and bleak aspect of most of the surrounding country. The church is pleasantly situated in a churchyard full of fine trees, and is itself a very pretty object. The spire appears to great advantage rising above the trees, and the church presents many good specimens of architecture, chiefly Early English. The structure consists of a nave with side aisles, a chancel, and a tower and spire at the west end. The tower is E. E. of very early character, and has a belfry window of Norman work of two lights divided by a central shaft. There is a lancet window in the lower stage on the south side of the tower, and a string of the same character. There are buttresses with
triangular heads, a battlement, and plain stone spire. The arch by which the tower opens to the church is a remarkably fine Early English one, having its architrave deeply recessed with mouldings, and supported on clustered shafts having abacus capitals. The nave is divided from the north aisle by three pointed arches, with circular pillars having their bases enriched with the cable ornament, and plain moulded circular capitals. On the south side there are only two arches, of semicircular form and very wide. The pillar between them is circular, having square capital and base. The clerestory has on each side square rectilinear windows. The arch between the nave and chancel is semicircular, of rude workmanship springing from plain imposts. The chancel has the ancient wood stalls remaining. The east window is rectilinear of three lights. North of the chancel is a chapel used as a burial-place, of plain rectilinear character. The clerestory of the nave and the north aisle have a battlement. The south aisle is loftier, and has a plain parapet. There is also a plain south porch. The chancel is embattled, and has buttresses crowned with triangular canopies enriched with crockets and finials. This font is of circular form and plain, supported on a cylindrical shaft. Its cover is of wood and very beautiful, being enriched with tabernacle work, crocketed canopies and pinnacles—a handsome specimen of rectilinear wood-work. The tower has three bells. Near the church stands the residence of Sir John Johnstone, the house not large, but beautifully situated.
The church of this village, which is about three miles distant from Scarborough, is a good building chiefly of Norman work; but with many insertions and additions of a later period. It consists of a nave with a north aisle, and a chancel. At the west end is the ruin of the tower, which was struck by lightning. Only the lower story now remains, which is of Norman work and has flat buttresses. The original Norman windows of the nave are placed at a great height from the ground, more in the situation of clerestory windows. There are only two original ones on the south side, there being two rich curvilinear ones inserted
in the eastern part of the south wall of the nave. The buttresses on the south side are flat, but crowned with crocketed pinnacles of curvilinear character, and an elegant battlement of rectilinear work has been added. The south porch is of plain rectilinear work, and within it is a fine Norman door with two bands of moulding, and shafts with fine worked capitals. The north aisle is an addition of rectilinear period. The original Norman windows range over it as a clerestory; they have a battlement and pinnacles as on the south side. The north aisle has plain square-headed windows, and a battlement; it opens to the nave by four pointed arches with piers of clustered shafts with plain capitals; on one of them is a grotesque head. There is a good Norman arch between the nave and chancel, springing from shafts having foliated capitals and the square abacus. There is a north chapel to the choir, and in the north wall of the chancel a Norman window and a cornice of nail-head moulding. The east window is of rectilinear tracery, and on the south side of the chancel is one curvilinear and one rectilinear window. The south side has buttresses like the nave, with canopies. There is a pretty monument to Mrs. Boutflower. There is also a slab with the print of a very fine brass, now torn off, representing the figure of a lady under a gothic canopy. There is also a more recent brass, with a long inscription to Domina Lucia Gate, A.D. 1578.
August 23. Went to Whitby. The day foggy, and incessant rain, which rendered the dreary drive over the bleak moors doubly horrid. Scarce a tree or habitation is seen before you reach Whitby. The situation of the town pleasant and very picturesque, being divided into two parts by the river Esk, which there falls into the ocean. The banks of the river are very pretty, and enlivened by many villas, but the interior of the town is gloomy and dirty, the streets very narrow and crooked. The pride and glory of the place is the magnificent ruins of the abbey, which stand on the top of the cliff east of the town, in a very exposed situation. The church forms the greater part of the present remains, and a very noble specimen it is of early English
work, with admixture of later curvilinear styles. The church is of large dimensions, and is cruciform. The nave is eight arches in length, and is certainly of a later period than the choir. Of the nave, only the north wall remains, the south aisle being wholly destroyed, and of all the pillars which once supported the arches on either side of the nave only one exists, on the north side; this one is of diamond form, and of clustered shafts. The west front is nearly down, but still preserves a rich doorway with deep mouldings apparently of curvilinear period. The north aisle has two curvilinear windows and three of lancet form, the latter in the eastern portion, which is evidently earlier than the western division of the nave, the shafts supporting the groined roof being of earlier character. The north wall of the church throughout is nearly perfect. The transept has an aisle to the east. The north transept is complete, but the southern one is nearly all destroyed. The piers in this part are of lozenge form, clustered, with plain moulded capitals and octagon bases. The north transept has two tiers of triple lancets, of which the lower ones have shafts with foliated capitals of curvilinear period, and the ballflower in the mouldings. On the west side, triforium is of plain pointed arches with circular shafts. The eastern triforium is much richer, having two arches divided by a central shaft, contained under a larger arch with toothed architrave; these are again subdivided in like manner into two trefoil arches, and between the heads of all the arches small and great are pierced circles. The clerestory is beautiful, and of an uncommon description, having in each compartment two pointed arches springing from shafts as before, and subdivided each into two arches, one larger and one narrow, the small one being in each on the outside; between the heads is an arch containing quatrefoil. Beneath the windows is a range of trefoil niches with shafts of foliated capitals. The gable of the north transept has an E. E. circular window, and is flanked by large octagonal turrets terminating in pyramids. The four great arches supporting the tower are very bold and fine, piers of the same character as the remaining one in the nave. The tower is of curvilinear character, having two tiers of windows above the roof; its north wall is entire.
The exterior of the transept is very rich, the windows