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windows having square heads and labels. The ceiling within the archway is finely groined and has foliated bosses. The rooms over the gateway are occasionally used for transacting business.

Bridlington Quay is about a mile distant from the town, and is a pleasant and quiet watering-place. The cliffs are high and bold, the sea view fine, but the surrounding country bleak and bare of trees.

From thence we went the following day, which proved most rainy and miserable, to Flamborough Head. The country bleak and very dreary, and looked the more wretched amidst the unceasing rain. We went over the lighthouse at Flamborough Head, which is extremely interesting. The coast is very bold, and the sea was raging in a most magnificent manner among the rocks, the waves very high and boisterous. It being high water it was impossible to see the caves, which are said to be very curious and interesting.

Not far from the lighthouse is the ruin of a more ancient one. The village of Flamborough is a wretched place, inhabited chiefly by fishermen, and situated two miles from the lighthouse. Its church we did not visit. From thence we went over bare, wretched country (of which, however, we saw little, being shut up close in the carriage) to Hunmanby, a large village, which anciently enjoyed a market. There we dined with Archdeacon Wrangham, the vicar. Soon after we arrived at the inn, a tremendous storm of thunder

came on.


The church consists of a lofty nave with a north aisle, a chancel, and a tower at the west end. The tower is mostly Norman, except the upper part, which has a rectilinear battlement and four pinnacles. In the lower portion is a small window with semicircular head on the west side, and on the south side is a double Norman window with central shaft, and below it two smaller windows of a single light. There is also a string of billet-moulding. The nave bas some rectilinear windows of late and debased character on the south side. There is one curvilinear window in the north aisle; those in the chancel are modern and of bad character. The nave is irregularly pewed, and open to the

timbers of the roof. The arches to the north aisle are five in number, of which the two western ones are lower than the others, and spring from a central octagon pillar with a square base. The three eastern arches are loftier, and are supported upon circular pillars with moulded capitals. Between the nave and chancel is a wood screen of late and debased workmanship. The arch to the chancel is Norman, with good shafts. In the chancel is a large monument to some of the Osbaldeston family. The font is at the west end, and raised on steps: it is a plain cylinder on a square base. The arch to the tower is narrow and semicircular. Under one of the south windows is a Tudor arch for a tomb, but now stopped up.

From Hunmanby we went to Filey, but not arriving there till it was quite dark we were unable to enjoy a view of its beautiful bay, or visit its church, which appeared good.


We arrived at Scarborough late in the evening, the beauties of which place are probably well known to all and need no description. The situation of the castle is truly magnificent, on a bold rock overhanging the sea. The extent of the

walls and outworks is very great, and the walls are all embattled. There is a handsome plain gateway, flanked by two circular towers. There is one very There is one very fine square tower of beautiful Norman work, having flat buttresses and several tiers of good Norman windows, divided by a central shaft into two lights. Some of the lights are pointed. At the angles of this square tower shafts are inserted in hollows, which run up the whole height.

The church of Scarborough is still a spacious structure, though much curtailed of its original dimensions; and notwithstanding the depredations and mutilations it has suffered by modern injudicious alterations, it yet affords many good and curious specimens of architecture. Its situation is fine and bold, though highly inconvenient, being near the top of a steep hill at a great distance from a large part of the town.

The church at present consists of a nave with two north aisles, and one south aisle, and a south transept used as a school. The tower was built in the 17th century, and is at

the east end of the present building. The whole building is chiefly of Early English character, with partial mixtures of a later style. The choir is destroyed, but there are remnants of the walls existing. The south aisle of the nave has a curious appearance externally, it being composed of a series of chapels each with separate gable roofs; some of them have windows with curvilinear tracery, and the buttresses of that period, with triangular heads. The clerestory has a plain parapet. There is a south porch. The west end was formerly adorned by two towers, which are both destroyed, and the front much mutilated. There is a western porch with a plain pediment, and a good plain doorway of curvilinear character. The west window is most vile. The interior is spacious and might have a fine effect, if it had not been so dreadfully injured by mutilations of various parts, as well as the insertion of most frightful galleries in every part, even in the clerestory, and pews much out of repair and arranged with no uniformity. The nave is very lofty, and divided from either aisle by six very high pointed arches of Early English character. Those on the south side spring from massive pillars, of which the three eastern are circular, the others octagonal. On the north side of the nave the arches spring from very massive circular pillars with moulded capitals. The clerestory windows are Early English, and open inwardly by a pointed arch resting upon shafts with bell capitals. Upon the capital of each pillar there rests a shaft, which is carried up to the roof, and has bell capital, and is banded where it is intersected by the strings which run, one under the clerestory, the other immediately above the main arches. From these shafts it appears that the ribs of the groining were intended to spring. The two north aisles are divided by a range of pointed arches, springing from octagonal columns, with capitals adorned with foliage and heads. The north wall was rebuilt in the 17th century, it having been destroyed by the fall of the central tower about 1650. As might be expected, this is rebuilt in a barbarous style. The northernmost aisle is of very great breadth. There is in one of the south chapels a very fine niche of curvilinear period, and in one a most curious ribbed stone roof. There is a good organ of large size in the west gallery.

This church, though large, is insufficient for the large and

increasing population, as well as inconvenient from its situation. A new church has been since built in the upper part of the town, in the Gothic style (I believe Early English), but I have not seen it.



The village of Scalby is situated at about two miles northwest of Scarborough, and is pleasantly surrounded with trees. The church is neat, though not remarkable for particular elegance of architecture. It consists of a nave with a south aisle, a chancel, and a tower at the west end. There is much Early English work, and a little Norman; of which last is one small window on the north side. The other windows of the nave are late and debased rectilinear. tower is of the same character, and has a battlement. nave is divided from its aisle by three pointed arches with round pillars, with the square abacus and rude E. E. foliage in the capitals. The arch between the nave and chancel is pointed, and springs from clustered shafts, having the square abacus in the capitals. In the chancel are some lancet windows, one of which is very obtuse. In the south wall of the chancel is a square recess (formerly a cupboard) divided in the centre by an octagonal shaft, having a capital with abacus. The font is of cylindrical form and perfectly plain.


About four miles from Scalby is Hackness, a rural village seated in a delightful woody valley, immediately under steep hills. This spot is by far the most delightful in the neighbourhood, and forms a contrast to the bare and bleak aspect of most of the surrounding country. The church is pleasantly situated in a churchyard full of fine trees, and is itself a very pretty object. The spire appears to great advantage rising above the trees, and the church presents many good specimens of architecture, chiefly Early English. The structure consists of a nave with side aisles, a chancel, and a tower and spire at the west end. The tower is E. E. of very early character, and has a belfry window of Norman work of two lights divided by a central shaft. There is a lancet window in the lower stage on the south side of the tower, and a string of the same character. There are buttresses with

triangular heads, a battlement, and plain stone spire. The arch by which the tower opens to the church is a remarkably fine Early English one, having its architrave deeply recessed with mouldings, and supported on clustered shafts having abacus capitals. The nave is divided from the north aisle by three pointed arches, with circular pillars having their bases enriched with the cable ornament, and plain moulded circular capitals. On the south side there are only two arches, of semicircular form and very wide. The pillar between them is circular, having square capital and base. The clerestory has on each side square rectilinear windows. The arch between the nave and chancel is semicircular, of rude workmanship springing from plain imposts. The chancel has the ancient wood stalls remaining. The east window is rectilinear of three lights. North of the chancel is a chapel used as a burial-place, of plain rectilinear character. The clerestory of the nave and the north aisle have a battlement. The south aisle is loftier, and has a plain parapet. There is also a plain south porch. The chancel is embattled, and has buttresses crowned with triangular canopies enriched with crockets and finials. This font is of circular form and plain, supported on a cylindrical shaft. Its cover is of wood and very beautiful, being enriched with tabernacle work, crocketed canopies and pinnacles—a handsome specimen of rectilinear wood-work. The tower has three bells. Near the church stands the residence of Sir John Johnstone, the house not large, but beautifully situated.


The church of this village, which is about three miles distant from Scarborough, is a good building chiefly of Norman work; but with many insertions and additions of a later period. It consists of a nave with a north aisle, and a chancel. At the west end is the ruin of the tower, which was struck by lightning. Only the lower story now remains, which is of Norman work and has flat buttresses. The original Norman windows of the nave are placed at a great height from the ground, more in the situation of clerestory windows. There are only two original ones on the south side, there being two rich curvilinear ones inserted

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