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of Peter Bertius in his preface to Boethius, it may seem "Exiguum mole munus," but it is "ingens pondere."

And now let the present writer give praise where it is due to those riper scholars in this ancient field of literature, whose labours have principally helped him. Mr Fox's prose version of the Metres of Boethius, as paraphrased by King Alfred, has been one mainstay in the matter; and Dr Bosworth's admirable dictionary another. At the same time, laborious study, a not infrequent independence as to the rendering of certain passages, and an earnest obedience to the five good rules above, leave (it is hoped) some balance of account to the writer's credit. Nothing is easier than to find fault; but in many cases nothing is more difficult than to propose a remedy. Let then the critical scholar, who may possibly see much to blame in this version, attempt the matter for himself; and then he will estimate the difficulty of such conditions as these; at once to avoid Latinisms, and to speak in modern flowing English,-to render Alfred faithfully, and yet to preserve rhyme and rhythm in a multitude of metres.

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VII. OF CONTENT, and Humbleness.

Quisquis volet perennem

Tha ongon se Wisdom

VIII. OF PRIMAL INNOCENCE &C.

Felix nimium prior ætas

Sona swa se Wisdom

IX. NERO.

Novimus quantas dederit ruinas

Hwat we ealle witon

X. OF FAME, AND DEATH.

Quicunque solam mente præcipiti petit
Gif nu hæletha hwone

XI. OF GOD'S WISE GOVERNMENT.

Quod mundus stabili fide
An scippend is

XII. USES OF ADVERSITY.

Qui serere ingenuum volet agrum
Se the wille wyrcan

XIII. OF INWARD LIKINGS.

Quantum rerum flectat habenas

Ic wille mid giddnm

XIV. THE EMPTINESS OF WEALTH.

Quamvis fluente dives auri gurgite
Hwæt bith them welegan

XV. NERO'S BASENESS.

Quamvis se Tyrio superbus ostro
Theah hine nu

XVI. OF SELF-RULE.

Qui se volet esse potentem

Se the wille anwald agon

XVII. TRUE GREATNESS.

Omne hominum genus in terris
Thæt eorthwaran

XVIII. OF SINFUL PLEasure.

Habet omnis hoc voluptas,

Eala thæt se yfla

XIX. WHERE TO FIND TRUE JOYS.
Eheu! quam miseros tramite devio

Eala that is hefig dysig

XX. OF GOD AND HIS CREATURES.

O qui perpetua mundum ratione gubernas,

Eala min Drihten ! that thu eart

XXI. OF INWARD LIGHT.

Huc omnes pariter venite capti,

Wel la monna bearn

XXII. OF THE INNER MIND, AND THE Outer sin.

Quisquis profunda mente vestigat verum,
Se the æfter rihte

XXIII. TRUE HAPPINESS.

Felix qui potuit boni

Sie thæt la on eorthan

XXIV. THE SOUL'S HERITAGE.

Sunt etenim pennæ volucres mihi

Ic hæbbe fithru

XXV. OF EVIL KINGS.

Quos vides sedere celso

Geher nu an spell

XXVI. OF CIRCE AND HER COMPANY.

Vela Neritii ducis

Ic the mæg eathe

XXVII. OF TOLERANCE.

Quid tantos juvat excitare motus
Hwy ge æfre scylen

XXVIII. OF HEAVENLY WONDERS.

Si quis Arcturi sidera nescit

Hwa is on eorthan nu

XXIX. OF THE STARS AND SEASONS.

Si vis celsi jura tonantis

Gif thu nu wilnige

XXX. OF THE TRUE SUN.

Puro clarum lumine Phoebum

Omerus wæs

XXXI. OF MAN'S UPRIGHtness.

Quam variis terras animalia permeant figuris !
Hwat thu meaht ongitan

PROVERBS, OR THE PARLIAMENT AT SHIFFORD

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So, he can but little seek
For his own pride:

A fytte of song I fitly speak,

And nought beside:

A folk-beknown and world-read thing
I have to say;

To all the best of men I sing,

List, ye that may.

A short metre, and one full of echoes, is that which is best fitted to the genius of Anglo-Saxon verse, so as to represent it fairly. The writer in the first instance wrote another version of this opening rhyme; but saw cause to reject it, as not being literal enough, and because for the metre's sake he was obliged to interpolate two lines. The reason why it is here below inserted is, (not by way of proof of extraordinary pains-taking, for the same sort of labour has occurred in other portions of this version, but) because it is considered by a learned friend as worthy of preservation. To the writer's mind, a sin against faithful rendering was fatal, and he prefers the more literal rhyme just already given to the reader. Here then is the rejected one:

Ælfred told to us

A tale of olden time;

The King of the West-Saxons thus
Shewed forth his skill in rhyme.

For long he longed to teach

His people pleasant things,

In mingled changes of sweet speech,

And many counsellings,—

The dear delight of men ;

Lest weariness forsooth

Should drive away unfairly then

The selfsame word of truth.

He thereby little sought

For any selfish praise;

[But of these people only thought

To give them good always.]

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From the circumstance of the third person being used in these lines (a custom far from unusual with authors in every age and nation) some have supposed that Alfred did not write them. The truth seems to lie in the opposite opinion: not merely from the prevalent moral resemblance to Alfred's mind; as in that shrewd hint of the evils of dullness, in the eschewal of vain glory, &c ;--but chiefly from the text itself. After disclaiming self praise, recommending rhymes, and announcing the author, Alfred comes simply to the first person, Ic sceal sprecan,' I SHALL SPEAK : it may be more learned to doubt, but it is far more sensible to believe.

This Opening rhyme does not occur in the Latin: it is a bit of original Alfred.

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In this, as in others of these metres, there is a great satisfaction in seeing how easily they fall into modern rhymes, without a sacrifice of faithfulness. However, when (instructed by Dr Bosworth) we remember that of the 38,000 words of Modern English 23,000, or more than ths, are Anglo-Saxon, this harmony will appear less wonderful. But, what a pity it is that ANY of the fine old root-words of our tongue should have been forgotten: for example, in this very Opening song, how is it we have lost 'myreg'—as good a word as 'pleasure,' and the root of merry'?-and 'gilpe,' vain-glory?-and 'spell' (not quite yet obsolete) story?—and 'list' (surely as good a word as art) ?— 'fitte' a song—leoth' a poem,—and many more? We have of late years been throwing away, by the hundred, the stout old props of our strong north-country speech, and have substituted in their stead the sesquipedalia verba of Southern Europe. Nothing then can be more wholesome than to return for awhile to such good plain stuff as Alfred's stalwarth Anglo-Saxon: it is a right bracing air;-may the reader enjoy the sport as much as the writer. We have here before us fresh fields and a fair brooklet of English running water.

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