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OECORHT.A = A cross.

R. +ALCHRD.C=A cross.

This coin also is in the collection of Lord Grantley (Numismatic Chronicle, third series, vol. xvii.).

EANBALD (796).

The stycas of this prelate are frequently struck in silver, and the types are similar to those of Eanred, during whose reign they were struck. The name of the archbishop is found written in various ways, and is often followed by AREP, or some part thereof. His coins are rare. He appears to have employed five moneyers:—

AEDILRED (Heywood) Æ.

This styca was found at Bolton Percy. The parcel from which it came contained several stycas of Eanred and ten of Eanbald. The prelate's title does not appear.

MONNE (Creeke)

VIGMUND (831-854).

This archbishop's name is variously spelt on his coins, which are all stycas, with the exception of a gold solidus in the British Museum collection weighing a trifle over sixty-eight grains, reading as follows:

O. VIGMVND AREP= Tonsured full-faced bust.

R. MANVS DIVINVM= A cross pattée within a chaplet.

The archbishop's name is usually followed by AREP, or IREP, or some abbreviation thereof. His stycas have hitherto been found in fine condition, and struck in copper. A specimen in my cabinet, however, is struck in base silver (Numismatic Chronicle, third series, vol.

viii.). His types are similar to those of Eanbald. The following is a list of his moneyers' names:

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This prelate's coins are very rare, and resemble those of Vigmund in type, but having a stronger tendency to ornament. A specimen formerly in Major Creeke's collection (but unfortunately lost by him) was struck in fine silver. The moneyer was EARDVVF, and Mr. H. S. Gill, of Tiverton, had a similar coin of the moneyer VVLFRED, except that the silver was less fine. prelate's coins are rarely struck in silver.


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treat of the myriad divinities that once filled the

place of what we now call "the forces" of Nature is to deal with the very beginnings of conceptual thought. Before all other personages they were. They nourished the youth and growth of the great gods to whom cosmogonic powers were afterwards assigned. From the rock that sat with "furrowed brow and wrinkled loins" to the fountain that burst forth into movement and song; from celestial stillness and beauty to the waves and winds of disaster; all phenomena were wrought by the spirits whose energy was never at rest.

Could it only have been possible for man to link himself to those divine beings, to place himself on the side of those angels; to float on the stream that they moved, with the gale that they fanned; to learn the wisdom of birds, and follow the strategy of animal cunning; to be happy with the flowers, and know the forest for a friend; to call the mountains by name, and seek in their caverns a refuge and a home. Could it only have been possible to secure some sign, some token, a feather even, a black stone, a tuft of hair, a translucent pebble; any totemistic

proof of divine companionship, any warrant for the beatific vision that might some day gladden human eyes, the sight of nymph, or sylph or mother goddess; and any warning of the fate that befalls the unworthy when dire agents drag him to destruction.

The Dwarfs dwelt everywhere in the caves. They were scarcely thought of otherwise than as epicene, though they became masculine or feminine, as their varied tasks implied. The Northmen knew their designations, and accounted Mótsogni to be the mightiest of them all and Durin to be the second.

And the Dactyls of Mount Ida were also known by name. There was Acmon the Anvil and Celmis the Smelter. They were well denominated "Fingers," their industry was so fertile and unflagging; and they were five in number, or ten, and then half of them were male and half were female. They discovered fire and the use of bronze and iron (τοῦ χαλκοῦ καὶ σιδήρου).*


The Telchines, too, invented useful arts, and were workers in bronze and iron. In their feminine aspect, as Telchiniæ, they were the Nymphs to whom Rhea entrusted the nurture of Poseidon. And they were thought to be able to control storms and to transform themselves into other shapes.†

Et tandem antiquis Curetum allabimur oris.‡ The Curetes, at first, were nine in number. Some were the offspring of the Earth, and some were descended from the Idæan Dactyls. They dwelt in the mountains, under the shade of thick trees, and in caves; and they discovered many profitable things.§ They were called Curetes from their nurture (KоvρотроýσανTES) || of the

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Cretan Zeus. They took charge of him and lodged him in a grotto, and the Nymphs, Adrasteia and Ida, fed him with milk and honey; whilst another, Amalthæa, suckled him, though some say his foster-mother was a goat.*

The Epeirian Zeus was brought up by Dodonæan Nymphs; the Zeus of Arcadia by the Nymphs Theison, Neda, and Hagno; and the infant Bacchus was entrusted to the fruitful Nymphs of Rain, Philia, Coronis, and Cleis.t

Through Cabeira Vulcan had three grandsons, the Cabeiri, and three granddaughters, the Nymphs Cabeirides. They were protectors of the fruits of the field, and their effigies, Herodotus takes care to say, were no bigger than dwarfs or pigmies. Their impersonators took part in reproductive pageants, and in the mysteries of Samothrace.§ Dionysus classes them with the Roman Penates, whose statues, of small size, were placed in sacred recesses. In Lemnos and Imbros, and in the Troad, the Cabeiri were the objects of divine worship, but their temples were built in uninhabited places.||

Corybas was a son of Cybele,¶ and the Corybantes were adored as ministers of the gods, whilst their impersonators performed orgiastic rites. Hinc mater cultrix. Cybele, Corybantiaque æra.1 But by some the Corybantes were regarded as the dæmon children of Minerva and the Sun, whilst others considered that the Corybantes, Cabeiri, Idæan Dactyls, and Telchines were all the same beings as the Curetes.2

This apparent confusion arises partly from religious overlapping and partly from an attempt to give locality


Diod., v. 70.

|| Strabo, x. 3. Herod, iii. 37.

† Ibid, v. 52. Ovid, Fast., v. 166, 172. ¶ Diod., v. 49.

tiii. 37.

§ Ibid, ii. 51.

1 Æneid, iii. III.

2 Strabo, x. 3.

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