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2 The same year also, earl Ealhere, with the men of Kent, and Huda with the men of Surrey, fought bravely and resolutely against an army of the pagans, in the island, which is called in the Saxon tongue, Tenet, [THANET], but Ruim in the British. And at first the Christians had the victory, but when the battle was protracted to a great length, many fell on both sides, and also were drowned in the water; and both the earls were there slain.

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In the same year king Adelwlf sent to Rome, to pope Leo, his son Alured, whom Leo afterwards blessed as king, and received as his

son.

In this year duke Ealhere with the men of Kent and Huda with the men of Surrey, fought against the army of the pagans at Thanet; and a great number were slain on both sides and shipwrecked; and both the dukes

died.

The word here rendered DUKE, is DUX in the Latin: it is rendered DUKE merely for the sake of convenience the word implies no specific title of honour.

MATT. WESTMINSTER. In the year of Grace 854 died WYMUND archbishop of York to whom succeeded WILfer.

7 About this time the pagans tarried the whole winter in

Sheppey.

1 Ethelwolf, in the 19th year of his reign, tithed all his land for the service of the churches, on account of his love of God and for the redemption of himself.

Simeon

whereby, on the completion of the nuptials, he appointed her the dignity of the name of queen.

1 In the same year king Ethelwlf sent over to Rome his son Elfred accompanied by a great band of noble soldiers. At which time the blessed pope Leo presided over the apostolic see who ordained and anointed for king the aforesaid child, and receiving him for his adopted son, confirmed him and sent him back to his country and to his father with the blessing of St Peter the apostle.

2

At that time earl Alchere and Wada, with the men of Kent and Surrey, fought severely against the army of the pagans in the island which is called TENED in the Saxon tongue, but in the British RUIM. At first the Christians had the victory; but, when the battle was protracted to a great length, many fell on both sides, and many were drowned in the river and slain, a number not to be described. Both the aforesaid leaders there fell for the deliverance of their people.

In the year of our Lord's incarnation 854, archbishop Wlfere received the pall, and Eardulf undertook the bisho

pric of Lindisfarne.

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3

ANNALS. AN. 855. Eadmund, the most glorious king of the EastAngles, begins to reign on the 8th before the calends of January, i. e. on our Lord's birth day, in the 14th year of his age.

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Ethelwerd 855

And in the same year he set out to Rome with great dignity, and stopped there 12 months.

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CHARTERS IN 855. 1. ETHELWOLF, Nov. 5. mentions that Beorred king of Mercia, and Edmund king of the Eastangles, were present and subscribed. II, 56. 2. ETHELWOLF; subscribed also by Ethelberht rex," "Elfred filius regis," and others. II, 58. 3. BURGRED of Mercia; signed also by "Ethelswith regina," Mucel dux," and others. II, 58. 4. BURGRED, subscribed also by "Ethels with regina," and others. II, 60. 5. EALHWINE bishop of Worcester. II, 61.

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(8) A. 856.

1

And then returned homewards. And then Charles king of the Franks gave him his daughter to wife; and after that he came to his people, and they were glad of it.

After which he returned to his own country, bringing with him Judith, daughter of Charles, the king of the Franks.

On his way back to his own country, Charles king of the Franks gave to him in marriage his daughter, whom he received and brought into his own country.

In the meantime, however, whilst king Ethelwulf was residing beyond the sea, a base deed was done, repugnant to the morals of all Christians, in the_western part of Selwood. For king Æthelbald and Ealhstan, bishop of the church of Sherborne, with Eanwulf, earl of the district of Somerton, † are said to have made a conspiracy together, that king Ethelwulf, on his return from Rome, should never again be received into his kingdom. This crime, unheard-of in all previous ages, is ascribed by many to the bishop and earl alone, as resulting from their counsels. Many also ascribe it solely to the insolence of the king, because that king was pertinacious in this matter, and in many other perversities, as we have heard related by certain persons; as also was

+ Earl of Somersetshire, of which Somerton was once the chief town.

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The most holy Edmund, beloved by God, sprung from the lineage of the old Saxons, and a true worshipper of the Christian faith, affable to all by his sweet mode of speech, and deeply imbued with the grace of humility, liberal to the needy, and a most merciful father to orphans and widows, obtained the government of the province of East-Anglia.

2 In the meantime, however, whilst king Etheluulf was residing beyond the sea, a base deed was done, repugnant to the morals of all Christians, in the western part of Selwood. For king Ethelbald and Ealhstan, bishop of the church of Sherborne, with Eanwulf, earl of the district of Somerton, are said to have made a conspiracy together, that king Etheluulf, on his return from Rome, should never again be

3 And return-
ing thence, he took to wife
the daughter of Charles the
Bald king of France, and
brought her with him into

this country.

received into his kingdom. This crime, unheard-of in all previous ages, is ascribed by many to the bishop and earl alone, as resulting from their counsels. Many also ascribed it solely to the insolence of the king, because that king was pertinacious in this matter, and in many other perversities, as we have heard related by certain persons; as also was

When he [ETHELWOLF] Was returning to his ountry,

ANNALS. AN. 856. In the 18th year of the reign of Adhelwlf king of the West-Saxons, HUMBERCHT bishop of the East Angles anointed with oil, and consecrated for king, the most glorious Eadmund with great joy and the greatest honour, in the royal vill which is called Burna, because the royal seat was then there, in the 15th year of his age, the sixth day of the week, 24th moon, being the day of our Lord's birth.

he became

hateful to his son Ethelbald, and Ealhstan bishop of Sherborne, and many others.

CHARTERS IN 856. None are

extant.

Saron Chronicle

Asser

Ethelwerd

856

*

proved by the result of that which follows. For, as he was returning from Rome, his son aforesaid, with all his counsellors, or, as I ought to say, his conspirators, attempted to perpetrate the crime of repulsing the king from his own kingdom; but neither did God permit the deed, nor would the nobles of Saxony consent to it. For to pervent this irremediable evil to Saxony, of a son warring against his father, or rather of the whole nation carrying on civil war, either on the side of the one or the other, the extraordinary mildness of the father, seconded by the consent of all the nobles, divided between the two the kingdom which had hitherto been undivided; the eastern parts were given to the father, and the western to the son; contrariwise: for where the father ought by just right to reign, there his unjust and obstinate son did reign; for the western part of Saxony is always preferable to the eastern. When Ethelwulf, therefore, was coming from Rome, that nation, as was fitting, so delighted in the arrival of the old man, that, if he permitted them, they would have expelled his rebellious son Æthelbald, with all his counsellors, out of the kingdom. But he, as we have said, acting with great clemency and prudent counsel, so wished things to be done, that the kingdom might not come into danger; and he placed Judith, daughter of king Charles, whom he had received from her father, by his own side on the regal throne, without any controversy or enmity from his nobles, even to the end of his life, contrary to the perverse custom of that nation. For the nation of the West-Saxons do not allow a queen to sit beside the king, nor to be called a queen, but only the king's wife; which stigma the elders of that land say arose from a certain obstinate and malevolent queen of the same nation, who did all things so contrary to her lord, and to all the people, that she not only earned for herself exclusion from the royal seat, but also entailed the same stigma upon those who came after her; for, in consequence of the wickedness of that queen, all the nobles of that land swore together, that they would never let any king reign over them, who should attempt to place a queen on the throne by his side.

And because, as I think, it is not known to many whence this perverse and detestable custom arose in Saxony, contrary to the custom of all the Theotiscan † nations, it seems to me right to explain a little more fully what I have heard from my lord Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, as he also had heard it from many men of truth, who in great part recorded that fact.

There was in Mercia, in recent times, a certain valiant king, who was feared by all the kings and neighbouring states around. His name was Offa, and it was he who had the great rampart made from sea to sea between Britain and Mercia. His daughter, named Eadburgh, was married to Berhtric, king of the West-Saxons; who immediately, having the king's affections, and the control of almost all the kingdom, began to live tyrannically like her father, and to execrate every man whom Beorhtric loved, and to do all things hateful to God and man, and to accuse all she could before the king, and so to deprive them insidiously of their life or power; and if she could not obtain the king's consent, she used to take them off by poison: as is ascertained to have been the case with a certain young man beloved by the king, whom she poisoned, finding that the king would not listen to any accusation against him. It is said, moreover,

* i, e. ENGLAND.

"I Tedeschi "-Teutonic.

i. e. WALES.

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proved by the result of that which follows. 3 For as he was returning from Rome, his son aforesaid, with all his counsellors, or, as I ought to say, his conspirators, attempted to perpetrate the crime of repulsing the king from his own kingdom; but neither did God permit the deed, nor would the nobles of all Saxony consent to it. For to pervent this irremediable evil to Saxony, of a son warring against his father, or rather of the whole nation carrying on civil war, either on the side of the one or the other, the extraordinary mildness of the father, seconded by the consent of all the nobles, divided between the two the kingdom which had hitherto been undivided; the eastern parts were given to the father, and the western to the son; for where the father ought by just right to reign, there his unjust and obstinate son did reign; for the western part of Saxony is always preferable to the eastern.

Simeon

Egbirht, reigned 20 years and five months: he was mild by nature, and more inclined to live in peace than to command many provinces: in short, he was content with his paternal kingdom of the West-Saxons, and gave over as appanages to his son Ethelstan the others which his father

had subdued. He assisted Burhred

king of the Mercians with

an

auxiliary army against the Britons,

and exalted him wonderfully by giving him his daughter in marriage. The Danish pirates, who wandered over the whole island, and infested all its coasts with unexpected landings, were crushed more than once by him and his generals; though, according to the lot of war, he received frequent and severe losses at the hands of the same, whereby London and almost all Kent were laid waste. But a stop was always put to these losses by the energy of the king's counsellors, who

who would never allow the enemy

to offend with impunity, but took vengeance upon them with their

united forces. For he had, in his time, two excellent prelates, the

blessed Swithin of Winchester, and Alstan of Sherborne; who, seeing that the king was of a dull and heavy

4 When Etheluulf, therefore, was coming from Rome, that nation, as was fitting, so delighted in the arrival of the old man, that if he permitted them, they would have expelled his rebellious son Æthelbald, with all his counsellors, out of the kingdom. But he, as we have said, acting with great clemency and prudent counsel, so wished things to be done, that the kingdom might not come into danger; and he placed Judith, daughter of king Charles, whom he had received from her father, by his own side on the regal mind, impelled him by their admothrone, without any controversy or enmity from his nobles, even to the end of his life, contrary to the perverse custom of that nation. For the nation of the West Saxons do not allow a queen to sit beside the king, nor to be called a queen, but only the king's wife; which stigma our elders say arose from a certain obstinate and malevolent queen of the same nation.

6 For the malice of this queen, all the inhabitants of that land swore together, that they would never allow any king to reign over them, who should command his queen to sit beside him on the royal throne.

5 There was in Mercia, in recent times, a certain valiant king, Offa, whose daughter,

The remarks which William of
Malmesbury has made on the reign
and character of Ethelwolf are
worthy of notice: "In the year of our
Lord's incarnation 537, Ethelwulf,
(whom some call Athulf) son of

[GO TO THE TOP OF THE NEXT
COLUMN.]

named Eadburh, was married, as we have said before, to Brihtric, king of the West-Saxons; who immediately began to live tyrannically

and to do all

nitions to the science of ruling.
Swithun, sickened with earthly
things, taught his lord to look to
above; Alstan, thinking that public
matters also were not to be neglected,
encouraged him against the Danes,
himself supplying money to the
treasury, himself marshalling the
army. He who reads the annals,
[PROBABLY THE SAXON CHRONICLE
IS MEANT] will find many of his
achievenents both bravely begun and
happily ended. He lived 50 years in
his bishopric, happy in having lived
to do good for so long a time. I
would willingly praise him, except
that, led astray by human covet-
ousness he acted unlawfully when
he deprived the monastery of
Malmesbury of its possessions. We
feel to this day the effects of his
shameless conduct, though the place
immediately after his death, strugg-
led its way out of the violence that
had been done it, even down to our
own times, when it has fallen again
into the same danger [SEIZED BY
ROGER BP OF SALISBURY IN 1118]
.... Ethelwulf relying on these
two supporters, and providing for
that which was without, whilst he
did not slight what was within,
after he had triumphed over his ene-
mies, turned to the worship of God,
and granted to Christ's servants the
tenth of every hide of land within
his kingdom, freed from all duties
and from all annoyances. But how
settled his kingdom, he went to
little glory was that? When he had

Rome, and there, he gave to St Peter
the tribute, which England still
pays, in presence of pope Leo the
Fourth, who also, before that, had

things hateful to God and man, and to accuse all she could before the king, and so to deprive them insidiously of their honorably received and anointed for life or power; and if she could not obtain the king's consent she used to take them off by poison: as is ascertained to have been the case with a certain young man beloved by the kung, whom she poisoned, finding that the king would not listen to any accusation against him. It is said, moreover,

king his son Alfred when he had been sent unto him. Ethelwolf remained there a whole year, and beautifully repaired the school of the English, which, they say, was first founded by Offa king of the Mercians, and had been burnt the year before.

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