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That "accomplished antiquary," Richard Gascoigne, of Bramham Biggin, Esq. second son of George Gascoigne, of Oldhurst, Esq., and of Mary Stokely, sixth son of John Gascoigne, of Parlington, Esq., ancestor of the baronets Gascoignes, left fifteen volumes of 4to, in MS., being, as he expressed it, "A Catalogue of all "such Knightes, Baronetts, Knightes, Esquires, Gentlemen, or any of meaner qualitie, "whose evidences, cowcher, or leager booke, olde rooles, or ancient transcripts, I have, "mera gratia et pleno favore (ad libitum) perused, and copied, by my alliance, ac"quaintance, or mediation of any of my worthy friends, to enriche my poore under"standinge with worn-eaten antiquities. I profess not heraldrie, non equidem tale "me dignor honore, to marciall any man's ranke, but as I had excess, and ever, deo "gratias, good successe, I intend here to enroll them." My friend, the late most respected Mr. Brooke, Somerset, had made great collections of this widely extended county, preparatory to writing its History, which his premature and unhappy death perhaps only prevented.
Hen. VIII. 1530, or 1531. Benolte, Clarenceux, by Flower, Lancaster. In the
This appears to have been the only general visitation of Wales. There have, however, been two of the counties visited.
Cha. 11. 1670.
St. George, Clarenceux, by Chaloner, Lancaster, and Sandford,
St. George, Clarenceux, by Dethick, Richmond, and King,
Besides these three visitations, there are heraldic and genealogical collections, by persons who were private, not public characters; or if public, as Owen, Norroy, in his private, not public capacity. John Salusbury of Erbistock, Esq., in the middle of the preceding century, made a curious collection of pedigrees, with great accuracy, of all the gentry of North Wales. The late Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, Bart. was in possession of the manuscript.
"In the Harleian Library, No 35-38 contains "ancient Welch pedigrees and draughts of some churches, principally in Brecknockshire." In the same library, No 6823, 6831, and 6870, comprize descents and genealogies of many ancient and
and present families of the nobility and gentry in the Principality, taken from records, monumental inscriptions, collections, and visitations of all the churches and principal places in Wales and the adjacent parts, made by Mr. Hugh Thomas, comprizing in the whole about 700 different pedigrees.
"George Owen, of Henllys in the county of Pembroke, Esq., in 1602, made a collection of curious particulars relative to Wales, intituled, "The Number of "Hundreds, Castles, &c., in all the Shires of Wales, with the Names of the chief "Gentry, &c., Nature of the Soils, Qualitie of the People, &c." in one volume 4to.-Garter Anstis possessed this.
In the College is Vincent's Wales, placed amongst his books, and marked 135 and 136, folio, containing pedigrees chiefly, but interspersed with miscellaneous anecdotes, relative to the Principality.
Owen, the usurping Norroy, left an History of Pembrokeshire in manuscript, which was lately in the possession of Howel Vaughan, of Hengwrt, Esq.; and in the Harleian MSS., N: 6824, is a folio, intituled, "The first Book of the De"scription of Pembrokeshire in general, 1603," containing ancient and modern owners of places, their descent and arms. Many other small collections are dispersed amongst the curious, giving the arms and pedigrees of the Welch gentry. Some few things of this nature are in print; they all, however, fail in a' great essential, dates. The want of surnames until these last centuries, is another defect. It will be allowed, however, that the gentry of Wales have kept themselves more distinct than any others in the British Dominions. In general they have small paternal inheritances, upon which they live content, keeping up that hospitality which has ever been their characteristic trait. The boast of ancestry silences the envy of wealth. The Welch gentleman looks down from his small mansion, seated upon his native mountains, with contempt upon the merchant rolling in his carriage, and commanding all that the four quarters of the world can offer, who in return beholds the descendant of ancient chieftains with equal scorn. The one boasts uncontaminated blood, unmixed with any foreign stain; the other prides himself with being descended from families who have settled here from many countries, brought hither under the victorious banners of heroes, the conquerors of the aboriginal inhabitants, fled from foreign persecution, religious or civil, or allured by commerce. These dissimilar and discordant characters have virtues which do honor to humanity; virtues distinct, indeed, but such as each should honor and applaud.
We may form an idea of the number of gentry in England from the total of the pedigrees in the last visitation books in the time of Sir William le Neve, who having been deprived by the usurping powers of his office of Clarenceux, and never restored, these visitations must all have been made during the government of Charles I. Sir William estimated them thus: on the side of Clarenceux, 6550; on that
of Norroy, 1223; total 7773. "Bloome, in his Britannia," has given the names of all the gentry in each county, including also the nobility and bishops. He states them to be in
From the vast influx of wealth from commerce, our possessions in the East and West Indies, as well as other parts of the world, and the opulent of most kingdoms and states in Europe having, from various motives, emigrated hither, there can be no doubt but that the gentry have much increased in the south part of Britain. The number of seats around the capital and most great towns are multiplied within the present century prodigiously.
Of the Earls Marshal of England, taken from Mr. Dallaway, as far as it relates to the College at Arms, from its Establishment until the present Time.
-The office is the eighth in precedency. Before it became hereditary it constantly passed by grant from the Crown, but was never held by tenure or serjeantry, as
those of Lord High Steward and Lord High Constable were sometimes. The title is personal; the office honorary and officiary. The title was changed by Richard II. from Lord to Earl Marshal, with leave to bear a gold truncheon, enamelled with black at the ends, having the royal arms engraved at the upper, and the Earl Marshal's at the lower end.
James I., by letters patent dated August 29, 1622, constituted Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal for life; and the following year, with the advice of the Privy Council declared, by letters patent, that during the vacancy of the office of Lord High Constable of England, the Earl Marshal should have the same jurisdiction in the Court of Chivalry, as both Constable and Marshal jointly ever exercised.
The court is the fountain of marshal law: it is generally held in the Hall of the College of Arms. The Earl Marshal presides, and has the sole jurisdiction of all pleas that do not extend to life or member, which then must go before the Constable and Marshal, a Constable being appointed for that day only. They grant armorial coats and supporters to those who are duly authorized to wear them.
Charles II., October 19, 1672, granted this office to Henry, Lord Howard, and to his male issue, with power to execute it by a deputy or deputies in as full and ample manner as it had been by Henry Howard, Lord Maltravers, Earl of Arundel, Surrey, and Norfolk, his grandfather, or by Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, grandfather to that nobleman, or by Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, grandfather of that Duke, or by John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, or any other Earl Marshal of England, with a pension of £20 a year, payable out of the Hanaper Office in Chancery, with limitation in case of default of issue male to the masculine decendants of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, with remainders over to those of Thomas, late Earl of Suffolk, those of William, Lord Howard, late of Naworth in Cumberland, youngest son of Henry, late Duke of Norfolk, and of Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham; so that the office is not likely to become extinct in the noble family of Howard, it being limitted to so many branches.
At the time of the incorporation of the Heralds this high office was held by 1483. 28. John Howard, created by Richard III. Duke of Norfolk, who
was the twenty-eighth Marshal of England, which he obtained in right of Ann, daughter and sole heir of John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, and who had been betrothed to the unfortunate Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, younger son of Edward IV. This nobleman fell with his master, King Richard, at Bosworth.
William Lord Berkley, Earl of Nottingham, in right of Isabel his mother, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk; given him by Henry VII.
1546. 32. 1547.
30. Henry, Duke of York, afterwards Henry VIII.
Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, son and heir of John, Duke of Norfolk, created first Earl Marshal, and then restored to the ducal honors.
1590. 37. Commissioners.
1572. 36. George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, died in 1590.
1602. 39. Commissioners.
1597. 38. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, beheaded in 1601.
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, beheaded. Camde
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, his grandson and heir, beheaded in 1571.
William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, Lord Treasurer of England.
Thomas Lord Buckhurst, Lord Treasurer.
Edward Earl of Worcester, Master of the Horse..
Edward Somerset, Earl of Worcester, executed this office of
Charles, Earl of Nottingham, Lord Admiral.
Henry, Earl of Northampton, Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports-
George, Marquis of Buckingham, Master of the Horse.
William, Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain.
Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, K. G. son of