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The only herald I have seen mentioned, as dying during the Commonwealth, was Mr. Norgate, Windsor.

Things changed greatly, when the Parliament General turned out his masters, who had before done the same to theirs. Oliver was a splendid Prince, keeping a most stately and magnificent court. His assumption to power, immediately called forth the heralds to the duty of attending upon him as the representative of the state; for December 16, 1653, "the Lord "Protector was proclaimed, by sound of trumpet, in the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, at the Old Exchange, and several other places in Lon"don, divers of the Council, and the Lord Mayor and Aldermen in their "robes, with three Serjeants at Arms and their Maces, and the heralds "attending."

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In the second, and more solemn inauguration or investment of this Protector, there were some hundreds of gentlemen and officers, who preceded his Highness with the life-guard, and next before the coach his pages and lackies, richly clothed. He was accompanied, at this time, with all the great Officers of his Court, and Ministers of State; we are informed Garter and Norroy, kings at arms, attended, and two heralds. As only two heralds are mentioned, it leads me to suppose that Oliver had not then filled up the vacancies in the College; but having firmly settled his power, he each year added some of the great and splendid establishments which had dignified our ancient Monarchs. He even rivalled the most brilliant of them in state and equipage, some time preceding his death. So early as March, 1653-4, a person writes; "Our Lord Protector gave a noble au "dience to the Dutch ambassadors last Saturday. His part was just as "the

I cannot but here notice a laughable circumstance at Oliver's being proclaimed Protector, mentioned in an interested letter, designed to be sent to Paris, dated December 22, 1653. The writer says, proclamation was made at Temple Bar, Cheapside, the New and Old Exchange, and, continues he, "it was observed, that except the soldiers, and not all "of them, there were not any that so much as shouted; but, on the contrary, publicquely laughed and derided him (the herald) without being taken notice of. I cannot omit the "acquainting you with the behaviour of an ordinary fellow at Temple Bar, who coming "accidentally there, and seeing a troop of horse standing, and a herald proclaiming his "Highnesse, the Lord Protector Cromwell; he, says the fellow, protects none, but such "rogues as thou art. Whereupon the trouper struck him; but he seized on him, pulled "him off his horse, beate him soundly, and went away, without hurt; which caused all "the people to shoutt and laugh, though it were before the face of some of the Councell "of State."


"the Kings used to do, only kissing his hand excepted. They were received USURPA
"at the Banquetting-House, with his, council about him, and then his
"officers." Another observes, that his stud was so select, that he thought
none of the Sovereigns of England ever had one equal to it. Neither was
he deficient in munificence. He gave the Swedish Ambassador "a rich
"jewel of his Highness' picture, in a case of gold, about the size of a crown-
"piece, set round the case with sixteen fair diamonds, each valued at £60,
in all worth £1000, which the Ambassador wore suspended to his button
"hole, by a blue ribband." In this year the heralds assisted in proclaiming
peace. *He ever affected to think that he, as chief Magistrate, was
entitled to the same deference and pre-eminence at home, and amongst
Sovereigns, as the English Monarchs had enjoyed, because it was given to
them, not as personal, but as representatives of so illustrious a kingdom.

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These instances are sufficient to evince, how much necessity there was for heralds in the court of the Protector Oliver, who assumed so much magnificence, which he shewed in nothing more than in the manner of solemnizing the funerals of his mother, and his daughter, Mrs. Claypoole. But nothing ever in this kingdom exceeded the interment of the Protector: it was more than regal, surpassing that of James I. "The several pieces "of his late Highness' armour, were borne by eight honourable persons, "officers of the army, attended by a gentleman on each side. Next "followed Garter, principal king at arms, attended with a gentleman on "each side, bareheaded: then came the chief mourner, &c." The placing of the silk work when the body lay in state was by these officers of arms: "Esq. Byshe, Garter, and his brother Byshe; Mr. Ryley, and his son-in“law, Barkham; Mr. Owen, and his kinsman — Owen; Mr. Exon,” i. e. Exton; and Deathirk," i. e. Dethick.

The ambassador, Nieuport, wrote to Holland, that "the Lord Pro"tector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was there deceased, the 13th, (should be 3d,) instant, and that the morrow the serjeants and Heralds "at Arms had proclaimed, in the presence of the Lords of the Council, of the Lord Mayor, and Aldermen of London, and of the chief officers "of the army, in the places where such proclamations were wont to be

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*The Heralds, in 1654, assisted in proclaiming peace at Whitehall, before the Protector, and afterwards at Temple Bar, by the Lord Mayor of Lon don.





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made, that the deceased Lord Protector, according to the act made upon "the humble petition and advice of the Parliament, had named for his successor, his eldest son, the Lord Richard Cromwell; and that the Privy "Council of his Highness, the Lord Mayor, and the Alderman and "Common Council of the city of London, as also the chief officers of the ariny, had all unanimously resolved, to cause the said Lord Richard to be proclaimed, as Protector of the republic of England, Scotland, and Ireland with the territories thereunto belonging." Richard's short government was, like his disposition, more inclined to splendor, than republican severity.

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What effect the deposition of Richard had upon the members of the College, I have no were seen: perhaps none; for the Parliament had soon what much more nearly interested them, than attending to this corporate body; probably, had they retained their power, those whom Oliver had placed in the College, would have received some inconvenience: I am led to suppose this, because Mr. (afterwards Dr.) John Barwick, in a letter of intelligence sent to Sir Edward Hyde, created Earl of Clarendon, dated June 21, 1659, writes, that all the thoughts of the Parliament were how to raise money, and that the means they proposed "would make them "odious even to their friends. The penalties voted against new honors granted by the King, are stretched to the mock honors granted by the "Protector; and all salaries granted by him to any persons, that were not wont to receive such salaries out of the Exchequer, must be refunded. "The judges, perhaps, may escape; but they of his council, &c. must "be squeezed. Tichborn is mad at this, and the Lord Mayor is not much "better."

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I have never seen any positive sum mentioned during the Usurpation, as paid to the members of the College of Arms; but I conjecture that it was included in what was mentioned as paid to the Serjeants at Arms, for I see this item: "January 9, 1657-8. To the serjeants at arms, and their "deputies, for their quarter's salary, £318. 10s. Od." This item frequently occurs, so that it was the fixed constant sum quarterly paid; therefore the annual salary paid must have been £1254, a very considerable sum at that time. We always see, at this period, serjeants at arms and the heralds mentioned together, and the former always named first. Charles I., had sixteen serjeants at arms, at a salary each of £40, which makes the


sum of £640; but the superior would have much more: allowing for this, there would, out of £1254, be amply sufficient to pay the three kings at arms, the six heralds, and the four pursuivants their salary, as settled by James I., which amounted together to £370. There can be little doubt, but this article includes both serjeants at arms, and the whole of the members of the Heralds' College; and shews, that the latter were, at this time, looked upon as a kind of appendage to the former.*

Except upon some particular solemnities of the state during the protectorates of Oliver and Richard, the heralds had very little employment. There were no visitations during the whole of the Usurpation, and the nobility and gentry sought. security in the utmost privacy and retirement; happily, however, for. the pursuivants, the distasteful office of apprehending persons suspected of intentions of disturbing the government, was taken from them, and laid upon the serjeants at arms.. In these troublesome times it was attended with constant fatigue, if not personal danger; it was odious, and disgustful; in fine, they and the trumpeters seem to have had all the disagreeable parts of their duty given to them, leaving the heralds only the pageantry of state; but in the life of Sir Coplestone Bampfylde, Bart., it is said, "that messengers,. or pursuivants, were sent abroad to apprehend him." Abroad, it appears,. only meant in different parts of England.. If, however, they were freed from


* Of the Heralds there is not a single item mentioned, in which their names, or that of the College is given; but it is reasonable to suppose, that the whole body is included, under the above items, with the serjeants at arms. The quarterly payments of the sergeants at arms come very regularly as having the same general salary of £318. 10s. each quarter; and we find for extraordinary services several items, viz. Dec. 27, 1656, for lodging and diet for prisoners, £83. 145. "March 23, to the serjeants "at arms, the messengers, the serjeant's deputys, Mr. Suitt, Mr. Nutt, and Mr. Owen "the stationer, for the satisfying their several bills for journeys ridden, and goods delivered "to the use of the council, as by warrant particularly appears, £1631. 135.8"d. “ April 19, 1658, to Edward Dendil, Esq., serjeant at arms to the Council, being in satisfaction "for his disbursements about the lodgings at Whitehall, £50."-Even the trumpeters are mentioned: one of them by name. "January 3, 1637-8, To Simon Beale, and eleven. "other trumpets, for proclaiming peace between his Highness and the French King, £12.” June 6, following, the same sum. for proclaiming peace between his Highness and the King of Portugal; and January 9, 1657-8, to Mr. Beale, and the rest of the trumpets employed at his Highness' inauguration, £49.

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from such unpleasant duties, they lost much of those emoluments, which used to have been shared by the members of the College: it accounts for Ryley's, the intruding Norroy, saying, that his place was merely honorary, at the time he petitioned the Protector Oliver for one of profit.

The titles which the Protectors conferred would be beneficial to the College, much more would be the great number of "new men,' whom the fortunes of war raised to consequence: these would apply for, and obtain armorial distinctions: yet this was very inadequate to the loss sustained to the College, by the ruin of so many ancient families.

In the distractions of the kingdom, as every department in the state was irregular, it is difficult to make out the names of those employed during the Usurpation, because those who held places under the powers then in being," were desirous, at the Restoration, of having it forgotten, being urged to it by fear, or shame, or both.

It has been with great industry that I have learnt the names of all the kings, heralds, and pursuivants, during the Usurpation. I was in great hopes that the MSS. of Garter Anstis, could have satisfied me fully upon this head; but his materials are often confused: during this time very defective. As I could not know to a certainty what offices four of the usurping heralds filled, I have put them with a query: they were-Byshe, Ryley, Owen, and Everard Exton, Esqs.

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